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Full-Text Articles in United States History

The Diffusion Of British Steam Technology And The First Creation Of America's Urban Proletariat, Mark Stephen Stanzione Nov 2000

The Diffusion Of British Steam Technology And The First Creation Of America's Urban Proletariat, Mark Stephen Stanzione

Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (MALS) Student Scholarship

The intent of this thesis project is to thoroughly analyze the effects of the transatlantic transfer of British steam engine machinery to the United States during the Antebellum and Gilded Ages. The American assimilation of British steam engine technology sustained improvements in industrial production, commerce, and transportation. In the process, transforming the work habits of native-born Americans and recent European immigrants by creating the need for a more mobile labor force while leading to the first urban proletariat in American society.

The transatlantic transfer of textile machine technology disseminated to America from England, during the Republic, had initiated the movement ...


The Bryan Hardy Site (41sm55), Smith County, Texas, Mark Walters, Patti Haskins Jan 2000

The Bryan Hardy Site (41sm55), Smith County, Texas, Mark Walters, Patti Haskins

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The authors put on record archeological data obtained by Mr. Walters' late uncle Sam Whiteside from the Bryan Hardy site (41SM55) in Smith County, Texas. Mr. Whiteside was an active avocational archeologist in East Texas during the late 1950s and early 1960s, and he recorded numerous prehistoric sites on Prairie Creek and Ray Creek in Smith County, and the Jamestown (41SM54) and Boxed Springs (41UR30) mound sites on the Sabine River. An abrupt illness in mid-life prevented him from publishing his findings, and we hope that the publication of his investigations at the Bryan Hardy site will allow his work ...


Two New Cultures In Delaware County, Oklahoma, David A. Baerreis Jan 2000

Two New Cultures In Delaware County, Oklahoma, David A. Baerreis

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Mode site is an extensive village site on the banks of Grand River. Only a small portion of the site has been explored as yet, so the scope of our knowledge of this aspect will soon be considerably expanded.

Cultural remains were found scattered through about three feet of soil and in three cache pits which extended below this into yellowish, sandy subsoil. The pottery found in the various levels appeared to be quite homogeneous.


The Norman Site: Descriptions, Lois E. Albert Jan 2000

The Norman Site: Descriptions, Lois E. Albert

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Norman site (34WG2) lay on a terrace on the west side of the Neosho (Grand) River in Wagoner County, Oklahoma. Throughout much of its course within Oklahoma, this river flows along the western boundary of the Ozark Uplift. East of the river, the limestones, shales, and sandstones deposited during the Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian geological periods form the Boston Mountains and the Springfield Plateau. Several of these formations contain knappable cherts, often of good quality. West of the river, the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian deposits thin and dip under the surface to form the Prairie Plains Province, characterized by low ...


The Caddoan Ceramics From The Gray's Pasture Site (41hs524), Harrison County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Mike Turner Jan 2000

The Caddoan Ceramics From The Gray's Pasture Site (41hs524), Harrison County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson, Mike Turner

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This paper discusses the Caddoan ceramics recovered during the 1992 Northeast Texas Archeological Society Field School at the Gray's Pasture site (41HS524) on Clark's Creek, a few miles south of Hallsville, Texas and about 2 miles from the Sabine River floodplain. During the course of the excavations, an extensive Caddoan settlement was documented on a series of knolls on a broad terrace landform overlooking the Clark's Creek floodplain, and each of those areas contains Caddoan ceramics. Most notably, a dense concentration of Caddoan ceramics, as well as two burials with whole ceramic vessels, was encountered in the ...


A Bluff-Shelter Site In Pontotoc County, Oklahoma, H. R. Antle Jan 2000

A Bluff-Shelter Site In Pontotoc County, Oklahoma, H. R. Antle

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

In the wildly rugged hills near Canyon Springs, in southeastern Pontotoc County, Oklahoma, a unique sandstone formation has produced evidence of once sheltering a prehistoric people.

Technically, the sandstone is of the Wilcox series, and is faulted to a position above the McLish limestone beneath which it normally lies. The fault line runs from the north southward a distance of 25 yards, then runs at right angles to the east for 40 yards. The sandstone ranges from 6 feet in height on the northern extremity to 35 feet along the southeastern portion. Multiple fractures, generally parallel to the fault lines ...


Field Report On The Excavation Of Indian Villages In The Vicinity Of The Spiro Mounds, Leflore County, Oklahoma, Kenneth G. Orr Jan 2000

Field Report On The Excavation Of Indian Villages In The Vicinity Of The Spiro Mounds, Leflore County, Oklahoma, Kenneth G. Orr

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

A wealth of strikingly unusual and beautiful objects of Indian manufacture were excavated from the burials of the Spiro Mound, Leflore (sic.) County, Oklahoma during 1936-37. Engraved Gulf Coast conch shells, shell beads of a dozen types, river pearls, effigy pipes, long delicately chipped flint blades, feather and textile cloths and precisely incised pottery vessels were excavated in quantities. So unusual was this material that, at the time, the archaeological science was unable to answer a host of questions which immediately arose concerning the identity of the tribe who had made the artifacts and who were buried with them. How ...


Caddo Ceramics From 41cv41a At Fort Hood, Coryell County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula Jan 2000

Caddo Ceramics From 41cv41a At Fort Hood, Coryell County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Prehistoric Caddo ceramics made in Northeast Texas after ca. A.D. 900 were widely traded in Texas, and other parts of the Caddoan area, being found in some quantity on North central, East central, central, and inland Southeast Texas archeological sites. They were also traded with prehistoric peoples in the Midwest, the southeastern U.S., and the southern Plains. However, the ceramic evidence for prehistoric Caddoan trade and exchange with other Native Americans has not been systematically compiled and studied for the prehistoric and historic periods. Consequently, it is impossible to confidently discuss the scope, timing, or direction of trade ...


Notes On The Mollusca From Site 41dt59, Cooper Lake, Delta County, Texas, Jesse Todd Jan 2000

Notes On The Mollusca From Site 41dt59, Cooper Lake, Delta County, Texas, Jesse Todd

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

This paper focuses on the information about the mollusca from site 41DT59. The author takes the information from Dr. Fullington, the noted malacologist, and illustrates how the archeologist can take the information and apply it to site analysis. This information derived from the analysis mainly supports what the authors have concluded about site 41DT59, but does discuss material not covered in the original text. The analysis is divided into two sections. The information derived from the gastropods is discussed first, and the information derived from the mussels second.


Archeological Investigations At The Harrison Bayou Site (41hs240) In Harrison County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson Jan 2000

Archeological Investigations At The Harrison Bayou Site (41hs240) In Harrison County, Texas, Timothy K. Perttula, Bo Nelson

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

We recently completed archeological investigations on approximately 1400 acres of land on Harrison Bayou, Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, Harrison County, Texas, leased by the Caddo Lake Institute, Inc. (Perttula and Nelson 1999). The Caddo Lake Institute, Inc. leased this portion of the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant (LHAAP) for 30 years under a September 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) with the Department of the Army. These archeological investigations were completed under Archeological Resources Protection Permit DACA63-4- 97-0580 issued September 1, 1997, by the Real Estate Division of the Department of the Army, Fort Worth District, Corps of Engineers to the Caddo ...


Current Status Of The Norman Site, 34wg2, Louis E. Vogele Jr. Jan 2000

Current Status Of The Norman Site, 34wg2, Louis E. Vogele Jr.

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

As defined by Finkelstein in his description of excavations at the site, the Norman site currently is completely located within the waters of Fort Gibson Reservoir, a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) lake on the Grand (Neosho) River in northeastern Oklahoma. Due to a combination of archeological excavations at the site during the 1930s and 1940s, pothunting, large-scale earthmoving activities associated with the construction of a nearby highway bridge, and approximately 50 years of wave action and seasonal inundation by Fort Gibson Reservoir, portions of Mounds I-1 and I-2 are all that remain of the Norman site.


Chronometrics At The Norman Site, J. Daniel Rogers, Lois E. Albert, Frank Winchell Jan 2000

Chronometrics At The Norman Site, J. Daniel Rogers, Lois E. Albert, Frank Winchell

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

Unfortunately, some of the most significant sites in eastern Oklahoma have been those with the least published information. This is a well-known consequence of the pre-World War II social aid-sponsored excavations that produced large fieldwork projects, but very little in the way of laboratory work or publication. The Norman site, in Wagoner County of eastern Oklahoma, is a major mound center that falls into this category. This report presents a specific orientation to the further analysis of the site, documentation of the available radiocarbon dates, and a few interpretive comments on regional chronology. Although the authors have an interest in ...


The Frequency Of Fire In East Texas Forests, David H. Jurney, John Ippolito, Velicia Bergstrom Jan 2000

The Frequency Of Fire In East Texas Forests, David H. Jurney, John Ippolito, Velicia Bergstrom

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The debate over the use of fire by Native Americans has been a lively one for many years. Did they or did they not set fires? If they did, how frequently and for what purpose? If not, did they take advantage of naturally occurring fires for the same purposes? If so, how frequently and to what intensity did those natural fires occur? These seem like relatively simple questions that should elicit focused, directed research that would, in tum, produce straightforward answers. In some parts of North America, this has indeed been the case. Ethnographic documentation, corroborated by archaeological research, has ...


The Norman Site Excavations Near Wagoner, Oklahoma, J. Joe Finkelstein Jan 2000

The Norman Site Excavations Near Wagoner, Oklahoma, J. Joe Finkelstein

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Norman site is seven miles southeast of Wagoner, Wagoner County, Okla., on State Highway 51. It is on the upper terraces on the west side of Grand River just north of the approach to the new bridge. Principal mound is a double unit; the larger mound, clearly visible from the highway, is conical, 27' high and 90' in diameter; the low mound, on the north, is circular, 7' high and 100' in diameter; a low, broad saddle 12' long connects the 2 mounds. An extensive habitation area, Unit IV, extends to the north and northeast of Mound I-2. Unit ...


An Early Caddoan Period Cremation From The Boxed Springs Mound Site (41ur30) In Upshur County, Texas, And A Report On Previous Archaeological Investigations, Timothy K. Perttula, Diane E. Wilson, Mark Walters Jan 2000

An Early Caddoan Period Cremation From The Boxed Springs Mound Site (41ur30) In Upshur County, Texas, And A Report On Previous Archaeological Investigations, Timothy K. Perttula, Diane E. Wilson, Mark Walters

Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State

The Boxed Springs Mound site (41UR30) is one of three major Early Caddoan (ca. A.D. 900- t 200) multiple mound centers in the Sabine River basin of northeastern Texas, the others including the Jamestown (41SM54) and Hudnall-Pirtle (41RK4) sites upstream and downstream, respectively, from Boxed Springs. It is situated on a large and prominent upland ridge projection that extends from a bluff on the Sabine River about 500 m north to where the landform merges with a broader stretch of uplands and Bienville alluvium. Sediments on the site are Trep loamy fine sand, a relatively fertile soil. The site ...