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2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1398

Full-Text Articles in United States History

Appropriating Balance: Reversing The Imbalance For Indigenous Women Through Spirituality, Candra Krisch Dec 2015

Appropriating Balance: Reversing The Imbalance For Indigenous Women Through Spirituality, Candra Krisch

The Journal of Traditions & Beliefs

No abstract provided.


The Integration Of African Americans In The Civilian Conservation Corps In Massachusetts, Caitlin E. Pinkham Dec 2015

The Integration Of African Americans In The Civilian Conservation Corps In Massachusetts, Caitlin E. Pinkham

Graduate Masters Theses

The Civilian Conservation Corps employed young white and black men between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five. In 1935 Robert Fechner, the Director of the Civilian Conservation Corps, ordered the segregation of Corps camps across the country. Massachusetts’ camps remained integrated due in large part to low funding and a small African American population. The experiences of Massachusetts’ African American population present a new general narrative of the Civilian Conservation Corps. The Federal government imposed a three percent African American quota, ensuring that African Americans participated in Massachusetts as the Civilian Conservation Corps expanded. This quota represents a Federal acknowledgement ...


Flattening Hierarchies In A Round World: A Multilogue Response To Goldenberg’S “Youth Historians In Harlem (Part 2 Of 2)”, Michael Bowman Dec 2015

Flattening Hierarchies In A Round World: A Multilogue Response To Goldenberg’S “Youth Historians In Harlem (Part 2 Of 2)”, Michael Bowman

Education's Histories

Michael Bowman continues the discussion of Barry Goldenberg's work, asking what history does and who benefits from flattening hierarchies.


Crack Open A Bottle Of General Lee – A Second Course, Ryan M. Nadeau Dec 2015

Crack Open A Bottle Of General Lee – A Second Course, Ryan M. Nadeau

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Welcome back, fellow historical diners. Last time, you joined me in comparing a fine selection of Union generals to food. Today, we’ll be examining some of their southern counterparts. Let’s dig in!

Robert E. Lee – Aged, Fine Red Wine with a Side of Steak

Consider the following: red wines are often consumed with red meats such as steak. Steak can be enjoyed in any number of ways, from a backyard barbecue to the finest of dining establishments. In this sense, steak is the former Confederacy, ranging as it did from the most rural farmers to the opulent planters ...


Questions Of Citizenship: Oregonian Reactions To Japanese Immigrants' Quest For Naturalization Rights In The United States, 1894-1952, Alison Leigh Jessie Dec 2015

Questions Of Citizenship: Oregonian Reactions To Japanese Immigrants' Quest For Naturalization Rights In The United States, 1894-1952, Alison Leigh Jessie

Dissertations and Theses

This study examines the discrimination against Japanese immigrants in U.S. naturalization law up to 1952 and how it was covered in the Oregonian newspaper, one of the oldest and most widely read newspapers on the West Coast. The anti-Japanese movement was much larger in California, but this paper focuses on the attitudes in Oregon, which at times echoed sentiments in California but at other times conveyed support for Japanese naturalization. Naturalization laws at the turn of the century were vague, leaving the task of defining who was white, and thus eligible for naturalization, to the courts. Japanese applicants were ...


This Month In Civil War History: December 2015, Jeffrey L. Lauck Dec 2015

This Month In Civil War History: December 2015, Jeffrey L. Lauck

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Transcript:

Welcome to the Civil War Institute’s “This Month in Civil War History” for December.

In December of 1860 delegates met in Columbus, South Carolina and voted in favor of seceding from the Union. In their justification for leaving the Union, the delegates emphasized their fear that the newly elected President Abraham Lincoln would outlaw slavery. [excerpt]


Dead Broets Society: Masculinity In Walt Whitman’S War Verse, Anika N. Jensen Dec 2015

Dead Broets Society: Masculinity In Walt Whitman’S War Verse, Anika N. Jensen

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

There are two images of masculinity in Walt Whitman’s Drum-Taps, his collection of wartime poetry: one, the strong, hardened soldier, the image of manliness, and the other the boyish, rosy-cheeked recruit. Whitman’s sexuality, while not the Victorian social norm, was no secret, and he wrote openly of the hospitalized soldiers during his time as a Union nurse with admiration, affection, and love. Some critics, such as Thomas Wentworth Higginson, castigated Whitman’s queer themes to be overwhelming, distractingly sensual, and "unmanly," while others, like William Sloane Kennedy, dissented, arguing instead that the overt sexuality present in Whitman’s ...


The Monroe Doctrine As The Transparent Veil Of Isolation During The League Of Nations Debate, Luther D. Roadcap Dec 2015

The Monroe Doctrine As The Transparent Veil Of Isolation During The League Of Nations Debate, Luther D. Roadcap

Masters Theses

In June 1919, President Woodrow Wilson returned from Paris after several months of negotiating the Treaty of Versailles to end World War One. At the peace conference, Wilson achieved his goal of establishing the League of Nations. However, he had one more hurdle: convince the Republican Senate to ratify the treaty. This was no easy task as Republicans claimed the treaty nullified the Monroe Doctrine, even though the century-old foreign policy was recognized, by name, in the League of Nations Covenant. Why, then, did opponents of the League of Nations in the United States claim isolation and refuse to ratify ...


Drive Toward Freedom: African American: The Story Of Black Automobility In The Fight For Civil Rights, Xavier Macy Dec 2015

Drive Toward Freedom: African American: The Story Of Black Automobility In The Fight For Civil Rights, Xavier Macy

Masters Theses

Looking across the 20th century, this thesis seeks to understand the relationship African Americans developed between automobility and the fight for civil rights, filling a gap left in the historiography of both the automobile and the Civil Rights Movement. Historians of the automobile have almost exclusively focused their lens on white suburbia and the “autotopias” that Americans created, while historians of the Civil Rights Movement ignored the automobile entirely. This thesis hopes to begin to fill that void by explaining how African Americans exploited the technological system of the automobile to create forms of transportation accessible to African American ...


"Ruin And Desolation Scarcely Paralleled" : An Examination Of The Virginia Flood Of 1870’S Aftermath And Relief Efforts, Paula F.G. Weddle Dec 2015

"Ruin And Desolation Scarcely Paralleled" : An Examination Of The Virginia Flood Of 1870’S Aftermath And Relief Efforts, Paula F.G. Weddle

Masters Theses

During the autumn of 1870, a massive flood engulfed parts of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland. The turbid waters claimed over 100 lives and left communities and residents along the James, Shenandoah, Potomac, Rappahannock, Anna, Rivanna, Maury, Middle, South, Staunton, Rockfish, Tye, and Pamunkey Rivers in varying states of distress. At least one quarter of Virginia was affected by the storm and subsequent flooding, making it significant to multiple areas of the State through the loss of life, property, and infrastructure.

This thesis examines the flooding event in detail through both a written thesis and website component. The written thesis ...


The Oatmeal Brigade: Quaker Life During The Civil War, Anika N. Jensen Dec 2015

The Oatmeal Brigade: Quaker Life During The Civil War, Anika N. Jensen

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Quakers in the Civil War seems like an inherently contradictory idea; the Society of Friends practices pacifism and nonviolence, and, for many, putting money or resources toward war efforts goes against the faith. But tensions were high in 1861, and deviations from Quakerism were made when Friends, both Northern and Southern, had to choose whether to prioritize the sanctity of union, support abolition, or remain neutral. Each of these decisions had its share of repercussions within the religious community, and the Quakers themselves found their mindsets changing as the tide of the war rolled on, whether they chose to fight ...


Venereal Disease And American Policy In A Foreign War Zone: 39th Infantry Regiment In Sidi-Bel-Abbes, Algeria. May Of 1943., Thomas J. Gibbs Dec 2015

Venereal Disease And American Policy In A Foreign War Zone: 39th Infantry Regiment In Sidi-Bel-Abbes, Algeria. May Of 1943., Thomas J. Gibbs

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Second Lieutenant Charles Scheffel, B Company Platoon Leader, 39th Infantry Regiment, 9th Infantry Division modified existing methods of venereal disease control in Algeria, North Africa during Operation Torch after being ordered to reduce the venereal disease rate by his regimental commander, Colonel William Ritter. Tasked with defeating the Germans first, Scheffel learned other enemies lurked as well, and he instituted an illegal policy to solve the problem as fast and as effectively as possible. Official United States policy on the eve of World War Two prohibited the establishment and operation of a brothel. Scheffel operated this brothel as ...


A Crusade Against The “Cowboy”?: Austrian Anti-Americanism During The Presidency Of George W. Bush, 2001-2009, Brandon J. Keene Dec 2015

A Crusade Against The “Cowboy”?: Austrian Anti-Americanism During The Presidency Of George W. Bush, 2001-2009, Brandon J. Keene

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This essay examines anti-Americanism in Austria throughout George W. Bush’s presidency, and Austrians’ response to Bush’s neoconservative team of advisers and his military actions in Iraq following the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York and Washington. For the first time in a century, a disposition of general hostility towards the United States came from both the Austrian Left and Right during the Bush years. Austrians’ latent notions of negativity towards the United States grew inflamed over Bush’s alienation of Western Europe and his determination to go to war against the Saddam regime in Iraq. Austrian anti-Americanism ...


"It's No Life Being A Steer": Violence, Masculinity, And Gender Performance In The Sun Also Rises And In Our Time, Brock J. Thibodaux Dec 2015

"It's No Life Being A Steer": Violence, Masculinity, And Gender Performance In The Sun Also Rises And In Our Time, Brock J. Thibodaux

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Nearly all discussions of Hemingway and his work touch on the theme of masculinity, a recurrent theme in all of his works. Examinations of Hemingway and his relationship to masculinity have almost unanimously treated the author as a misogynist and a champion of violent masculinity. However, since the posthumous publication of The Garden of Eden in 1986, there has been much discussion of Hemingway’s uncharacteristic use of androgynous characters in the novel. Critics have taken this as a clue that Hemingway possessed a complex attitude regarding gender fluidity, but have failed to examine the constructions of gender and identity ...


“It Is The Promiscuous Woman Who Is Giving Us The Most Trouble”: The Internal War On Prostitution In New Orleans During World War Ii, Allison Baffoni Dec 2015

“It Is The Promiscuous Woman Who Is Giving Us The Most Trouble”: The Internal War On Prostitution In New Orleans During World War Ii, Allison Baffoni

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

When the United States entered World War II, federal officials began planning a war on prostitution and decided to make New Orleans the poster city for reform. New Orleans held a reputation for being a destination for prostitution tin the U.S. A federally appointed group aptly named the Social Protection Division began a repression campaign in militarily dense areas throughout the United States. The goal was to protect soldiers by eliminating the threat from venereal disease carrying prostitutes. The Social Protection Division created a campaign with the New Orleans Health Department and the New Orleans Police Department to repression ...


From Containing Communism To Fighting Floods: The Louisiana Army National Guard In The Cold War, 1946-1965, Rhett G. Breerwood Dec 2015

From Containing Communism To Fighting Floods: The Louisiana Army National Guard In The Cold War, 1946-1965, Rhett G. Breerwood

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

In the decades following World War II, the Louisiana National Guard evolved due to world, national, and local events. In response to the United States’ Cold War policies to contain Communism, the Guard expanded, professionalized, and was occasionally called to federal service. In conjunction with Cold War fears of external attack and internal subversion, a civil defense mission brought coordination between federal, state and local response agencies. Despite the lack of large scale war service or an attack on the U.S. homeland , the skills and responsibilities acquired by the Louisiana Guard during this time period resulted in an enhanced ...


'Very Quiet Day, Vague Tension': Digitizing And Sharing The Stories Of School Desegregation And Busing In Boston, Andrew Elder Dec 2015

'Very Quiet Day, Vague Tension': Digitizing And Sharing The Stories Of School Desegregation And Busing In Boston, Andrew Elder

Andrew Elder

In the summer of 2015, University Archives & Special Collections at UMass Boston began to work with a number of area archival institutions to create “a digital library of material that can be widely disseminated for both curricular and scholarly use” related to the history of school desegregation and busing in Boston. Too often, the history of Boston school desegregation seems weighted down by some of the most visible characters involved – politicians, policy-makers, court officials – so we decided early on to focus largely on identifying materials that tell a more complex, personal history of school desegregation and busing in Boston. After ...


Larsh, Abraham (Sc 2965), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Dec 2015

Larsh, Abraham (Sc 2965), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 2965. Letter, 3 August 1828, from Abraham Larsh, Bowling Green, Kentucky, to his cousin John Gardner, York County, Pennsylvania. He discusses the emboldening of opposition in Tennessee to Andrew Jackson, President John Quincy Adams’s rival, despite a recent assault by Jackson supporters. He also discusses the likelihood of Jackson’s alliance with former Vice President Aaron Burr in a plot to separate western states from the Union. While pleased with local crop yields and an expressed supporter of internal improvements, Larsh looks “with anxiety” to the completion of the railroad at the ...


Case Study Of The Eastern State Hospital As Evidence Of English Influence On American Ideas About Mental Illness, Grace Devries Dec 2015

Case Study Of The Eastern State Hospital As Evidence Of English Influence On American Ideas About Mental Illness, Grace Devries

James W. Jackson Award for Excellence in Library Research in the Social Sciences

Grace DeVries, Class of 2016 at the University of Richmond, received the James W. Jackson Award for Excellence in the Social Sciences. Her research paper is entitled, Case Study of the Eastern State Hospital as Evidence of English Influence on American Ideas about Mental Illness.


“$300 Or Your Life”: Recruitment And The Draft In The Civil War, Melissa Traub Dec 2015

“$300 Or Your Life”: Recruitment And The Draft In The Civil War, Melissa Traub

Honors Scholar Theses

One of the most challenging tasks of a nation at war is turning its average citizens into soldiers. While volunteers flooded to the war front in thousands in the beginning of the Civil War, recruitment slowly dwindled as the war dragged on. Eventually, the North was forced to pass the Enrollment Act of 1863, the first national draft in United States history. Every able bodied man between the ages of twenty and forty-five was subject to the draft. For an already unstable nation, the national draft did little to help the divides that split the country. The policies of substitution ...


Duff And Green Families (Sc 2964), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Dec 2015

Duff And Green Families (Sc 2964), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 2964. Letters of the Duff and Green families of Warren and Barren counties in Kentucky. An 1863 letter to Fielding Duff warns of the illness of his son John. Mary Jane Green receives letters, 1889-1896, from her granddaughter and daughter; the latter complains about her health and her responsibilities for a Bowling Green toll gate. Includes genealogical data on both families.


Freedom Rides (Sc 2966), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Dec 2015

Freedom Rides (Sc 2966), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 2966. “Official Application for Freedom Riders,” a parody application for civil rights activists intending to protest segregation in Southern interstate bus terminals, to be submitted to George Rockwell, Hell Raiders, Inc., Arlington, Virginia, asks for data such as “Address” (“Place where body can be sent”); “Do you bleed easily?”; “State how you prefer to defend yourself” (Fisticuffs, Hand Grenade, etc.); and “State your wish for the following” (Rope neck size, bullet caliber, coffin color, etc.)


Harrod, James, 1746?-1792? - Relating To (Sc 2962), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Dec 2015

Harrod, James, 1746?-1792? - Relating To (Sc 2962), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 2962. Inventory of the personal estate and slaves of the late James Harrod, Mercer County, Kentucky, as appraised on 5 February 1794; and accounts of the estate, 19 May 1798, showing payments and settlements by Anna Harrod, executrix.


Bank Of The United States (Sc 2963), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Dec 2015

Bank Of The United States (Sc 2963), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 2963. Deed, 11 May 1827, from the Bank of the United States to William Ray, Louisville, Kentucky, of a tract of land in Louisville. Signed by Nicholas Biddle, President of the Bank of the United States, in the presence of Joseph Watson, Mayor of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


Influenza And Inequality: One Town’S Tragic Response To The Great Epidemic Of 1918, Patricia Fanning Dec 2015

Influenza And Inequality: One Town’S Tragic Response To The Great Epidemic Of 1918, Patricia Fanning

Patricia J. Fanning

The influenza epidemic of 1918 was one of the worst medical disasters in human history, taking close to thirty million lives worldwide in less than a year, including more than 500,000 in the United States. What made this pandemic even more frightening was the fact that it occurred when death rates for most common infectious diseases were diminishing. Still, an epidemic is not merely a medical crisis; it has sociological, psychological, and political dimensions as well. The influenza epidemic of 1918 was one of the worst medical disasters in human history, taking close to thirty million lives worldwide in ...


Even Judging Woodrow Wilson By The Standards Of His Own Time, He Was Deplorably Racist, Nancy Unger Dec 2015

Even Judging Woodrow Wilson By The Standards Of His Own Time, He Was Deplorably Racist, Nancy Unger

History

The news that Princeton acquiesced to student demands that the university confront the racism of Woodrow Wilson set off a series of responses. Some protest that it is unfair to judge the 28th president by present day standards. These pundits, almost all white, proclaim that Wilson must be understood within the context of his own time. The inference of such an assertion is that in times of pervasive racism it is reasonable for a leader to perpetuate it. Setting aside the assumption that morals are relative rather than absolute, let’s examine Wilson’s actions within his times.


Plague And Perception: The English Interpretation Of Plague In Massachusetts, Sarah Peck Dec 2015

Plague And Perception: The English Interpretation Of Plague In Massachusetts, Sarah Peck

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Evidence suggests that the early economic and political success of the English in Plimoth Colony is due to the introduction of European diseases into coastal Massachusetts during the late sixteenth century. Building upon Alfred Crosby’s 1972 publication The Columbian Exchange, modern environmental historians and cultural historians recognize the important interconnection between parasitism, disease, and historic trends. It is now fairly well recognized in both the science and humanities disciplines that any study of the political and economic development of European settlements and colonization of the Americas correlates with studies and research about the introduction of foreign diseases, as well ...


How The Other Half Lives, Margaret Lowe Dec 2015

How The Other Half Lives, Margaret Lowe

Margaret Lowe

No abstract provided.


Bath County, Kentucky - Letters (Sc 2958), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Dec 2015

Bath County, Kentucky - Letters (Sc 2958), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 2958. Correspondence of two related Bath County, Kentucky families. A lonesome Sarah L. Boyd writes to her mother, Elizabeth A. “Lizzie” Rogers, from boarding school in Fleming County, Kentucky in 1865, where she discusses having her photograph taken, “hateful” schoolmates, and provisions from her family of clothing, whiskey and bitters. In the 1880s, Ida Lee Bell receives letters from cousins, friends and suitors with family news and local gossip. One of her letters voices disapproval of young men who drink when calling on ladies. The letters mention many family members by first name.


The Saint Patrick’S Battalion: Loyalty, Nativism, And Identity In The Nineteenth Century And Today, Kevin P. Lavery Dec 2015

The Saint Patrick’S Battalion: Loyalty, Nativism, And Identity In The Nineteenth Century And Today, Kevin P. Lavery

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Two decades before the Irish Brigade covered itself with glory, an earlier unit of Irish immigrants had won renown for its service during the Mexican American War. Calling themselves the Saint Patrick’s Battalion, these men marched under a flag of brilliant emerald decorated with Irish motifs: a harp, a shamrock, and the image of Saint Patrick [excerpt].