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Articles 1 - 30 of 1282

Full-Text Articles in Medieval Studies

Ofermod And Aristocratic Chivalry In J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord Of The Rings, Amber Dunai Oct 2019

Ofermod And Aristocratic Chivalry In J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord Of The Rings, Amber Dunai

Journal of Tolkien Research

This paper explores connections between J.R.R. Tolkien’s 1953 Essays and Studies publication The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm’s Son and representations of ofermod and aristocratic “chivalry” in The Lord of the Rings. Focusing on the motivations and leadership-related decisions of Denethor and Faramir in The Lord of the Rings, this paper argues that Faramir's behavior and motivations, despite Denethor’s implications to the contrary, cannot be described in terms of ofermod regardless of the risk that his choice to reject the Ring appears to pose to Gondor. By contrast, Denethor and his son Boromir represent the ...


Imperatrix, Domina, Rex: Conceptualizing The Female King In Twelfth-Century England, Coral Lumbley Oct 2019

Imperatrix, Domina, Rex: Conceptualizing The Female King In Twelfth-Century England, Coral Lumbley

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

This article draws on methods from transgender theory, historicist literary studies, and visual analysis of medieval sealing practices to show that Empress Matilda of England was controversially styled as a female king during her career in the early to mid twelfth century. While the chronicle Gesta Stephani castigates Matilda’s failure to engage in sanctioned gendered behaviors as she waged civil war to claim her inherited throne, Matilda’s seal harnesses both masculine and feminine signifiers in order to proclaim herself both king and queen. While Matilda’s transgressive gender position was targeted by her detractors during her lifetime, the ...


Medieval Trans Lives In Anamorphosis: Looking Back And Seeing Differently (Pregnant Men And Backward Birth), Blake Gutt Oct 2019

Medieval Trans Lives In Anamorphosis: Looking Back And Seeing Differently (Pregnant Men And Backward Birth), Blake Gutt

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

This article employs Lacan’s notion of anamorphosis, and the retrospection which Kathryn Bond Stockton presents as fundamental to the assumption of queer identity, as it demonstrates the functions and value of transgender readings of medieval texts. The article analyses two thirteenth-century literary works, Le Roman de Saint Fanuel and Aucassin et Nicolette, both of which feature pregnant male characters, alongside A.K. Summers’ 2014 graphic novel, Pregnant Butch. This juxtaposition reveals the resonances between these medieval and modern portrayals of gender non-conformity, as well as the highly gendered cultural norms surrounding pregnancy. Finally, attention to Janice Raymond’s transmisogynistic ...


Modern Intolerance And The Medieval Crusades [Excerpted From Whose Middle Ages?], Nicholas L. Paul Oct 2019

Modern Intolerance And The Medieval Crusades [Excerpted From Whose Middle Ages?], Nicholas L. Paul

History

Whose Middle Ages? is an interdisciplinary collection of short, accessible essays intended for the non-specialist reader and ideal for teaching at an undergraduate level. Each of twenty-two essays takes up an area where humans have dug for meaning into the medieval past and brought something distorted back into the present: in our popular entertainment; in our news, our politics, and our propaganda; and in subtler ways that inform how we think about our histories, our countries, and ourselves. Each author teases out the stakes of a history that has refused to remain past and uses the tools of the academy ...


Marginalia In A Rare Edition Of Virgil, Alejandro Coroleu Sep 2019

Marginalia In A Rare Edition Of Virgil, Alejandro Coroleu

Translat Library

This essay examines the Latin and Catalan marginalia found in a copy of an edition of Virgil’s works published in Barcelona in 1525 (Barcelona, Biblioteca de Catalunya, 1-II-28). The paratextual material examined here is indicative of the different knowledge and Latin proficiency of the two readers who penned annotations in this copy of Virgil’s poems.


Angelo Monforte’S Letter To Peter Of Aragon And The Early Dissemination Of Decembrio’S Translation Of Curtius Rufus, Montserrat Ferrer Sep 2019

Angelo Monforte’S Letter To Peter Of Aragon And The Early Dissemination Of Decembrio’S Translation Of Curtius Rufus, Montserrat Ferrer

Translat Library

This note establishes that in 1438 Angelo Monforte, count of Campobasso, sent to Prince Peter of Aragon a copy of Pier Candido Decembrio’s Italian version of Curtius Rufus, thus documenting the transmission of Decembrio’s work from Milan to Naples. This copy could have been the source of Alfonso de Liñán’s translation into Spanish of Decembrio’s text.


Pere Riu’S Preface To His Commentary On The Miserere, Montserrat Domingo, Lluís Cabré Sep 2019

Pere Riu’S Preface To His Commentary On The Miserere, Montserrat Domingo, Lluís Cabré

Translat Library

This article studies, and offers and edition of, a hitherto unknown preface to friar Pere Riu’s short commentary on Psalm 50 (Barcelona, Biblioteca de Catalunya, MS 1031, fol. 9r-10r). Addressed to a certain “lord the Duke,” in all likelihood Crown Prince John of Aragon, and possibly dating to the 1370s, the theological contents of this prefatory text may shed new light on the education of John of Aragon.


Optimizing L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: Applied Linguistic Research, George H. Borawski Sep 2019

Optimizing L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: Applied Linguistic Research, George H. Borawski

Purdue Linguistics, Literature, and Second Language Studies Conference

Any acquisition in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) starts as word recognition; as such vocabulary acquisition is integral to language learning as a whole and is a precursor to fluent communication (Ellis, 1996; Moore, 1996). To maximize SLA, vocabulary acquisition must be optimized. However, vocabulary acquisition is understudied and underutilized, especially compared to other aspects of SLA (Paribakht & Wesche, 1997). Cook states, “…the vast bulk of examinations, syllabuses, and course books around the globe show little overt influence from SLA research” (1998, p.10). Courses, teachers, and students would benefit from directly addressing SLA research, rather than utilize inefficient methods (Cook, 1998; Moore, 1996). Problematic course books influence thousands of teachers and a multitude of students (Cook, 1998); this costs educational institutions billions of dollars globally. Prioritizing sound pedagogy when designing courses would alleviate the problems of inefficient acquisition in SLA and the financial cost ...


Exploring The Emotional Language In The Twilight Novel As A Literary Discourse: An Appraisal Theory Analysis, Susan Ataei Sep 2019

Exploring The Emotional Language In The Twilight Novel As A Literary Discourse: An Appraisal Theory Analysis, Susan Ataei

Purdue Linguistics, Literature, and Second Language Studies Conference

Emotions have always been a mysterious realm of human beings gaining an understanding of which requires the collaboration of scholars from multiple disciplines. This study employed the Appraisal Theory (Martin & White, 2005) of evaluations and emotions to explore the manifestation of emotions in a popular modern prose fiction, the first book of the twilight series by Stephenie Meyer (2009) - Twilight. The objective of the study was to gain a deep understanding of how a bestselling literary prose fiction, Twilight, employs human emotions, and thus “affect”, to impose its “effect” on the reader. I applied the affect sub-system of the attitude ...


"A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words, And So Is An Emojis 🙂" Emojisfication Of Language: A Pragmatic Analysis Of Facebook Discourse, Alienna Kazmi, Arooj Rana, Uzma Anjum, Madiha Khan Sep 2019

"A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words, And So Is An Emojis 🙂" Emojisfication Of Language: A Pragmatic Analysis Of Facebook Discourse, Alienna Kazmi, Arooj Rana, Uzma Anjum, Madiha Khan

Purdue Linguistics, Literature, and Second Language Studies Conference

This research study aims to examine language change occurring in written discourse due to increase in the usage of emojis and the way emojis, in comparison to words, are performing communicative functions on social media platforms such as Facebook. The study focused on Pakistani Facebook users. For the study, Facebook is one of the most authentic social media platforms because 71.75 % (Internet Word Stat) of Pakistani internet users use Facebook which is the highest statistics among all social media applications. In order to investigate the recent language change and communicative functions performed by emojis, we utilized Speech act theory ...


Linguistic Ideologies In The Performance Of Bulgarian Identity, Chelsey Norman Sep 2019

Linguistic Ideologies In The Performance Of Bulgarian Identity, Chelsey Norman

Purdue Linguistics, Literature, and Second Language Studies Conference

Since the end of Communism in 1989 and joining the European Union in 2007, Bulgarians have experienced much greater mobility and access to the global community. Despite this more global perspective, Bulgarians maintain a strong sense of national identity. Given this interplay between global and national identities, Bulgaria is an apt location to conduct this ideological research. Using a combination of ethnographic observations (June-July 2018) and semi-structured interviews with bilingual Bulgarians in Sofia, this study examines how large-scale phenomena like nationalism and globalization are found in the micro-scale interactional construction of identity. Results show that a great deal of ideological ...


The Acquisition Of Diminutives In Moroccan Heritage Speakers In France, Amal El Haimeur Sep 2019

The Acquisition Of Diminutives In Moroccan Heritage Speakers In France, Amal El Haimeur

Purdue Linguistics, Literature, and Second Language Studies Conference

This study addresses the acquisition of diminutive forms by Moroccan heritage speakers in France. Diminutive formation depends on stem modification. 15 Moroccan-French participants took part in this study. In a production experiment, participants were asked to form diminutives for 6 types of stems, since the stem type determines the diminutive pattern. The findings of this study show that the mean percentage of source-like use of the diminutive forms is 38%. The results revealed that just two patterns that were acquired by a significant number of participants: CCiCa and CCiCjCjəC. Diminutive forms that do not require complex processes are acquired by ...


Ellipsis In Iraqi Arabic: An Analysis Of Gapping, Sluicing, And Stripping, Saja Albuarabi Sep 2019

Ellipsis In Iraqi Arabic: An Analysis Of Gapping, Sluicing, And Stripping, Saja Albuarabi

Purdue Linguistics, Literature, and Second Language Studies Conference

The purpose of this paper is to explore the syntax of ellipsis in Iraqi Arabic. The paper sheds light on three types of ellipsis in Arabic and English, namely: sluicing, gapping, and stripping and puts each of them in a comparison between Iraqi Arabic and English languages in addition to Arabic dialects. To the best of my knowledge, these elliptical structures have not been studied in Iraqi Arabic before. Therefore, this study offers the first description of these phenomena from a generative standpoint. The paper argues that the three types of ellipsis mentioned above can be the result of Phonological ...


Rotuli Parisienses: Supplications To The Pope From The University Of Paris, Volume 3: 1387-1394, 2 Vols. Edited By William J. Courtenay And Eric D. Goddard, Alex J. Novikoff Sep 2019

Rotuli Parisienses: Supplications To The Pope From The University Of Paris, Volume 3: 1387-1394, 2 Vols. Edited By William J. Courtenay And Eric D. Goddard, Alex J. Novikoff

Alex Novikoff

No abstract provided.


What Is Pilgrimage?, George Greenia Sep 2019

What Is Pilgrimage?, George Greenia

George Greenia

The term ‘pilgrimage’ has become a commonplace in modern conversations about any travel that is announced as ‘intentional,’ ‘purposeful,’ ‘transformative,’ or simply promises to be ‘authentic.’ Scholars have to navigate between the twin advantage and liability that pilgrimage studies operate under no one disciplinary lens or unified methodology, and the historical range is infinite. Many feel that modern tourism needs to preserve a place for the respectful non-believer without degrading the experience of traditional religious pilgrims. To some degree all intentional travelers are open to an experience of the transcendent that’s compatible with their belief systems and they are ...


Pirates, Merchants, And A Small Battle On The Island Of Kythira In The Later Middle Ages, David D. Terry Aug 2019

Pirates, Merchants, And A Small Battle On The Island Of Kythira In The Later Middle Ages, David D. Terry

The Hilltop Review

Merchants in the later medieval Mediterranean crossed boundaries both geographical and moral. In November 1327 two Mallorcan investors complained to the king’s court that their ship, which they had sent to the eastern Mediterranean laden with tradable goods, had been ransacked by the violent natives of Kythera, an Aegean island at that time ruled by Venice. The Venetians, always conscious of maintaining good trade relations, sent representatives to the island and conducted a full investigation. After interviewing the islanders, the duke of the island sent his conclusions back to Venice: the Catalan “merchants” had come ashore on the island ...


Untitled: Deconstruction And Reconstruction Of Identity In Le Chevalier De La Charrette And The Romance Of Tristran, Devin Louise Moulton Aug 2019

Untitled: Deconstruction And Reconstruction Of Identity In Le Chevalier De La Charrette And The Romance Of Tristran, Devin Louise Moulton

Theses, Dissertations, Student Research: Modern Languages and Literatures

Questions of identity are a central source of tension within the genre of the chivalric romances. Even among the large collective that is King Arthur’s court, innumerable romances recount the tales of individual knights in search of individual glory and of some way to distinguish their names among the masses of the court and the group of knights across chivalric traditions while simultaneously bound by the confines of that same group and its structures. For most, such a feat is impossible and many knights, though they may earn a name in the course of a single romance, never truly ...


Words Speak Louder Than Actions: The Power Of Vocality And Oral Communication In Medieval Viking Literature, Yasmine Abdel-Jawad May 2019

Words Speak Louder Than Actions: The Power Of Vocality And Oral Communication In Medieval Viking Literature, Yasmine Abdel-Jawad

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This paper examines the nature of oral communication within medieval Nordic societies, specifically focusing on the usage of various speech acts in classic Viking literary texts. This essay explores the language employed by Viking characters, noting the ways in which they could demonstrate their power/authority through words as well as the way in which verbal ability could either elevate or diminish one’s social status.


Martin Luther King Jr.: The Ideal Medieval Preacher, Chloe Diaz May 2019

Martin Luther King Jr.: The Ideal Medieval Preacher, Chloe Diaz

Andrews Research Conference

When scholars interpret the sermons of Martin Luther King Jr., such as his last sermon, they investigate his delivery of the speech and how it has stood the test of time. A common example is “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop,” which King delivered on the eve of his death. Many say that he delivered this sermon like it was his last one—as if he were fully aware. Because of scholarship, this sermons has survived, but there is a lens that has not been explored extensively—the influence of medieval rhetorical theory on his scholarship as a theologian. There ...


The Impact Of The Gospel Of Matthew On The Treatment Of Violence And Self-Defense In The Medieval English And Modern American Legal Systems, Caitlyn Koch May 2019

The Impact Of The Gospel Of Matthew On The Treatment Of Violence And Self-Defense In The Medieval English And Modern American Legal Systems, Caitlyn Koch

Senior Honors Theses

There is no doubt that the Bible is filled with the concept of violence, especially in the New Testament, where Jesus faces the violence of persecution in his own life. There is also no doubt that the synoptic gospels each has its own way of addressing this violence: Mark responds to the violence with Jesus’s passivity, while Matthew, Luke, and John, each to their own extent, teach about non-retaliation and doing good to those who wrong you through their depictions of Jesus’s response to violence. Significantly, Matthew depicts Jesus’s response to violence in two different ways: first ...


John Gardner’S Grendel: The Importance Of Community In Making Moral Art, Catherine C. Cooper May 2019

John Gardner’S Grendel: The Importance Of Community In Making Moral Art, Catherine C. Cooper

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

John Gardner’s Grendel examines the ways in which humans make meaning out of their lives. By changing the original Beowulf monster into a creature who constantly questions the conflicting narratives set before him, Gardner encourages us to confront these tensions also. However, his emphasis on Grendel’s alienation helps us realize that community is essential to creating meaning. Most obviously, community creates relationships that foster a sense of moral obligation between its members, even in the face of the type of uncertainty felt by Grendel. Moreover, community cannot exist without dialogue, which perpetually stimulates the imagination to respond to ...


Physicality And Spirituality In Riddle 26, Corinne Mccumber May 2019

Physicality And Spirituality In Riddle 26, Corinne Mccumber

Honors Capstone Projects

Riddle 26, an otherwise-unnamed poem in the 10th-century Old English collection known as The Exeter Book, suggests tension and interplay between its physical form and its meaning. Scholars accept that the riddle’s speaker describes the creation of a religious manuscript, but while physical processes drive the poem’s narrative structure, the speaker ends by focusing on the knowledge that the described religious text contains. As John Hines summarizes, the Old English riddles “demonstrate a keen eye for and dramatically imaginative appreciation of the real world in which the authors and readers lived: both its natural and its manufactured components ...


Mapping Manuscript Migrations: Digging Into Data For The History And Provenance Of Medieval And Renaissance Manuscripts, Toby Burrows, Eero Hyvönen, Lynn Ransom, Hanno Wijsman May 2019

Mapping Manuscript Migrations: Digging Into Data For The History And Provenance Of Medieval And Renaissance Manuscripts, Toby Burrows, Eero Hyvönen, Lynn Ransom, Hanno Wijsman

Manuscript Studies

Mapping Manuscript Migrations is a new two-year project funded by the Trans-Atlantic Platform in the fourth round of its Digging into Data Challenge. The project is a collaboration between four international partners: the University of Oxford, the University of Pennsylvania, the Institut de recherche et d’histoire des textes (IRHT) in Paris, and Aalto University in Helsinki.

The project aims to combine data from various different sources to enable the large-scale analysis of the history and provenance of medieval and Renaissance manuscripts.


Compilation, Collation And Correction In The Time Of Encyclopedism: The Case Of Upenn Ljs 55, Nathalie Lacarrière May 2019

Compilation, Collation And Correction In The Time Of Encyclopedism: The Case Of Upenn Ljs 55, Nathalie Lacarrière

Manuscript Studies

This article looks into UPenn LJS 55, a French thirteenth century manuscript composed of four different works that exemplify the Encyclopedic drive of the time: Gossuin de Metz’s Image del monde, Honorius Augustodunensis’ Elucidarium, in an anonymous French prose version called Lucidaire, a Moralités des Philosophes in prose and an unidentified fourth text. By analyzing the collation of the manuscript, this article suggests that two of the eight quires that are comprised in the manuscript are incomplete, leading to the creation of a new collation model and the identification of the fourth piece as Aldobrandino da Siena’s Régime ...


The Intricacies Of Capturing The Holdings Of A Mosque Library In Yemen: The Library Of The Shrine Of Imām Al-Hādī, ṢaʿDa, Sabine Schmidtke May 2019

The Intricacies Of Capturing The Holdings Of A Mosque Library In Yemen: The Library Of The Shrine Of Imām Al-Hādī, ṢaʿDa, Sabine Schmidtke

Manuscript Studies

This article discusses the "The Zaydi Manuscript Tradition (ZMT)" initiative. The initiative aims to salvage the Zaydi literary tradition by gathering digital surrogates of as many Zaydi manuscripts as possible in a single repository and providing comprehensive and systematic open access to them for scholars worldwide, regardless of whether the physical manuscripts are preserved in Europe or in North America, in Yemen or elsewhere in the Middle East. The ZMT is a joint project initiated by the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), Princeton, in partnership with the Hill Museum & Manuscript Library (HMML) at Saint John’s University, Collegeville, Minnesota. Work ...


Preserving Endangered Archives In Jerba, Tunisia: The Al-Bāsī Family Library Pilot Project, Ali Boujdidi, Paul Love May 2019

Preserving Endangered Archives In Jerba, Tunisia: The Al-Bāsī Family Library Pilot Project, Ali Boujdidi, Paul Love

Manuscript Studies

In July 2017, we launched a project entitled “Preserving Endangered Archives in Jerba, Tunisia: The al- Bāsī Family Library Pilot Project.”1 Generously supported by the Endangered Archives Programme (EAP) funded by the British Library and Arcadia, the project aims at the digital preservation of the private Arabic manuscript library of the al- Bāsī family in the town of Houmet Souk on the island of Jerba in southern Tunisia. This report offers a brief history of the collection and its contents as well as a description of the project’s training efforts and aims.


Of Scribes And Scripts: Citizen Science And The Cairo Genizah, Laura Newman Eckstein May 2019

Of Scribes And Scripts: Citizen Science And The Cairo Genizah, Laura Newman Eckstein

Manuscript Studies

In August 2017, the University of Pennsylvania Libraries, in partnership with the Princeton Geniza Project, the Library of the Jewish Theological Seminary, the Genizah Research Unit at Cambridge University, and the Zooniverse, began the first phase of a larger project to attempt to sort and transcribe Cairo Geniza fragments, entitled “Scribes of the Cairo Geniza.” This article describes the first phase of the projects and its results.


The Textual Interest Of The Syriac Versions Of Galen’S Simples, Irene Calà, Jimmy Daccache, Robert Hawley May 2019

The Textual Interest Of The Syriac Versions Of Galen’S Simples, Irene Calà, Jimmy Daccache, Robert Hawley

Manuscript Studies

As a complement and supplement to the various articles in this issue devoted specifically to the manuscript olim Hiersemann 500/20, henceforth referred to as the “Syriac Galen Palimpsest”, or simply “SGP”, this article presents selected examples of how and why the undertext of SGP is important for scholarship, especially in disciplines beyond the confines of Syriac Christianity. Our examples are drawn from Sergius of Reš ʿAynā’s sixth century Syriac translation of Books VI-VIII of Galen of Pergamon’s important pharmacological treatise On simple drugs (hereafter “Simples”), which, as is well known, is found not only in SGP, but ...


Analyzing Images, Editing Texts: The Manchester Project, Naima Afif, Siam Bhayro, Peter E. Poormann, William I. Sellers, Natalia Smelova May 2019

Analyzing Images, Editing Texts: The Manchester Project, Naima Afif, Siam Bhayro, Peter E. Poormann, William I. Sellers, Natalia Smelova

Manuscript Studies

This article discusses the methodologies and tools employed in the study of the Syriac Galen Palimpsest. While it focusses on the efforts of the ongoing Manchester Project, attention is also paid to earlier and contemporary work, particularly the most recent phase of research (which can be said to have started in 2009). In this way, the Manchester Project is properly contextualised. We describe the image analysis techniques employed by the Manchester team. The challenge is to reduce the information contained in the set of multi-spectral images and enhance it where it can usefully distinguish between undertext and overtext. One can ...


The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: A Tale Of Two Texts, Naima Afif, Siam Bhayro, Grigory Kessel, Peter E. Poormann, William I. Sellers, Natalia Smelova May 2019

The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: A Tale Of Two Texts, Naima Afif, Siam Bhayro, Grigory Kessel, Peter E. Poormann, William I. Sellers, Natalia Smelova

Manuscript Studies

This article presents the Syriac Galen Palimpsest’s double history, of both the original manuscript and its subsequent reuse. The original medical manuscript contained Galen’s Book of Simple Drugs in Syriac translation, was probably produced in northern Mesopotamia or western Syria, and dates to the first half of the ninth century. After only two centuries, it was erased and reused to produce a liturgical text called Octṓēchos, probably at the monastery of Saint Elias on the Black Mountain. This palimpsest was later transferred to Saint Catherine’s monastery in the Sinai, where it remained for several centuries before being ...