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Carroll College

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Full-Text Articles in United States History

Home Rule Or Rome Rule? The Fight In Congress To Prohibit Funding For Indian Sectarian Schools And Its Effects On Montana, Colin Gunstream Apr 2015

Home Rule Or Rome Rule? The Fight In Congress To Prohibit Funding For Indian Sectarian Schools And Its Effects On Montana, Colin Gunstream

Political Science and International Relations Undergraduate Theses

In the mid 1800's, Catholic Missions settled in Montana and sought to evangelize Native Americans. During this time, Catholic schools were established and this became the predominant mode of education for Native Americans. The schools relied heavily on financing from the Federal government, and when the decision to cut funding from these schools between 1896-1900, all of the Mission schools in Montana either closed or lost their significance. This thesis analyzes the different modes of thought in Congress and in interest groups from 1890-1900. This thesis argues that the National League for the Protection of American Institutions, a small ...


Nazi Prisoners Of War: The Civilian And Prisoner Experience In Agricultural America, Emily Dean Apr 2014

Nazi Prisoners Of War: The Civilian And Prisoner Experience In Agricultural America, Emily Dean

History Undergraduate Theses

Local histories help explain the daily experiences of the average citizen on a micro level, leading to a better understanding of the collective experience. Ensuring local histories are collected and properly analyzed is important in the understanding of national issues. Prisoner of war camps constructed by the United State military during World War II spotted the rural American landscape for the duration of the war. One such camp was named Tucker’s Crossing and located in Corvallis, Montana in the Bitterroot Valley. This German POW camp provided much needed labor for local sugar beet farms and helped revitalize the economy.


Female Body Modification Through Physical Manipulation: A Comparison Of Foot-Binding And Corsetry, Hannah Conroy Apr 2014

Female Body Modification Through Physical Manipulation: A Comparison Of Foot-Binding And Corsetry, Hannah Conroy

History Undergraduate Theses

Over the past fifty years, with the continuing contributions of many Gender History scholars, historians are now presented with an opportunity to explore an often overlooked area within the physical manipulation of women’s bodies. There are a variety of means by which the female form is shaped by the cultural and societal norms, including the pressures to look young and beautiful. However, few connections have been made between two well-known and well-researched areas: foot-binding and corsetry. The first was practiced by women for one-thousand years in China, ending in the early years of the Communist revolution. The second were ...


Exemplifying Myth: J.E.B. Stuart And The Confederate Aristocracy, Thomas Artaiz Apr 2012

Exemplifying Myth: J.E.B. Stuart And The Confederate Aristocracy, Thomas Artaiz

History Undergraduate Theses

This paper is divided up into three areas of study. Chapter one is dedicated to a cursory overview to antebellum Southern culture, highlighting major themes such as militarism, hospitality, and chivalry. These cultural tenets inform on Southern values and social expectations. This opening section provides a lens through which the reader may understand the cultural climate into which James Ewel Brown Stuart was born in 1833. The next two chapters are dedicated to a brief sketch of Stuart’s early life, and then an examination of the impact of these themes, with special emphasis on his actions in the Civil ...


The Reality Of Unreality: Alternate History Science Fiction Of The Cold War As A Barometer Of Historical And Philosophical Consciousness In American Popular Culture, Amy Dixon Apr 2012

The Reality Of Unreality: Alternate History Science Fiction Of The Cold War As A Barometer Of Historical And Philosophical Consciousness In American Popular Culture, Amy Dixon

History Undergraduate Theses

The study of science fiction is a recent phenomenon. While the fictional genre has permeated American popular culture since the early twentieth century, it was not until the postwar and Cold War eras that it experienced vitality as a subject of academic study. Sub-genres of science fiction, however, remain relatively untouched in critical analysis. While science fiction's value as a barometer of popular culture is widely recognized today, its subcategories can offer unique insight into facets of the field that comment, either peripherally or directly, upon American popular consciousness. Alternate history science fiction is particularly valuable as a subgenre ...


The Initial Origins And Development Of The Sugar-Beet Industry In Montana, Sorn Jessen Apr 2011

The Initial Origins And Development Of The Sugar-Beet Industry In Montana, Sorn Jessen

History Undergraduate Theses

The mythic West is often conceived of as the home of the rugged individualist making his way in a land of possibility, wide with Indians, elk, and elbow-room. However, a careful study of western history reveals that most often the West, especially in the realm of public policy, was not the home of rugged individualists, but of a marriage between public interest and private capital that promoted the West as a “land of opportunity,” because doing do was absolutely vital to key economic interests. The story of the development of the sugar industry in eastern Montana reflects this understanding of ...


From Frontier Tent-Town To Crucial Trading Center: The Economic Growth Of Walla Walla, Washington, From 1858 To 1900, Elizabeth Zimmerman Apr 2011

From Frontier Tent-Town To Crucial Trading Center: The Economic Growth Of Walla Walla, Washington, From 1858 To 1900, Elizabeth Zimmerman

History Undergraduate Theses

This thesis seeks to contribute an analysis of the historical events that led to economic growth and development of Walla Walla, Washington, from the early 1800s to 1900. Various factors helped Walla Walla become established as an influential city in the Pacific Northwest. In this thesis, three major events that guided Walla Walla were studied. The first of these events came from the military influence of Fort Walla Walla, which helped set the foundations for the future city. The second event was the mining rushes through Washington, Idaho, and western Montana. Walla Walla stood as a key trading center for ...


Chinese Immigrant Spiritual Practices In Montana, 1860s-1930s, Briana Osbon Apr 2011

Chinese Immigrant Spiritual Practices In Montana, 1860s-1930s, Briana Osbon

History Undergraduate Theses

Chinese immigrants began to arrive in the United States midway through the nineteenth century. Gradually, as mining opportunities began to open, the Chinese immigrants began to move eastward into the U.S. interior to places such as Montana. The purpose of this Thesis is to examine how Chinese immigrants maintained traditional Chinese spiritual practices and how those practices changed over time. This study relies primarily relied on period newspaper accounts, critically analyzed to interpret how the Chinese immigrants maintained their traditions in Montana. The method employed to find the necessary primary sources involved a scouring of secondary sources to find ...


He Came To Consult With The People: Montana And Woodrow Wilson's 1919 Treaty Of Versailles Ratification Tour, Ashley Buswell Apr 2010

He Came To Consult With The People: Montana And Woodrow Wilson's 1919 Treaty Of Versailles Ratification Tour, Ashley Buswell

Education Undergraduate Theses

At the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, 1918, the fighting that had raged across Europe, destroying millions of lives and devastating a continent, ceased with the signing of an armistice. Life continued for the troops in their trenches and transports, the people on the home front in their workplaces and parlors, and the statesmen in their offices and meeting places, but the world had changed instantly around them. The physical fighting was over, but the diplomats and politicians were mobilizing. They were deployed to the peace conference, where fighting was carried out with words and ...


The Rise Of Sportsmanship: The Legal Incorporation Of The Hunting Ethic Into Montana Hunting Regulations Between 1889 And 1941, Leonard Thurmond Apr 2009

The Rise Of Sportsmanship: The Legal Incorporation Of The Hunting Ethic Into Montana Hunting Regulations Between 1889 And 1941, Leonard Thurmond

History Undergraduate Theses

This thesis seeks to explore the history of hunting within the state of Montana. This thesis will recount the massive destruction of game that occurred within the nation during the 19th century and the rise of a sportsman’s ethic that sought to counteract such devastation. The thesis further examines how a sportsman’s ethic emphasizing self- restraint and fair chase has been incorporated into Montana’s Legal Code and how that process has demonstrated a correlation with the broader reforms of the Progressive Movement of the early twentieth century. I chose to use Montana as a case study for ...


Adoration Among Warring Nations: A Look At War Brides From World War Two, Vietnam, And Iraq, Katelin Woodham Apr 2009

Adoration Among Warring Nations: A Look At War Brides From World War Two, Vietnam, And Iraq, Katelin Woodham

Political Science and International Relations Undergraduate Theses

Wars succeed or fail just like relationships. Measuring the affect of the U.S. military in foreign lands can be done with many different tools. The uncommon mechanism for this particular research is war brides. Why citizens from other countries choose to engage in relationships with American military personnel and marry them provides a unique insight about troops and the wars they fight in foreign countries. War bride information is not well documented, however, which leaves a gap in the full understanding of conflicts on and off the battlefield. This particular study uses a culmination of numerous interviews with actual ...


Women And The Helena Earthquakes Of 1935, Trevor Belnap Apr 2008

Women And The Helena Earthquakes Of 1935, Trevor Belnap

History Undergraduate Theses

The 1935 earthquakes that struck Helena, Montana, pose a great case study to examine this theory. The series of quakes began in early October of 1935 and continued into the following spring. During this period, women were actively creating roles for themselves that were independent of those created by the community’s male population. Women, both in the home and in the workforce, were anything but “damsels in distress.” At places such as Saint Joseph’s Orphanage, the Catholic Sisters of Charity protected their young dependents during the months of quakes and saw to the reconstruction of the orphanage after ...


Line Change: How The Miracle Olympic Hockey Team Of 1980 Sparked The Renewal Of American Nationalism, Brian Dickson Apr 2008

Line Change: How The Miracle Olympic Hockey Team Of 1980 Sparked The Renewal Of American Nationalism, Brian Dickson

History Undergraduate Theses

Sporting events have often reflected the times in which they are played. At the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, African American Jesse Owens outran the team comprised of member of Adolf Hitler’s “master race,” dealing a blow to the Nazi leader’s policy stance. The 1950 World Cup of Soccer witnessed perennial powerhouse England fall to the United States 1-0 at the same time the United States was surpassing Great Britain as the dominant power in Western foreign policy. In 1966, at the pinnacle of the Civil Rights Movement, the Texas Western University basketball team met the University of Kentucky ...


In The Shadow Of Nuclear War: Montana's Reaction To The Cuban Missile Crisis, Lindsay Thompson Apr 2006

In The Shadow Of Nuclear War: Montana's Reaction To The Cuban Missile Crisis, Lindsay Thompson

History Undergraduate Theses

On a cool Great Falls, Montana, morning in October 1962, Barbara Stroup, wife of Air Force Tech Sergeant Joseph Stroup, left her house to attend a "coffee klatch" at her friend Exie Evan's house. Not thinking anything of it, she turned onto Gumwood Street between a military vehicle and what she thought was a moving van. Barb drove through the main gate into Malmstrom Air Force Base and guided her 1960 black-and-white Plymouth Fury to Cedar Street, where her friend Exie lived. She stopped in front of Exie's house, gathered her purse and coat, and reached for the ...


Built On No Other Man's Foundation: The 14 Year Journey Of Daniel Sylvester Tuttle, The First Episcopal Bishop Of Montana, 1867-1880, Jed Fox Apr 2006

Built On No Other Man's Foundation: The 14 Year Journey Of Daniel Sylvester Tuttle, The First Episcopal Bishop Of Montana, 1867-1880, Jed Fox

History Undergraduate Theses

Daniel Sylvester Tuttle’s head bounced, jolted by the peculiar rhythm ofthe stagecoach as it rolled over the Idaho prairie in July 1867. Nearly half way from Salt Lake City to Montana, the Right Reverend Daniel Tuttle, newly named Episcopal Bishop ofMontana, Idaho, and Utah, was growing accustomed to the rattle and clunk that came with riding long distances via stagecoach. Now, as his head flopped to one side in the light sleep ofprofound boredom, a gust of wind snatched his Morris hat and carried it into a passing bunch ofsagebrush. He awoke immediately. “Driver, hold up!” he shouted. The ...


Exploring The Beta Reaction Of September 11, 2001, Elizabeth Ronan Apr 2005

Exploring The Beta Reaction Of September 11, 2001, Elizabeth Ronan

Business, Accounting and Economics Undergraduate Theses

The purpose of this research paper is to examine select stock betas before and after September 11, 2001 in an attempt to identify a perceived change in market risk. To achieve this aforementioned purpose, definitions of historical betas, recent research using historical betas and finally research by the author will be analyzed. Thirty-five random stocks were selected from the January 28, 2005 issue of The Value Line Investment Survey and their beta data was then examined on an annual basis from September 1995 until September 2004. The historical beta data was then averaged and the standard deviation of each stock ...


From Havana To Helena: Castro, Communism, And Cuban Refugee Children In The Western Diocese Of Helena, Montana, 1961-1966, Clint Attebery Apr 2005

From Havana To Helena: Castro, Communism, And Cuban Refugee Children In The Western Diocese Of Helena, Montana, 1961-1966, Clint Attebery

History Undergraduate Theses

Less than one year after the Cuban revolution, clergy within the Catholic Diocese of Miami actively pursued a role in helping Cuban political refugees. Historically, Cubans and Americans enjoyed the freedom to travel between the United States and Cuba. For Americans, Cuba offered a convenient resort community, rampant with American investment and luxuries. Prior to Castro’s revolution, many Cubans had already immigrated to the United States and lived in southern Florida. Soon after political and social conditions deteriorated in Cuba, Cubans in the greater Miami area were quick to offer assistance to family members left in Cuba. This attitude ...


Searching For Work Of National Importance Civilian Public Service Smokejumpers In World War Ii, Annie Hanshew Apr 2003

Searching For Work Of National Importance Civilian Public Service Smokejumpers In World War Ii, Annie Hanshew

History Undergraduate Theses

In 1940 the United States government enacted the country’s first peacetime draft. While Americans generally supported the government as it prepared for entry into World War II, a few organizations remained deeply committed to pacifism. Dedicated to peace for centuries as part of their dedication to Christianity and the nonresistant message of Jesus Christ, the Historic Peace Churches (HPCs) were threatened by conscription. Having struggled historically to maintain their nonresistant stance in the face of governmental opposition, these peace sects—primarily the Society of Friends, the Mennonite Church, and the Church of the Brethren—worked together for the first ...


Images Of A Western Daughter An Analysis Of The Letters Of Elizabeth Chester Fisk 1867-1892, Marie Mullarkey Apr 2003

Images Of A Western Daughter An Analysis Of The Letters Of Elizabeth Chester Fisk 1867-1892, Marie Mullarkey

Communication Studies Undergraduate Theses

Elizabeth Chester Fisk of Vernon, Connecticut arrived in Helena as a new bride in 1867. Seeking to describe her new life to her mother, Elizabeth began a 26-year correspondence with her mother that lasted until the time of her mother’s death in 1893. In these letters to her mother Elizabeth expresses her opinions, values and beliefs and creates an image for her mother of her life on the frontier. Through the communication research method of content analysis, five themes emerged from the letters of Elizabeth Chester Fisk: (a) Portraying a Fashionable Woman, (b) Presenting an Educated, Religious, and Morally ...


"Montana" Oiye: The Journey Of A Japanese American From The Big Sky To The Battlefields Of Europe, Casey Pallister Apr 2003

"Montana" Oiye: The Journey Of A Japanese American From The Big Sky To The Battlefields Of Europe, Casey Pallister

History Undergraduate Theses

Being a pale-skinned, red-haired, Irish-English descendant, I am often questioned by people about my fascination with East Asian culture and history. I tend to respond to their inquiries as simply as possible. For me, the histories of countries such as Japan are intriguing because they are so unique from those of western civilization. Studying the stories ofplaces far removed from the culture I come from has helped me to understand and appreciate the differences between the United States and the rest ofthe world. The interest that I developed in East Asian history has grown, over time, into a captivation with ...


German-Americans In Helena, Montana, 1864-1919, Carly Delsigne Apr 2002

German-Americans In Helena, Montana, 1864-1919, Carly Delsigne

History Undergraduate Theses

American governments and industries advertised heavily in Germany to attract new immigrants. Conditions in Germany pushed emigrants out and the majority chose the United States as a place to settle. Germans were especially fascinated by the idea of America’s West. Many German immigrants followed their dreams of the West to Montana. They arrived with the Territory’s gold rush and kept coming until after the State’s homestead boom. German-Americans settled and stayed, becoming one of Montana’s largest non-English speaking ethnic groups. The United States' first ethnically German president was elected in the 1950s; Montana’s first ethnically ...


Beyond Oro Y Plata: The 1971-1972 Montana State Constitutional Convention And The Writing Of Montana's Environmentally Progressive Constitution, Cody Ferguson Apr 2001

Beyond Oro Y Plata: The 1971-1972 Montana State Constitutional Convention And The Writing Of Montana's Environmentally Progressive Constitution, Cody Ferguson

History Undergraduate Theses

Montana reviewed its 1889 Constitution in the late 1960s, and finding much of it obsolete, followed the national trend of that was taking place in the post-World War II period to rewrite the state Constitution. What Montanans produced in 1972, through the process of a constitutional convention, was an environmentally progressive document that would serve as a model for the rest of the nation. My work examines the 1971-1972 Montana Constitutional Convention—the delegates, issues, and debates—within the social, economic, and political context of Montana and the nation in the late 1960s and 1970s in order to explain how ...


The Emotional Unraveling Of Women In Selected American Western Narratives Fact And Fiction, Cathi Burgoyne Apr 2001

The Emotional Unraveling Of Women In Selected American Western Narratives Fact And Fiction, Cathi Burgoyne

Languages and Literature Undergraduate Theses

This paper is divided into three sections. The initial portion of this project looks to scholarly historians and literary critics for insight into western women’s stereotypes and those elements that contribute to women’s disillusionment, betrayal and ultimate crisis. I investigate those environmental factors integral to the western landscape: the climate and natural phenomena that add to the difficulties women run up against in this place. Finally I examine theorists’ and historians’ perspectives on creativity and the western woman as a means of coping with the strains of living in the West. The second section of the project offers ...


Montana's Reaction To The Fall Of France In 1940, Jennifer Grimm Apr 2000

Montana's Reaction To The Fall Of France In 1940, Jennifer Grimm

History Undergraduate Theses

This change in American society from isolationist to one that might intervene was caused by the fall of France. The realization that America was vulnerable to Hitler prompted many Montanans to turn away from isolationism. The fear that the war inspired helped lead to the passage of much of the legislation that would ultimately protect the United States and prepare it for war. This legislation included the Conscription Act, the Base-Destroyer Deal, and Lend-Lease. All of these actions affected every Montana citizen and changed the political thinking of the time. With the fall of France, many Montanans became aware that ...


Newell Dwight Hillis And His Fight For Democracy During World War I, Nancy Oliveira Apr 1999

Newell Dwight Hillis And His Fight For Democracy During World War I, Nancy Oliveira

History Undergraduate Theses

Few events in history are as emotional and thought provoking as war. World War 1,1914-1918, was no exception. The United States remained neutral for the first two and a half years of “The Great War,” as it was called. In the beginning, popular belief held that the war would end quickly; however, the four-year struggle proved to be a defensive war fought in trenches separated by “No Man’s Land.” With the introduction of submarine warfare, the battles at sea were no less destructive. Warring nations exhibited unprecedented nationalism. Battles were fought to preserve or install democracy in all ...


Tiger Tamer: The Development Of The M26 Pershing Tank In World War Ii, Mark Johnson Apr 1998

Tiger Tamer: The Development Of The M26 Pershing Tank In World War Ii, Mark Johnson

History Undergraduate Theses

Early in World War II, the Allies’ tank forces were drastically outmatched. American tanks were hastily designed, mass produced, and rushed to the European Theater to meet the German panzers. As the war progressed, the German panzers began to meet more formidable opponents. The Russian T-34 and American M4 Sherman proved to be superior to the early model panzers, causing a brief period of Allied tank superiority. Reacting to this turn of events, German engineers designed two new panzers: the Tiger and the Panther. These German monsters dominated their American counterparts, and an improved U.S. tank was needed. The ...


A Social History Of The World War Ii Era, 1943-1945, As Seen Through The Eyes Of U.S. Soldier William A. Reynolds, Jeffery Johnson Apr 1998

A Social History Of The World War Ii Era, 1943-1945, As Seen Through The Eyes Of U.S. Soldier William A. Reynolds, Jeffery Johnson

History Undergraduate Theses

World War II raged into its fourth year in 1944. In upstate New York, a common cab driver in Rochester received his draft notice from the U.S. Army. William Reynolds, the driver of a 1942 Plymouth taxi, enlisted on April 7 of 1944, thrusting this common American into the global conflict, and changing his life forever. Historians have often retraced the history of World War II on a global scale, examining the war through the perspectives of entire nations as they clashed. As the best oral histories have illustrated, the most personal stories of World War II can be ...


The Life And Times Of Ralph H. Olson Surviving The Great Depression In Montana's Flathead Valley, Megan Pepe Apr 1996

The Life And Times Of Ralph H. Olson Surviving The Great Depression In Montana's Flathead Valley, Megan Pepe

History Undergraduate Theses

Even though this work is not a full biography of Ralph Olson's life, I have written it about him and the kind of life he experienced working a small farm as a young man. His life experiences during the 1920s and 1930s, as related to me by his wife and his daughter, my great-grandmother and my grandmother, have been invaluable to me in two ways. Not only have they given me a starting point in my look at the Kalispell area in the thirties, but they have also given me a much clearer picture of who and what my ...


Camp Terry: A Case Study In Civilian Public Service, Mark Hathaway Apr 1996

Camp Terry: A Case Study In Civilian Public Service, Mark Hathaway

History Undergraduate Theses

Although the work at Camp Terry proved interesting, the initial sight of the camp failed to inspire. For those men who had read of CPS camps nestled among the tall pines in sight of lofty mountain peaks, the barren plains of eastern Montana at first generated keen disappointment. “One can view the broad expanse for miles and see only sage and a few scrubby trees: for a lawn we content ourselves with Russian thistles and weeds, both of which are plentiful.” wrote one camper.12 By spring, when the sagebrush reached full bloom and the prairie grass became lush and ...


Sidney, Montana, During The Great Depression: Converting Retreat Into Advance, Amy Mckinney Apr 1995

Sidney, Montana, During The Great Depression: Converting Retreat Into Advance, Amy Mckinney

History Undergraduate Theses

Certain periods of history have a lasting effect on society. The Great Depression of the 1930s proved no exception. The United States suffered a massive economic disaster during that time. Across the nation, Americans felt the crunch of the depression, unemployment skyrocketed and a sense of despair swept the country. Montana also suffered during the depression and greatly needed relief. Drought already had devastated the state during the 1920s, and the depression nation wide only added to the problem. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, elected because he appeared to the voters to be someone they could trust and respect, stepped into office ...