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Full-Text Articles in Music

The Life Of A Marimba Master: Zeferino Nandayapa Ralda; Composer, Band Leader, Soloist, Lindsay Michelle Whelan May 2018

The Life Of A Marimba Master: Zeferino Nandayapa Ralda; Composer, Band Leader, Soloist, Lindsay Michelle Whelan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Zeferino Nandayapa Ralda was the greatest Mexican marimba artist of the twentieth century. Born in Chiapas, Mexico, Zeferino was the youngest son of Norberto Nandayapa, the most well respected Mexican marimba builder of his time. Throughout Zeferino’s lifetime, he

cultivated a career that made him well-known in Mexico and firmly established the name Nandayapa as being synonymous with the word marimba. Zeferino’s career consisted of appearances as a solo artist, as a featured soloist with symphony orchestras around Mexico, as leader of marimba bands, and, many appearances abroad. He wrote many arrangements of standard Mexican folk songs, classical ...


The Synthesis Of Balkan Folk Tunes In The Music Of Vlastimir Nikolovski And Alexander Vladigerov, Dejan Daskalov May 2018

The Synthesis Of Balkan Folk Tunes In The Music Of Vlastimir Nikolovski And Alexander Vladigerov, Dejan Daskalov

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The study of folk music from the Balkan countries proves to be a long and complex area of study, since the access to sources, scores and literature is quite limited. Distribution of accurate information in regards to Balkan folk music is of significant importance because it would provide a global opportunity for promotion and education on this topic. Without documented research, inaccurate presentations of Balkan music could cause an overall disinterest in this genre.

The original and alluring aspects of this style of music lie mostly in its meter. Moreover, it contains three fundamental metric structures: regular, asymmetric, unmeasured and ...


114 Years In Oblivion: The History And Development Of International Flute Festivals In Central America, Dafne Zenice Guevara May 2018

114 Years In Oblivion: The History And Development Of International Flute Festivals In Central America, Dafne Zenice Guevara

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This document examines Central American flute festivals to understand their role in preserving heritage, promoting unique composers and their compositions, educating the public about art music, and positively impacting the personal growth of students as well as to gaining insight into the socio-economic history as it relates to the development of music in the region. To achieve this goal, the flute festivals of Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatemala and Panamá were studied within the context of the countries’ history. Music tradition started in the region with the aboriginal tribes and was strongly influenced by the colonization of the Spaniards. These conquerors ...


Spiritual Roots And Classical Fruits: A Stylistic Analysis And Performance Guide Of Selected Spirituals And Art Songs By Jacqueline Hairston, Phillip Lewis Newell Harris May 2018

Spiritual Roots And Classical Fruits: A Stylistic Analysis And Performance Guide Of Selected Spirituals And Art Songs By Jacqueline Hairston, Phillip Lewis Newell Harris

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Spiritual Roots and Classical Fruits is the title of Jacqueline Butler Hairston’s first and only CD. Hairston is an American born composer and arranger who has proven herself as a prolific writer of vocal music, most notably in the genre of spirituals and art songs. The

Charlotte, North Carolina native brings a wealth of experience to composition through her southern roots in spirituals and her formal classical training at The Juilliard School of Music, Howard University and Columbia University. The goal of this document is to introduce and present solo vocal music of Hairston’s with an emphasis on ...


Beyond The Melting Pot: An Anthology Of Modern Art Song By Immigrant Composers In America, Kathryn Omune May 2018

Beyond The Melting Pot: An Anthology Of Modern Art Song By Immigrant Composers In America, Kathryn Omune

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The anthologies currently available of modern American art song present a homogenous

view of the composers working today in this country. As a whole, they do little to

acknowledge the diverse group of musicians actively composing in this genre. As a

country filled with an array of talented and multi-cultural musicians, it is essential that

the vocal repertory accurately represents both the composers and the performers working

within the field.

The purpose of this document and anthology is to fill a void left by the current

published anthologies by presenting art song composed by immigrant composers. Geared

towards teachers and ...


Crossover Trumpet Performance: Jazz Style And Technique For Classical Trumpeters, Kevin Christopher Tague Aug 2017

Crossover Trumpet Performance: Jazz Style And Technique For Classical Trumpeters, Kevin Christopher Tague

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This document examines crossover trumpet playing: the ability to comfortably transition from classical to jazz style. Problems trumpeters face when shifting between classical and jazz styles and the importance of always performing idiomatically are discussed. There is no consensus regarding the best way to develop crossover ability, but experts agree that the proper use of articulation is vital for stylistically authentic performances. A review of the literature reveals fundamental differences in how articulation is taught in classical and jazz pedagogies. Additionally, jazz and classical musicians approach printed music differently. By detailing key elements of jazz articulation and interpretation the document ...


Of Sharks And Spaceships: The Role Of The Tuba In John Williams's Film Scores For Jaws And Close Encounters Of The Third Kind, Stephen Davis Turner May 2017

Of Sharks And Spaceships: The Role Of The Tuba In John Williams's Film Scores For Jaws And Close Encounters Of The Third Kind, Stephen Davis Turner

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This document examines John Williams’s use of the tuba in his film scores. This unique timbral element has significant narrative implications in these movies. Film music scholarship is more often concerned with the questions of psychoanalysis, gendered readings, and other theoretical apparatuses than with how film composers score for individual instruments. My research aims to shift this focus by demonstrating that Williams used the tuba in his scores for more than typical “underscoring” or standard sectional playing, but as an integral part of the film narrative to be noticed and “read” by audiences. In both Jaws (1975) and Close ...


Going Old School: Using Eighteenth Century Pedagogy Models To Foster Musical Skills And Creativity In Today's Students, Monique Arar May 2017

Going Old School: Using Eighteenth Century Pedagogy Models To Foster Musical Skills And Creativity In Today's Students, Monique Arar

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Recent research has illuminated a pedagogical approach to keyboard improvisation of the Italian conservatories of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, namely that of partimenti: single-stave, multiple clef exercises in which students were trained to improvise (Gjerdingen 2007, Sanguinetti 2012, van Tour 2015). This approach was passed down through oral instruction until the mid-twentieth century, when pedagogical priorities shifted away from improvisation and compositional creativity towards virtuosity, technique and adherence to the printed page. Simultaneously, the tradition of decade-long musical apprenticeship was replaced with semester-long courses in music theory and harmony.

The existing research on partimenti presents a compelling historical narrative ...


Tres Danzas Cubanas By Alejandro García Caturla: A Transcription For Wind Orchestra With Accompanying Biographical Sketch And Transcription Method, Darrell Brown May 2017

Tres Danzas Cubanas By Alejandro García Caturla: A Transcription For Wind Orchestra With Accompanying Biographical Sketch And Transcription Method, Darrell Brown

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Alejandro García Caturla was a Modernist Cuban composer of the early 20th Century. In his compositions and orchestrations, Caturla predominantly featured woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments (and incorporated Afro-Cuban percussion instruments). Caturla’s musical vernacular is a hybridization of styles, not just of the colloquial idioms of Cuba and the music of the European avant-garde, but of the unification of the island’s musical cultures. One of Caturla’s earliest, international successes was his orchestral work Tres danzas cubanas written in 1929. This document includes the creation of a new transcription for wind orchestra of the three-movement work. A biographical ...


Finding The Shakespeare In Ambroise Thomas' Hamlet: A Comparison Of Plot And Character In The Seventeenth-Century English Play And The Nineteenth-Century French Opera, Bonita Elissa Bunt May 2017

Finding The Shakespeare In Ambroise Thomas' Hamlet: A Comparison Of Plot And Character In The Seventeenth-Century English Play And The Nineteenth-Century French Opera, Bonita Elissa Bunt

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Although the 17th century play Hamlet by William Shakespeare was originally performed in English, its popularity grew throughout Europe, entering France’s robust theatre tradition around the turn of the 19th century. Multiple versions of the translated play became available and the story began to take on French characteristics as it was adapted for French audiences. By the time Hamlet was set by librettists Michel Carré and Jules Barbier and composer Ambroise Thomas, the story had morphed somewhat from the original Shakespeare. Much of the story was condensed and the ending was significantly changed. Originally successful after its 1868 premiere ...


Etudes For The Bassoon: An Annotated Bibliography And Pedagogical Guide, Eric Joaquin Fassbender May 2017

Etudes For The Bassoon: An Annotated Bibliography And Pedagogical Guide, Eric Joaquin Fassbender

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

There are well over one hundred published methods and etude collections written for the bassoon. However, many bassoon teachers and students are only familiar with a few of them, primarily those composed by Julius Weissenborn and Ludwig Milde. This is evidenced by the frequent mentions of these etudes in writings about bassoon literature, repertoire surveys, university syllabi, articles in the journal of the International Double Reed Society, and more. While these specific studies remain an invaluable part of the bassoonist’s repertoire, there are several aspects of bassoon playing they do not address, particularly where post-Romantic musical styles are concerned ...


John Philip Sousa And The Wagner Overture: A New Transcription Of The Overture To Der Fliegende Holländer For Wind Orchestra, Stephen H. Goldeck May 2017

John Philip Sousa And The Wagner Overture: A New Transcription Of The Overture To Der Fliegende Holländer For Wind Orchestra, Stephen H. Goldeck

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This research examines John Philip Sousa’s 1893 wind band transcription of Richard Wagner’s overture to Der fliegende Holländer, and focuses specifically on how Sousa reconceived orchestral sonorities and solved particular problems posed by Wagner’s complex orchestrational textures. Findings include that, while appropriate for the era and instrumentation of Sousa’s band, his transcription contains certain limitations for the twenty-first-century wind orchestra. Due to the fact that Sousa’s compositions, arrangements, and transcriptions were written to accommodate frequent outdoor performances, Sousa’s transcription uses more doubled voicings than would be necessary in an indoor concert hall setting. Further ...


An Analysis And Band Transcription Of Eric Whitacre's The River Cam, Charles Amon Maguire May 2017

An Analysis And Band Transcription Of Eric Whitacre's The River Cam, Charles Amon Maguire

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Orchestral transcriptions for wind band have been historically vital to the expansion and success of the medium. As original compositions have increased in number, string solos accompanied by wind band continue to represent an under-utilized area of the literature. The “Wind Repertory Project” has documented twenty-three compositions that fall within this area of wind band music. A transcription of Eric Whitacre’s The River Cam for solo cello and string orchestra expands the contemporary area of the repertoire by contributing to the list of works written for solo string instruments and band. Comparative and harmonic analyses provide correlative evidence as ...


Grand Solo Op.14 & Rondo Op2. N3: The Sonority Of The Classical Era, Hugo Maia Nogueira May 2017

Grand Solo Op.14 & Rondo Op2. N3: The Sonority Of The Classical Era, Hugo Maia Nogueira

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

During the early nineteenth-century, the writing for classical-guitar elevated the instrument to

the solo concert stage. The appearance of the six-string guitar changed guitar writing.1 With this new

instrument, guitarists had an array of new possibilities to explore in terms of sound and technique.

Fernando Sor (1778-1839) and Dionisio Aguado (1784-1849) were the main artists promoting and

advocating the six-string guitar as a serious concert instrument in Spain.2

This document will focus on two guitar masterworks: Fernando Sor's Grand Solo Op.14 and

Dionisio Aguado's Rondo Op2. N3. It will explain why Grand Solo Op.14 ...


Songs Of The Cajuns: A History And Analysis Of Joie De Vivre: Five Impressions Of Acadian-America, Wendy Kay Moss May 2017

Songs Of The Cajuns: A History And Analysis Of Joie De Vivre: Five Impressions Of Acadian-America, Wendy Kay Moss

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

My exploration of Cajun song, from its origins as a French ballade into popular American song, will reveal the musical characteristics of Cajun music. My study’s purpose is to increase ones understanding of the history of Cajun song and its music, and then determine why it is missing from the canon of American song repertoire. My study will include an analysis, performance and recording of Cajun song settings composed and arranged by Arles Estes. My investigation will research five traditional Cajun songs as they pertain to Estes’ settings in order to broaden the roots of American song literature and ...


A Performance Analysis Of Dorothy Rudd Moore's Sonnets On Love, Rosebuds, And Death, Cordelia Elizabeth Anderson Dec 2016

A Performance Analysis Of Dorothy Rudd Moore's Sonnets On Love, Rosebuds, And Death, Cordelia Elizabeth Anderson

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this document is to evaluate Dorothy Rudd Moore’s Sonnets on Love, Rosebuds, and Death through a performance analysis, and to discuss the significance of the Harlem Renaissance in relation to the song cycle. Moore used seven reputable poets from the Harlem Renaissance to compile this song cycle. The poets are Alice Dunbar Nelson, Clarissa Scott Delany, Gwendolyn Bennett, Langston Hughes, Arna Bontemps, Countee Cullen, and Helene Johnson. A few of them were a part of the core group that spurred this powerful movement. The Harlem Renaissance was a flourishing time in American history when African Americans ...


Andre Jolivet's Fusion: Magical Music, Conventional Lyricism, And Japanese Influences Network To Create Concerto Pour Flute Et Piano And Sonate Pour Flute Et Piano, Kelly A. Collier Dec 2016

Andre Jolivet's Fusion: Magical Music, Conventional Lyricism, And Japanese Influences Network To Create Concerto Pour Flute Et Piano And Sonate Pour Flute Et Piano, Kelly A. Collier

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

André Jolivet’s Fusion, represents his formative style period, post-World War II. Fusion is a combination of Jolivet’s two earlier style-writing periods for flute, “magical music” and conventional lyricism. This study presents detailed analyses of two compositions reflecting this style period, Concerto pour flûte et piano and Sonate pour flûte et piano, by André Jolivet. In order to acquaint the reader with Jolivet’s interest in ancient musical cultures, a brief biography offers information on Jolivet’s interests in ancient rituals and mysticism. As appointed Director of the Comédie-Française in 1945, Jolivet extensively travelled and experienced new musical phenomena ...


Efficient Strategies For Playing The Horn, Jon Allan Holloway Dec 2016

Efficient Strategies For Playing The Horn, Jon Allan Holloway

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In their pursuit of becoming accomplished performers, horn players spend a great deal of time studying proper brass playing techniques from the great pedagogues. The modern horn is a fairly young instrument (less than two hundred years old) and the most efficient pedagogical approach is still evolving. Because of this, horn players spend a great deal of time studying proper brass playing techniques from the great pedagogues. Books by Philip Farkas, Arnold Jacobs, Raphael Mendez, and more have many theories and exercises on how to breathe, the best way to perfect embouchure development, performance techniques, and more.

Modern pedagogues have ...


The Big Band And The Piano: Nikolai Kapustin’S Variations Op. 41, Ryan Kelly Dec 2016

The Big Band And The Piano: Nikolai Kapustin’S Variations Op. 41, Ryan Kelly

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Much has been written and said on how piano works should almost imitate the sounds of an orchestra to be played well. There is a style and musical language that serious pianists must master in order to play with correct voicing, specific tones, and other techniques that make a piano sound like a full orchestra and thus bring it to life.

While there much written about how the piano should imitate the traditional orchestra in the classical and romantic style, what of the big band? In the last century many works have been written for the piano using jazz rhythms ...


Four Sonnets By Pablo Neruda, Sets 1 And 2, By Judith Cloud, For High Voice And Piano: A Performer’S Perspective, Sheronda Levonne Mckee Dec 2016

Four Sonnets By Pablo Neruda, Sets 1 And 2, By Judith Cloud, For High Voice And Piano: A Performer’S Perspective, Sheronda Levonne Mckee

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Twentieth and twenty-first century compositions are growing in popularity amongst scholars of music. Along with this budding interest comes a plethora of composers, many of whom are women. While not a discussion on feminism in the modern age, this document will concentrate on one female composer. Drawing from the historical significance of the poet and the compositional history of Four Sonnets by Pablo Neruda set 1 and Four Sonnets by Pablo Neruda set 2 by Dr. Judith Cloud, my goal is to make these two song cycles more accessible to sopranos, as well as to those wanting to expand their ...


Image, Narrative, & Concept Of Time In Valerie Capers's Song Cycle Song Of The Seasons, Lillian Channelle Roberts Dec 2016

Image, Narrative, & Concept Of Time In Valerie Capers's Song Cycle Song Of The Seasons, Lillian Channelle Roberts

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Once I was a classical pianist, then I was a jazz pianist, but now I’m a pianist – No label. And in my writing, I’m not concerned with any particular style. I’ve found that if you have musical groundwork and some idea of the emotional impact the music should have, the musical style will hang together.

—Valerie Capers

Primarily known as a renowned jazz pianist, Valerie Capers is a blind, African-American woman composer who defied all odds by becoming the first blind graduate of The Juilliard School. Dr. Capers also became valedictorian of the New York Institute for ...


George Crumb’S Personal Response To The Golden Age Of Social Activism: Night Of The Four Moons, Black Angels, And Vox Balaenae, Yi Ling Tsai Dec 2016

George Crumb’S Personal Response To The Golden Age Of Social Activism: Night Of The Four Moons, Black Angels, And Vox Balaenae, Yi Ling Tsai

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

American composer George Crumb (b. 1929) started to garner public attention in the 1960s with a new kind of message and sound. Crumb’s approach to composition has been to exploit music as a form of communication to convey the metaphysical and the psychological through various mediums. With the social movements in the 1960s, many Americans were inspired to fight for change; as for Crumb, composing became his platform for social commentary. His approach to social activism was to express his ideas through musical dialogues and symbolism. The subtle quotations that he often borrowed from other composers are typically short ...


Pansori, Bomi Kang Aug 2016

Pansori, Bomi Kang

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Korean Cultural Preservation Law of 1962 designated Pansori an important intangible cultural artifact and a symbol of the national culture of the Korean people. The fundamental objective of Korea government’s policy was to promote and to preserve Pansori. However, the pervasiveness of western-style performing arts in Korea undermined the achievement of this objective, especially for the younger generation. The purpose of this study is to explore Pansori, to understand its history, its importance, the reasons underlying its declining popularity, and the reasons behind the need for preserving and promoting its use in modern Korean society. The methodology of ...


Interpreting Schubert Lieder Through Transcription: Four Composers’ Techniques In Solo Piano Transcriptions Of Lieder From Die Schöne Müllerin, Spencer Baker May 2016

Interpreting Schubert Lieder Through Transcription: Four Composers’ Techniques In Solo Piano Transcriptions Of Lieder From Die Schöne Müllerin, Spencer Baker

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Franz Schubert wrote Lieder familiar to many singers and collaborative pianists that were subsequently transcribed for solo piano by other composers. This paper will give a brief introduction to the art of transcription and delve into compositions of four composers who wrote Schubert Lied transcriptions: Godowsky, Rachmaninoff, Thalberg and Smetana.

Two Lieder from Die schöne Müllerin, D. 795 have been chosen in order to unify the content and limit the original texts to compare and contrast how each composer handles the material differently.

The primary purpose of the research is to offer an interpretive analysis of the transcriptions, including the ...


Viktor Kosenko's Piano Cycle Eleven Etudes In The Form Of Old Dances, Ekaterina Bessmeltseva May 2016

Viktor Kosenko's Piano Cycle Eleven Etudes In The Form Of Old Dances, Ekaterina Bessmeltseva

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this document is to draw attention to Viktor Kosenko’s music by focusing on his piano cycle Eleven Etudes in the form of Old Dances, op.19. Viktor Kosenko was a remarkable Ukrainian pianist, composer, and teacher. His compositional output includes works for piano, violin, cello, voice, ensembles, and music for film and theatre. Compositions such as Eleven Etudes in the Form of Old Dances, Twenty-four Pieces for Children, Classical Trio for Piano, Violin and Cello, Cello Sonatas, Heroic Overture, and Moldavian Poem became treasures of the Ukrainian repertoire. Viktor Kosenko worked towards the expansion of Ukrainian ...


An Annotated Bibliography Of Beginning And Intermediate Solo Bassoon Literature, Kim Kehau Chai May 2016

An Annotated Bibliography Of Beginning And Intermediate Solo Bassoon Literature, Kim Kehau Chai

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

A wind instrumentalist typically begins music study in a school band or orchestra. The instructors for these classes normally use method books, scales, and large ensemble pieces to teach and refine technique and musicianship. Unless the student has a private teacher, it is unlikely that they will study or perform solo music except on rare occasions. The serious study of solo literature typically begins on the college level, when all students have access to a professional teacher and private lessons.

Solo literature is critical for the evaluation of a student’s performance level and ability, and it helps the instructor ...


Original Chamber Percussion Works For Silent Or Silenced Film In Live Performance, James William Doyle Iii May 2016

Original Chamber Percussion Works For Silent Or Silenced Film In Live Performance, James William Doyle Iii

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Percussion and film have shared a parallel and overlapping history since the dawn of the silent film era in the late nineteenth century. However, musical scores written specifically for percussionists with silent or silenced film for the sake of concert performance has a newer, more contemporary and artistic repertoire that will undoubtedly proliferate with the continued development of percussion performance and available technology. This document is in three parts. The first part provides context with an introduction, a brief history of film, and early film accompaniment. The second part pertains to the Australian composer, Nigel Westlake and his work, The ...


How Queer!: Camp Expression In Francis Poulenc's Trio For Oboe, Bassoon, And Piano, Kevin Ryland Eberle May 2016

How Queer!: Camp Expression In Francis Poulenc's Trio For Oboe, Bassoon, And Piano, Kevin Ryland Eberle

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The music of Francis Poulenc (1899–1963) contains a great deal of humor, irony, and drama. These elements have mostly been attributed to Poulenc’s personal frivolity and associations with over-the-top figures such as Jean Cocteau. Poulenc’s homosexuality, until recently, was marginalized by a discourse shaped by Claude Rostand’s 1950 binary of “monk” (moine) and “bad boy” (voyou). In the early 21st century, Richard Burton notes that this cliché focused the discourse of a sacred/profane binary instead of a heterosexual/homosexual binary. The sacred/profane binary is used by scholars such as H. Wendell Howard to explain ...


Applied Anatomy In Music: Body Mapping For Trumpeters, Micah Holt May 2016

Applied Anatomy In Music: Body Mapping For Trumpeters, Micah Holt

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Musicians must move in order to produce sound. The body is the vehicle for movement, therefore, understanding the body structure can provide more effortless and efficient music making. The conceptual creators of Body Mapping, Barbara and William Conable, define a body map as, “One’s self-representation in one’s own brain.” Body Mapping provides a relatively new somatic approach to musical pedagogy. A number of existing dissertations and articles discuss the specific application of Body Mapping to keyboard, voice and woodwind instruments. Currently, however, very few resources have integrated Body Mapping into brass pedagogy. With this document I intend to ...


Shostakovich's Ninth Symphony: An Analytical Exploration And Keys To Interpretation, Phillip Lenberg May 2016

Shostakovich's Ninth Symphony: An Analytical Exploration And Keys To Interpretation, Phillip Lenberg

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In the early1940s, Shostakovich was exposed to much more Jewish culture than the average Soviet citizen. As news of the increasing European genocide and persecution of Jewish people reached Shostakovich, he was compelled to speak for the Jewish people whose voice was repressed by the ever-growing tyranny of Stalinist Russia.

After the Soviet Union’s still fresh victory over the Third Reich, Shostakovich was expected to produce a grandiose symphony to celebrate and exalt the Soviet people. With his Ninth Symphony, Shostakovich challenged the notion of praising the Soviet Union for its military victory, instead mocking the anti-Semitic martial state ...