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2019

History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

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Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in United States History

Missed Moments: Kodak’S Failure To Define The Consumer Market For Digital Photography, Paul T. Moon Jr Aug 2019

Missed Moments: Kodak’S Failure To Define The Consumer Market For Digital Photography, Paul T. Moon Jr

History Theses

The focus of this thesis is to provide an expanded interpretation of the decline of the Eastman Kodak Company. Kodak is a company synonymous with cameras, pictures, and photography. The American photographic giant created a vast empire that was able to dominate the industry for the better part of the Twentieth Century. Yet, it missed the opportunity to develop its digital camera technology. This makes Kodak an interesting study in business decision making in the face of advancing disruptive technology.

In a historical context, there is a lack of work that deeply inspects the fall of the Kodak company in ...


Restraint And Patient Agency: Institutional Control At The Oregon State Hospital In The 1920s, Hudson Kennedy Jun 2019

Restraint And Patient Agency: Institutional Control At The Oregon State Hospital In The 1920s, Hudson Kennedy

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

This thesis examines the experiences of female patients in mental health institutions in the early twentieth century using two patient medical files from the Oregon State Hospital in the 1920s as a case study. The two patient case files are examined for their content regarding the treatments given to patients in order to determine the rationale behind the treatments. This rationale would often cross the line between treatment and discipline. The treatments were chosen in reaction to the behaviors of the patients and were an attempt to control their bodies. The treatments examined are put into context with a comparison ...


Mental Hospitals And Their Effect On Race And Gender In The 1920s, Dayna Ragasa Jun 2019

Mental Hospitals And Their Effect On Race And Gender In The 1920s, Dayna Ragasa

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

Mental illness in the United States has been part of a complex history. Many details of mental hospitals and the treatment of its patients have been omitted from popular literature and media. These patients were subjected to harsh treatment and forced to undergo extreme therapies that doctors claimed would improve their condition. In particular, female patients were also affected by the events that occurred during the early twentieth century, namely World War I and the Great Depression, and the stigmas of race and gender that they caused. Mental illness remained an understudied topic for much of the nineteenth and twentieth ...


Immigrants, Mental Health, And The Oregon State Hospital, Andres Alvarez Jun 2019

Immigrants, Mental Health, And The Oregon State Hospital, Andres Alvarez

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

This Senior thesis examines the treatment and care of immigrants who found themselves within the confines of the Oregon State Hospital in the early 20th century. During the Progressive Era (1890-1920) there was a rise in the use of mental health institutions and along with it came patients from various backgrounds. Many patients were admitted either voluntarily or by others in good faith for recovery from their mental ailments. Others however, fell victim to mental institutions being used to work against marginalized groups during this time. Two case files show individual examples of immigrants who were put in the State ...


“I Almost Hope I Get Hit Again Soon”: The Wartime Service And Medical History Of Leon C. Standifer, Wwii American Infantryman, Alexis M. Laguna May 2019

“I Almost Hope I Get Hit Again Soon”: The Wartime Service And Medical History Of Leon C. Standifer, Wwii American Infantryman, Alexis M. Laguna

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The American GI’s experience in hospital during World War II is absent from official military histories, most scholarly works, and even many oral history collections. Utilizing the papers of WWII infantryman, Leon Standifer, this thesis offers the reader a rare glimpse of WWII military hospital life and chronicles one soldier’s journey from willing obedience to subversive action.

This thesis compares the stated goals and procedures of the US Army medical department to the experience of Leon Standifer, an infantryman who served in northern France during the last year of the war and the American occupation of Bavaria, whose ...


The United States' Relationship With The Insanity Defense Before And After United States V. Hinckley, Natalie R. Peterman May 2019

The United States' Relationship With The Insanity Defense Before And After United States V. Hinckley, Natalie R. Peterman

Young Historians Conference

The United States legal system has had a fluctuating relationship with the insanity defense for decades, and the trial of United States v. Hinckley was a critical milestone for this development. Before John Hinckley, Jr. attempted to assassinate President Ronald Reagan in 1981 and the jury of his trial found him not guilty, American society generally agreed with the death penalty, but both the public and the government were outraged after Hinckley’s verdict. This outrage and the subsequent political backlash against the insanity defense were motivated by progress in the area of mental illness treatment in the United States ...


Ms. Coll. 251: Literary Models, Religion, And Romantic Science In John Syng Dorsey’S Poems, 1805-1818, Samantha Destefano May 2019

Ms. Coll. 251: Literary Models, Religion, And Romantic Science In John Syng Dorsey’S Poems, 1805-1818, Samantha Destefano

Transcription Collection

John Syng Dorsey (1783-1818) was a Philadelphia surgeon and the author of The Elements of Surgery (1813), the first American textbook of surgery. He was also the author of Poems, 1805-1818 (UPenn Ms. Coll. 251), a forty-page collection that reveals his interests in spirituality, the history of science and medicine, and classical and eighteenth-century British poetry. Decades after Dorsey’s death, his son Robert Ralston Dorsey (1808-1869) revised his father’s poems, identified classical sources with Latin and Italian quotations, and completed Dorsey’s final, unfinished poem. This project analyzes Dorsey’s literary, scientific, and biblical allusions and contextualizes his ...


From Spacewar! To Twitch.Tv: The Influence Of Competition In Video Games And The Rise Of Esports, Robert Boyle May 2019

From Spacewar! To Twitch.Tv: The Influence Of Competition In Video Games And The Rise Of Esports, Robert Boyle

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

Since their inception in the 1950s, video games have come a long way; with that advancement came more popularity, a growing demand, and an evolving culture. The first person shooter (FPS) video game genre and the competitive scene that was born out of it is an ideal case study to analyze this change over time. To understand how video games became so popular, one must examine their history: specifically, their development, impacts the games have had on society, and economic trajectories. Similar to traditional professional sports, video games experienced a cultural shift around their lucrative profit margins and unfolding professionalization ...


Selling Childhood: How The Middle Class Used Children In The Anti-Tuberculosis Movement (1930s-1940s), Hannah Fisher May 2019

Selling Childhood: How The Middle Class Used Children In The Anti-Tuberculosis Movement (1930s-1940s), Hannah Fisher

Senior Theses

During the anti-tuberculosis movement of the 1930s and 1940s, children were chosen as focal points, with their roles shaped by society’s changing view of childhood, the emergence of the middle class, and the socioeconomic and political climate. Children were used by middle-class reformers as conduits through which to disseminate information and enact controls on the working class. Health education in schools had two main goals: (1) for educated children to become educated adults, and (2) for educated children to transform the behaviors of adults around them. Although researchers have studied middle-class interventions into children’s health, few have analyzed ...


A Look Into The Tuskegee Study Of Untreated Syphilis In The Negro Male In Macon County, Alabama, Austin Valentine Apr 2019

A Look Into The Tuskegee Study Of Untreated Syphilis In The Negro Male In Macon County, Alabama, Austin Valentine

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

In the 1930’s there was growing concerns over a disease known as syphilis. With 300,000 new cases each year, coupled with the disease’s ability to create blindness, arthritis, heart disease and instances of premature death, the search for a way to stop the epidemic quickly was expanding. With such numbers the United States Department of Health needed answers fast (DiIanni 1993).

At this time, the United States was in an economic crisis left by the Great Depression. As a result, the U.S. Department of Health needed to find cheap test subjects in an effort to combat ...


19th Century Development Of Refrigeration In The American Meat Packing Industry, David I. Smith Apr 2019

19th Century Development Of Refrigeration In The American Meat Packing Industry, David I. Smith

Tenor of Our Times

The United States, particularly the city of Chicago, proved to be the center for the development of modern refrigeration. The meat-packing industry of Chicago was known worldwide and proved to be the forefront for technological development in refrigeration. Certain technologies such as refrigerated railway cars and cold storage facilities proved to be monumental to advancement in the industry. The invention of the refrigerator car revolutionized the industry by providing efficient and reliable transport for chilled, packaged meat and removed the old system of transporting livestock, saving immeasurable amounts of money. Cold storage facilities revolutionized the industry through providing efficient year-round ...


Interview Of Stephen Andrilli, Ph.D., Stephen Francis Andrilli Ph.D., Jane Highley Apr 2019

Interview Of Stephen Andrilli, Ph.D., Stephen Francis Andrilli Ph.D., Jane Highley

All Oral Histories

Stephen Francis Andrilli was born in August 1952 in Bryn Mawr, PA. He was born to Francis and Leatrice Andrilli. Dr. Andrilli is the oldest of four children; his three sisters are Carol (now Carol Strosser), Patricia (now Patricia Kempczynski), and Barbara (now Barbara Parkes). Aside from a few years of living in Gettysburg, Dr. Andrilli has lived in the Philadelphia area for most of his life. He attended St. Jerome School, where he finished 8th grade. He then attended LaSalle College High School, where he graduated in 1969 at age 16. He entered La Salle University (formerly La Salle ...


Sympathetic Physics: The Keely Motor And The Laws Of Thermodynamics In Nineteenth-Century Culture, Robert Macdougall Apr 2019

Sympathetic Physics: The Keely Motor And The Laws Of Thermodynamics In Nineteenth-Century Culture, Robert Macdougall

History Publications

In Philadelphia in the 1870s, John Worrell Keely announced the invention of a fantastic new motor that could, he promised, drive locomotives, power factories, and even defy gravity without fuel or heat. The Keely Motor became the most notorious perpetual motion scheme of the nineteenth century, attracting believers and investors for nearly thirty years. This article explores the “work” the motor performed for Keely, his supporters, and his critics—not physical work, but financial, cultural, and psychological. To investors, the Keely Motor represented a dream of riches without effort. To Keely’s critics, the motor offered an opportunity to defend ...


In The Beginning... A Legacy Of Computing At Marshall University, Jack L. Dickinson, Arnold R. Miller Ed.E Mar 2019

In The Beginning... A Legacy Of Computing At Marshall University, Jack L. Dickinson, Arnold R. Miller Ed.E

Arnold R. Miller

This book provides a brief history of the early computing technology at Marshall University, Huntington, W.Va., in the forty years: 1959-1999. This was before the move to Intel and Windows based servers. After installation of an IBM Accounting Machine in 1959, which arguably does not fit the modern definition of a computer, the first true computer arrived in 1963 and was installed in a room below the Registrar’s office. For the next twenty years several departments ordered their own midrange standalone systems to fit their individual departmental requirements. These represented different platforms from different vendors, and were not ...


A History Of Oysters In Maine (1600s-1970s), Randy Lackovic Mar 2019

A History Of Oysters In Maine (1600s-1970s), Randy Lackovic

Darling Marine Center Historical Documents

This is a history of oyster abundance in Maine, and the subsequent decline of oyster abundance. It is a history of oystering, oyster fisheries, and oyster commerce in Maine. It is a history of the transplanting of oysters to Maine, and experiments with oysters in Maine, and of oyster culture in Maine. This history takes place from the 1600s to the 1970s.


Constructing The Transsexual: Medicalization, Gatekeeping, And The Privatization Of Trans Healthcare In The U.S., 1950-2019, Erin Gifford Jan 2019

Constructing The Transsexual: Medicalization, Gatekeeping, And The Privatization Of Trans Healthcare In The U.S., 1950-2019, Erin Gifford

Senior Projects Spring 2019

This project details the medicalization of gender variance in the United States that began in 1950, both in medical discourse and popular culture, and analyzes how this phenomenon has impacted the contemporary landscape of trans healthcare, paying particular attention to issues of access and autonomy.


Blasting The Farm: Chemical High Explosives And The Rise Of Industrial Agriculture, 1867-1930, Patrick Benjamin Swart Jan 2019

Blasting The Farm: Chemical High Explosives And The Rise Of Industrial Agriculture, 1867-1930, Patrick Benjamin Swart

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

No abstract provided.


The American Gluten Craze: Its Origins, Persistence, And Impacts On The Safety Of Gluten-Free Boulder Restaurant Foods, Isabel Trede Jan 2019

The American Gluten Craze: Its Origins, Persistence, And Impacts On The Safety Of Gluten-Free Boulder Restaurant Foods, Isabel Trede

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Gluten, a complex mixture of hundreds of related but distinct proteins found in wheat, barley, rye, and triticale, can be dangerous if consumed by individuals with gluten-related disorders. I define the Gluten Craze as the widespread public fascination with the gluten-free diet as it is advertised in the media and in technology-based sources of information. The purpose of this research is to examine the origins, persistence, and impacts of the Gluten Craze in the U.S. and to understand the impacts of the craze in Boulder, Colorado through the tested safety of gluten-free restaurant foods.

The research included in this ...