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Full-Text Articles in United States History

Ray, Joseph Malchus, 1907-1991 (Sc 3329), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Mar 2019

Ray, Joseph Malchus, 1907-1991 (Sc 3329), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid and full text scan of memoirs and photographs and digital files of interviews (Click on "Additional Files" below to access) for Manuscripts Small Collection 3329. Memoirs, sundry papers, and oral histories of Joseph Malchus Ray, a native of Warren County, Kentucky, who went on to teach at universities in Texas, Alabama and Maryland. He ended his career as president of the University of Texas at El Paso in 1968, but stayed on afterwards as the H.Y. Benedict Professor of Political Science at UTEP. The memoirs discuss in detail his professional and personal life and the values that ...


The Challenges Faced By The Freedmen’S Bureau Agents Of Deep East Texas, Jacy D. King Dec 2018

The Challenges Faced By The Freedmen’S Bureau Agents Of Deep East Texas, Jacy D. King

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The years following the Civil War proved to be tumultuous for the nation and caused great social and economic upheaval in the South. Congress established the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands in 1865 to provide a smoother transition in former Confederate states and to guard the liberties of the former bondsmen. The agents of the Freedmen’s Bureau in Deep East Texas faced the same challenges and hardships as their counterparts in other areas of the state and throughout the South. Numerous historians have written on Reconstruction and the Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas, but in a broader ...


Helm Family Papers (Mss 633), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Sep 2018

Helm Family Papers (Mss 633), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscript Collection 633. Correspondence, business papers, deeds, and miscellaneous records of the Helm family of Butler County, Kentucky, and related families.


Texas In The Southwestern Fur Trade, 1718-1840., J. Ryan Badger Aug 2018

Texas In The Southwestern Fur Trade, 1718-1840., J. Ryan Badger

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Much has been written about the North American trade dealing in beaver and otter pelts. The drive to acquire valuable hides drove the early colonial economy and served as one of the industries which pushed Americans to expand their national reach beyond the Rocky Mountains, the British, Scots, and Russians to move southward from Canada and Alaska, and the Spanish to assert their claim to the North. Admittedly, the Spanish were latecomers to the fur trade and often lacked the population and practical experience to pursue trapping as a nationalized industry, however, the portion of North America they laid claim ...


Carley Family Papers (Sc 3223), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Jun 2018

Carley Family Papers (Sc 3223), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 3223. Letters and papers of George Carley of Georgetown, Kentucky and family (mainly daughters, a granddaughter, and nieces). Relatives in Ontario, Canada and in Pennsylvania report family news and mourn the soldiers of World War I; a daughter writes from Arkansas of taxes and the economy, her stepson writes of medical studies during the influenza pandemic, and her brother-in-law writes of oil and investments. George’s papers include solicitations from makers of fencing and farm supplies.

Also includes children’s letters and poems.


Scott, James Mcmillian, 1870-1907 (Mss 628), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Jan 2018

Scott, James Mcmillian, 1870-1907 (Mss 628), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid for Manuscripts Collection 628. Letters of James McMillian Scott, a native of Cumberland County, Kentucky, to Sarah Elizabeth “Ellie” Garnett of Adair County, Kentucky, written before and after their marriage. Frequently separated from his wife because of his work on his family’s Texas farm and his editorial positions on newspapers in Texas, Kentucky and Arkansas, Scott writes of his family, his social and religious activities, his Spanish-American War service, and his newspaper work. He is frequently resentful of local attacks on his reputation arising from unspecified indiscretions committed while living in Kentucky. Full-text scans of several Spanish-American ...


A Preliminary Study Of Smithport Plain Bottle Morphology In The Southern Caddo Area, Robert Z. Selden Jr. Jan 2018

A Preliminary Study Of Smithport Plain Bottle Morphology In The Southern Caddo Area, Robert Z. Selden Jr.

CRHR: Archaeology

This study expands upon a previous analysis of the Clarence H. Webb collection, which resulted in the identification of two discrete shapes used in the manufacture of the base and body of Smithport Plain bottles. The sample includes the Smithport Plain bottles from the Webb collection, and four new bottles: two previously repatriated specimens in the Pohler Collection, and two from the Mitchell site (41BW4) to test whether those specimens align morphologically with the Belcher Mound or Smithport Landing specimens. Results indicate significant allometry and a significant difference in Smithport Plain body and base shapes for bottles produced at the ...


Documentation Of Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Vessels And Other Artifacts From East Texas Sites In The George T. Wright Collection At The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum Of Natural History, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson Jan 2018

Documentation Of Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Vessels And Other Artifacts From East Texas Sites In The George T. Wright Collection At The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum Of Natural History, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

From the early 1900s to the mid-1940s George T. Wright was a landowner (Kiomatia Plantation) and Vice-President of the Kiomitia Mercantile Company: General Merchandise in Kiomatia and Paris, Texas. He was also an avid Indian artifact collector at sites along the Red River in Red River County, Texas, as well as in McCurtain County, Oklahoma, especially the collection of Caddo ceramic vessels, and also dug at sites he knew in the area, including the Wright Plantation site (41RR7), which he owned, and the Sam Coffman site (now known as Sam Kaufman, 41RR16, and for a short time known as the ...


The Lithic And Ceramic Artifacts From The Spradley Site (41na206), Nacogdoches County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Paul Marceaux Jan 2018

The Lithic And Ceramic Artifacts From The Spradley Site (41na206), Nacogdoches County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Paul Marceaux

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Spradley site (41NA206) is a Native American archaeological site in the Bayou La Nana valley in Nacogdoches County in the East Texas Pineywoods. Bayou La Nana is a southward-flowing tributary to the Angelina River. The site is best known for its late 17th-early 18th century Historic Caddo period occupation, and the recovery of a number of European trade goods from habitation deposits, but the site was also occupied in Late Archaic (ca. 5000-2500 years B.P.), Woodland (ca. 2500-1150 years B.P.), and pre-A.D. 1400 Caddo periods. The Spradley site was the scene of Stephen F. Austin State ...


The Occurrence Of East Texas Caddo Ceramic Vessel Sherds In Central Texas Archaeological Region Sites, Ca. A.D. 900 To The Late 18th Century, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2018

The Occurrence Of East Texas Caddo Ceramic Vessel Sherds In Central Texas Archaeological Region Sites, Ca. A.D. 900 To The Late 18th Century, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The development and maintenance of long-distance trade networks for both economic, social, and religious purposes was a notable feature of the ancestral Caddo tradition from its very beginnings, and this includes the Caddo peoples that lived in East Texas. Bison hides, salt, raw materials such as copper, galena, stone, and marine shell, and finished objects such as pottery vessels (and possibly their contents), were part of the trading system.

Much of the archaeological evidence for the Caddo long-distance trade and exchange networks of prestige goods occur in contexts dating from ca. A.D. 800 to 1400, with long-distance trade outside ...


What Does It Mean To Belong In San Antonio? How The Battle Of The Alamo And The Cart Wars Shaped What It Means To Be American Through The Institutionalization Of Discrimination And Violence Toward Those Of Mexican Descent, Madison Endesha Sharp-Johnson Jan 2018

What Does It Mean To Belong In San Antonio? How The Battle Of The Alamo And The Cart Wars Shaped What It Means To Be American Through The Institutionalization Of Discrimination And Violence Toward Those Of Mexican Descent, Madison Endesha Sharp-Johnson

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


Faust, Burton Sherwood, 1898-1967 (Mss 620), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Nov 2017

Faust, Burton Sherwood, 1898-1967 (Mss 620), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Collection 620. Correspondence, research notes, drafts, photographs, reference works and bibliographic material of Burton S. Faust relating to his studies of the chemical, historical and cultural aspects of saltpetre and of spelean saltpetre mining in the United States.


“Let Us Stand Or Fall Together”: Hood’S Texas Brigade: An Interview With Dr. Susannah Ural, Ashley Whitehead Luskey Oct 2017

“Let Us Stand Or Fall Together”: Hood’S Texas Brigade: An Interview With Dr. Susannah Ural, Ashley Whitehead Luskey

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Over the course of this year, we’ll be interviewing some of the speakers from the upcoming 2018 CWI conference about their talks. Today we are speaking with Dr. Susannah Ural, Professor of History and Co-Director of the Dale Center for the Study of War & Society at the University of Southern Mississippi. A military historian and scholar of war and society, Ural’s work focuses on the experiences of soldiers and families in the U.S. Civil War era. She is the author of several books, including Don’t Hurry Me Down to Hades: The Civil War in the Words ...


Texas, War, And Empire: The American Empire In The Conquest And Annexation Of The Floridas And The American Southwest, Jon A. Welk Sep 2017

Texas, War, And Empire: The American Empire In The Conquest And Annexation Of The Floridas And The American Southwest, Jon A. Welk

The Purdue Historian

Arguments surrounding American Imperialism focus heavily on the 1890s and after, but preceding actions by the United States in the process of continental expansion present an image of imperialism in the first half of the nineteenth century. This paper examines the annexation of Florida, Texas, and the rest of the American Southwest through the lens of Mexican-American relations and international imperial competition to determine whether the United States was exercising an imperial agenda between 1803 and 1848. It then reapplies pre-existing arguments on American imperialism by Frank Ninkovich, Thomas McCormick, Dane Kennedy, and others to the same 1803-1848 timeline as ...


The Santa Fe Expedition’S Impact On Texas Annexation, Daniele Celano Sep 2017

The Santa Fe Expedition’S Impact On Texas Annexation, Daniele Celano

The Purdue Historian

The American Southwest to this day conjures images of burly pioneers and freedom beyond the bounds of established civilization, a unique spirit that harkens back to the era of the Lone Star Republic of Texas. Not only was the state once its own sovereign nation, it gained independence from Mexico through raising a true civilian army compromised overwhelmingly of the classic frontiersmen, live-off-the-land Texan that made up the new nation’s population. While depictions of the quintessential Texan against the promotion of its vast lands ripe with unhindered opportunity drew masses of Americans to Texas, the propaganda hid a web ...


Design Plan For The Sawmill Town History Wing At The Texas Forestry Museum, Kendall D. Gay Jul 2017

Design Plan For The Sawmill Town History Wing At The Texas Forestry Museum, Kendall D. Gay

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Texas Forestry Museum in Lufkin, Texas is the only forestry museum in the state. It preserves artifacts and educates visitors about Texas’ forest industry history. The museum has a Sawmill Town History Wing that is outdated and in need of a refreshing exhibit design based on current best practices. Using a previous museum audit as a guide, the new exhibit will have better flow, panel aesthetics, content, and interactive elements. By creating a new exhibit, the museum is better able to educate and entertain the visitors about Texas’ forest industry history.


Vance, Edward Richard, 1833-1902 (Mss 612), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Jul 2017

Vance, Edward Richard, 1833-1902 (Mss 612), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Collection 612. Correspondence, diaries, scrapbooks, photographs and family papers of Richard Vance, a Warren County, Kentucky native and U.S. Army officer. After his Civil War service, Vance spent his career at several posts in the South and on the frontier until his retirement in 1892.


Test Excavations And Additional Surface Collections At The Peach Orchard Site (41ce477) On Bowles Creek In Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Kevin Stingley Jan 2017

Test Excavations And Additional Surface Collections At The Peach Orchard Site (41ce477) On Bowles Creek In Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Kevin Stingley

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In March 2016, additional archaeological investigations were conducted at the Peach Orchard site (41CE477) in the Bowles Creek valley in Cherokee County, Texas. This is an area with numerous Historic Caddo Allen phase settlements, including the Peach Orchard site. Investigations at these sites have included pedestrian survey, systematic surface collections, intensive shovel testing, excavation of several 1 x 1 m units, and remote sensing. The ancestral Caddo sherd collection from the sites strongly suggest they are locations of post-A.D. 1680 Historic Caddo settlements, probably by the Neche or Nechas Caddo peoples. Patton Engraved sherds, the Allen phase fine ware ...


An Historic Caddo Burial At The Swen Farm Site (41bw65), Bowie County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

An Historic Caddo Burial At The Swen Farm Site (41bw65), Bowie County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Swen Farm site is on an alluvial terrace (220-230 ft. amsl) of the Sulphur River. When it was first recorded in 1970 prior to the enlargement of Lake Wright Patman the landform was an island in the reservoir, with the submerged channel of the river along the eastern and northern sides of the island, with artifacts of Archaic, Woodland, and ancestral Caddo period age exposed in several areas, and midden deposits were also present (Briggs and Malone 1970). In 1971, an early 18th century Caddo burial feature was discovered at the site by L. H. Head, Sr., of Texarkana ...


Caddo Ceramic Vessel Database From Sites In Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, And Arkansas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

Caddo Ceramic Vessel Database From Sites In Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, And Arkansas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This compilation of more than 9310 ancestral Caddo ceramic vessels is from 356 sites and collections primarily in Texas (i.e., about 87 percent of the vessels and 88 percent of the sites and collections), although there are significant collections in this compilation from sites in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. The ceramic vessel database has been compiled from available published and unpublished articles, monographs, and technical reports, as well as ceramic vessel inventory forms (when available) on file at the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory.


Continued Shovel Test Investigations At The Historic Caddo Allen Phase Bowles Creek Site (41ce475), Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Kevin Stingley Jan 2017

Continued Shovel Test Investigations At The Historic Caddo Allen Phase Bowles Creek Site (41ce475), Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Kevin Stingley

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Bowles Creek site (41CE475) on Bowles Creek in the Neches River basin in East Texas (Figure 1) is an important and well-preserved Historic Caddo Allen phase habitation site on a low alluvial rise not far north of the current channel of Bowles Creek (Perttula and Stingley 2016, 2017; Perttula et al. 2016). This article summarizes the archaeological findings from the February 2016 excavation of 18 additional shovel tests (ST 40-48 and ST 50-60) at the site, placed between 10-25 m north of the Bowles Creek channel, and excavated in an attempt to clarify the subsurface character and depth of ...


The Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Assemblage From The Will Odham Site (41ce42) In The Angelina River Basin, Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

The Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Assemblage From The Will Odham Site (41ce42) In The Angelina River Basin, Cherokee County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Will Odham site (ET-713) was recorded by Gus E. Arnold in March 1940 under the auspices of the WPA-sponsored archaeological survey of East Texas. The site was on an alluvial rise in the Big Turnpike Creek valley; Big Turnpike Creek is a tributary to Mud Creek in the Angelina River basin in the East Texas Pineywoods (Figure 1). The J. B. Maxwell site (41CE43), also recorded by Arnold, lies ca. 600 m northwest of the Odham site (Perttula 2017).

Archaeological deposits were estimated to cover a 5 acre area, but were concentrated in a ca. 60 m diameter area ...


The Caddo Ceramic Vessels From The Cemetery At 41hs74 On Hatley Creek In The Sabine River Basin, Harrison County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

The Caddo Ceramic Vessels From The Cemetery At 41hs74 On Hatley Creek In The Sabine River Basin, Harrison County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Site 41HS74 is an ancestral Caddo habitation site and cemetery on Hatley Creek, a southwardflowing tributary to the Sabine River, in the East Texas Pineywoods (Figure 1). The site was investigated in 1986 by Heartfield, Price and Greene, Inc. (1988). The re-analysis of the ceramic vessels recovered from nine burial features at the site are the subject of this article. The vessels are curated at the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory at The University of Texas at Austin (TARL).


Magnetic Gradient Survey At The M. S. Roberts (41he8) Site In Henderson County, Texas, Duncan P. Mckinnon, Timothy K. Perttula, Arlo Mckee Jan 2017

Magnetic Gradient Survey At The M. S. Roberts (41he8) Site In Henderson County, Texas, Duncan P. Mckinnon, Timothy K. Perttula, Arlo Mckee

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The M. S. Roberts site is located in Henderson County, Texas and it represents one of the few known Caddo mound sites in the upper Neches River Basin in northeast Texas (Figure 1). The site is situated along Caddo Creek – an eastward-flowing tributary of the Neches River (Perttula et al. 2016; Perttula 2016; Perttula and Walters 2016). The site is located southeast of Athens, Texas. When first recorded, the single mound at the site was approximately 24 m long and 20 m wide and roughly 1.7 m in height (Pearce and Jackson 1931). Directly west of the mound was ...


Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Sherds From 2016 Investigations At 41mr211, Marion County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

Ancestral Caddo Ceramic Sherds From 2016 Investigations At 41mr211, Marion County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Renewed archaeological investigations in 2016 by the Texas Historical Commission at the early 19th century Caddo site 41MR211 recovered a small number of ancestral Caddo ceramic vessel sherds from a variety of contexts in Locus 3 (Table 1), which is located just east of the main 1999 excavation block (Figure 1). The sherds are from grog-tempered (70 percent) and shell-tempered (30 percent) vessels. In the larger vessel sherd assemblage (n=368) reported by Parsons et al. (2002a, 2002b) from 41MR211, 36.8 percent of the sherds are from shell-tempered vessels and 59.4 percent are from vessels made with grog ...


The M. S. Roberts Site (41he8): Archaeological Investigations At A Caddo Mound Site In The Upper Neches River Basin In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson Jan 2017

The M. S. Roberts Site (41he8): Archaeological Investigations At A Caddo Mound Site In The Upper Neches River Basin In East Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Mark Walters, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The first archaeological investigations at the M. S. Roberts site in the Caddo Creek valley of the upper Neches River basin in East Texas (Figure 1) was by University of Texas (UT) archaeologists in 1931 (Perttula 2016). In that work, UT archaeologists excavated a trench of unknown size in the ancestral Caddo mound at the site, and gathered a surface collection from the plowed cotton field around the mound.

No further archaeological work was done at the site until January 2015 when a surface collection was obtained at the site with the permission of the landowners, Jim and Denise Renfroe ...


Artifact Assemblages From San Augustine County, Texas, Sites Recorded In 1939-1940 By Gus E. Arnold, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

Artifact Assemblages From San Augustine County, Texas, Sites Recorded In 1939-1940 By Gus E. Arnold, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

During the 1939-1940 WPA-sponsored archaeological survey of East Texas, Gus E. Arnold was particularly active in identifying and recording sites in San Augustine County, in the East Texas Pineywoods (see Perttula 2015a, 2017a), as well as sites along Patroon, Palo Gaucho, and Housen bayous in neighboring Sabine County (Perttula 2015b, 2017b), and sites in the Angelina River basin in Angelina County (Perttula 2016c). During his archaeological survey efforts, he collected substantial assemblages of ceramic and lithic artifact assemblages (curated by the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory at The University of Texas at Austin), primarily due to the fact that the surface ...


Report On Magnetic Gradient Survey At Three Caddo Sites In East Texas, Duncan P. Mckinnon Jan 2017

Report On Magnetic Gradient Survey At Three Caddo Sites In East Texas, Duncan P. Mckinnon

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The use of magnetic gradient at Caddo sites located throughout the Caddo people’s ancestral lands within the current areas of east Texas, southwest Arkansas, northeast Louisiana, and eastern Oklahoma has been very successful in the elucidation and mapping of the distributional characteristics of buried cultural features. January 2016 surveys conducted at three Caddo sites in East Texas (41CE475, 41CE476, and 41CE477) add to this growing corpus of remote sensing spatial data. The survey work was conducted in order to assess the nature of sub-surface preservation in different environmental and historical contexts and map the distribution of geophysical anomalies attributed ...


Sherd Assemblages From Sites In Bowie, Cass, Gregg, Lamar, And Red River Counties In East Texas Held By The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum Of Natural History, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson Jan 2017

Sherd Assemblages From Sites In Bowie, Cass, Gregg, Lamar, And Red River Counties In East Texas Held By The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum Of Natural History, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History (SNOMNH) has in their collections several assemblages of ancestral Caddo ceramic vessel sherds from sites in East Texas. We recently had an opportunity to examine and document these collections during a trip to the SNOMNH, and in this article, we put those findings on record.


A Caddo Ceramic Vessel Sherd Collection From A Site In The Upper Neches River Basin, Anderson County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2017

A Caddo Ceramic Vessel Sherd Collection From A Site In The Upper Neches River Basin, Anderson County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Frank H. Watt (1889-1981) was a well-known and well-respected avocational archaeologist that lived in the Waco, Texas, area and studied the archaeology of the central Brazos River valley. He made forays into other parts of the state, however, including the Caddo archaeological area of East Texas. At an unknown date, probably in the 1950s or 1960s, Watt investigated an ancestral Caddo site on the Dennis Farm six miles northwest of the community of Neches, in the upper Neches River basin (probably in the Walnut Creek valley), in Anderson County. He collected 42 sherds from Caddo ceramic vessels from the site ...