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Full-Text Articles in United States History

Feeding Victory: 4-H, Extension, And The World War Ii Food Effort, Katherine Sundgren Sep 2019

Feeding Victory: 4-H, Extension, And The World War Ii Food Effort, Katherine Sundgren

Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy

4-H and the Extension Service were instrumental in contributing to the nationwide increase in food production that sustained the United States and its armed forces during World War II. At the onset of the war, the Extension Service distributed essential information at the national, state, and local levels through universities and the 4-H program. 4-H drew upon the intellectual and cultural tradition that they had cultivated to motivate and organize the food effort and help the allies win the war. 4-H’s national influence and resources provided eager allies to war-oriented programs. The war had a lasting impact on 4-H ...


Were They Spat On? Understanding The Homecoming Experience Of Vietnam Veterans, Heather Vlieg Sep 2019

Were They Spat On? Understanding The Homecoming Experience Of Vietnam Veterans, Heather Vlieg

Grand Valley Journal of History

This project investigates the contentious question of how American Vietnam veterans were received by family, friends, and society in general upon their return home from the Vietnam War. The goal is to discover how accurately published literature has portrayed the veterans' individual experiences. This has been done by comparing a large number of Vietnam veteran oral history interviews gathered by, and archived with, the Grand Valley State University Veterans History Project to that which has been written on the subject. This comparison clearly reveals that although there is a fair amount of published material on this topic, the majority of ...


Fifty Years Ago, When Newport Remembered Rochambeau, John R. Wadleigh Sep 2019

Fifty Years Ago, When Newport Remembered Rochambeau, John R. Wadleigh

Newport History

Fifty years before the publishing of this article, the landing of the French army under General Rochambeau on American soil, as well as the end of the Revolutionary War were celebrated as part of our nation's Sesquicentennial. In 1930 Newport recalled the French landing with local festivities including a parade and speeches with fireworks on Washington Square in the evening of the 11th of July. In this article, Wadleigh goes in depth about the history and proceedings of this event.


The Story Of The Analysis Of Green End Fort, K. Walsh Sep 2019

The Story Of The Analysis Of Green End Fort, K. Walsh

Newport History

During the American Revolution, three groups of people built forts on Aquidneck Island: the colonials, the English and their Hessian allies, and the French under Rochambeau with the aid of the colonial militia. In the winter of 1976, a study was published in the Bulletin of the Newport Historical Society which went into a detailed analysis of map locations of the forts, based on recently available maps drawn by British and French forces that occupied the island. The result of this analysis indicated that the redoubt located on Vernon Avenue in Middletown was not an English fort, but one built ...


Book Review, John F. Millar Sep 2019

Book Review, John F. Millar

Newport History

John F. Millar reviews Biographical Directory of American Colonial and Revolutionary Governors 1607-1789 by John W. Raimo.


Wagon Tracks Volume 33, Issue 4 (August 2019), Santa Fe Trail Association Sep 2019

Wagon Tracks Volume 33, Issue 4 (August 2019), Santa Fe Trail Association

Wagon Tracks

2 On the Cover: Somewhere along the Arkansas

4 President: As I See It

5 Manager: Joanne's Jottings

6 Trail News

7 Symposium 2019

10 Education and the New Mexico Elite during Santa Fe Trail Days

16 A Map of DAR Markers across Kansas Located

20 Trip of Firsts

23 Hiram Young: Black Entrepreneur on the Santa Fe Trail

26 Books: Esteban: The African Slave Who Explored America; Las Vegas, NM: 1835-1935

28 Chapter Reports

29 Membership Form

32 Calendar


Politics On The Periphery: Oscar Ewing And A Special Relationship With Israel, Sarah Weaver Sep 2019

Politics On The Periphery: Oscar Ewing And A Special Relationship With Israel, Sarah Weaver

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

This essay explores the role of Oscar Ewing, an Indiana native and a graduate of Indiana University (IU), in the story of the U.S. relationship with Israel, forming even prior to Israeli statehood in 1948. The essay will show that Oscar Ewing strategically utilized his political influence and role as U.S. federal security administrator—not diplomat or member of the State Department—to impact U.S. policy toward Israel. Although Ewing is a relatively unknown name in the history of the Truman administration and Israel, his influence and contribution to the early development of the well-known special relationship ...


Dna Evidence Of A Croatian And Sephardic Jewish Settlement On The North Carolina Coast Dating From The Mid To Late 1500s, Elizabeth C. Hirschman, James A. Vance, Jesse D. Harris Sep 2019

Dna Evidence Of A Croatian And Sephardic Jewish Settlement On The North Carolina Coast Dating From The Mid To Late 1500s, Elizabeth C. Hirschman, James A. Vance, Jesse D. Harris

International Social Science Review

While the British origins of North American colonization currently are widely accepted, there is new evidence that other countries and non-Christians may have been earlier in establishing permanent settlements on the North Atlantic coast. Using the new research tool of human genomics, this paper provides DNA evidence that Croatians and Sephardic Jews were absorbed into the ancestral population of the Lumbee Native American tribe of North Carolina during the mid- to late-1500s. We further propose that these Sephardic Jews originated, in part, from a subgroup of the Roanoke colonists of 1586. Given this, a new historical narrative of early European ...


Lessons From The 1800s: Creating The Miss Porter's School Digital Archive, Deborah Smith Jul 2019

Lessons From The 1800s: Creating The Miss Porter's School Digital Archive, Deborah Smith

Journal of Contemporary Archival Studies

College preparatory (“prep”) schools have their roots in the New England region of the United States; many predate the nation's most illustrious colleges and universities. The archives at these schools contain items of importance to American history in the 1800s. However, few schools have trained archivists managing their physical collections and even fewer have created digital archives to increase access. Founded in 1848, Miss Porter's School in Farmington, Connecticut was one of the first independent schools devoted to the education of young women. This article reviews the creation of the Porter's digital archive in 2018 and examines ...


Defying Mcculloch? Jackson’S Bank Veto Reconsidered, David S. Schwartz Jul 2019

Defying Mcculloch? Jackson’S Bank Veto Reconsidered, David S. Schwartz

Arkansas Law Review

On July 10, 1832, President Andrew Jackson issued the most famous and controversial veto in United States history. The bill in question was “to modify and continue” the 1816 “act to incorporate the subscribers to the Bank of the United States. This was to recharter of the Second Bank of the United States whose constitutionality was famously upheld in McCulloch v. Maryland. The bill was passed by Congress and presented to Jackson on July 4. Six days later, Jackson vetoed the bill. Jackson’s veto mortally wounded the Second Bank, which would forever close its doors four years later at ...


Overruling Mcculloch?, Mark A. Graber Jul 2019

Overruling Mcculloch?, Mark A. Graber

Arkansas Law Review

Daniel Webster warned Whig associates in 1841 that the Supreme Court would likely declare unconstitutional the national bank bill that Henry Clay was pushing through the Congress. This claim was probably based on inside information. Webster was a close association of Justice Joseph Story. The justices at this time frequently leaked word to their political allies of judicial sentiments on the issues of the day. Even if Webster lacked first-hand knowledge of how the Taney Court would probably rule in a case raising the constitutionality of the national bank, the personnel on that tribunal provided strong grounds for Whig pessimism ...


M'Culloch In Context, Mark R. Killenbeck Jul 2019

M'Culloch In Context, Mark R. Killenbeck

Arkansas Law Review

M’Culloch v. Maryland is rightly regarded as a landmark opinion, one that affirmed the ability of Congress to exercise implied powers, articulated a rule of deference to Congressional judgments about whether given legislative actions were in fact “necessary,” and limited the ability of the states to impair or restrict the operations of the federal government. Most scholarly discussions of the case and its legacy emphasize these aspects of the decision. Less common are attempts to place M’Culloch within the ebb and flow of the Marshall Court and the political and social realities of the time. So, for example ...


Mcculloch At 200, David S. Schwartz Jul 2019

Mcculloch At 200, David S. Schwartz

Arkansas Law Review

March 6, 2019 marked the 200th anniversary of the Supreme Court’s issuance of its decision in McCulloch v. Maryland, upholding the constitutionality of the Second Bank of the United States, the successor to Alexander Hamilton’s national bank. McCulloch v. Maryland involved a constitutional challenge by the Second Bank of the United States to a Maryland tax on the banknotes issued by the Bank’s Baltimore branch. The tax was probably designed to raise the Second Bank’s cost of issuing loans and thereby disadvantage it relative to Maryland’s own state-chartered banks. Marshall’s opinion famously rejected the ...


A College’S Impact On The Air War Of Wwii, Cannon Marchand Jul 2019

A College’S Impact On The Air War Of Wwii, Cannon Marchand

Undergraduate Research Journal

World War II, for the United States, relied on men from every background and experience to fill the ranks and complete the necessary tasks towards eventual victory. A diverse nation with a diverse populous was required to be trained and made uniform into the military in a short period of time. The whole of American society and institutions had to adapt to support the war effort and the men fighting. Colleges across the country would also find manners in which to help win the war. An example of a college that changed to help students become soldiers is the Nebraska ...


Anna May Wong: Chinese-American Actress, Katherine Anielak Jul 2019

Anna May Wong: Chinese-American Actress, Katherine Anielak

Undergraduate Research Journal

The United States’ film industry has an extensive and rich history that also offers insight into the development of American culture. However, the history of Hollywood includes many cases of discrimination, racism, and the use of stereotypes within roles. Films reflect societal constructs and beliefs, including stereotypes that European Americans had against non-white immigrants and citizens. Asian-Americans especially suffered from stereotypes and discrimination within the United States in the early 20th Century. Such stereotypes and racism appeared in both the films produced in Hollywood, and within Hollywood and the film industry itself. Anna May Wong, the first Chinese-American film actress ...


World War I: The Soldiers Of Kearney State Normal School, Parker Witthuhn Jul 2019

World War I: The Soldiers Of Kearney State Normal School, Parker Witthuhn

Undergraduate Research Journal

The purpose of this article is to help modern scholars and members of the UNK community understand the significance the Great War at KSNS by discussing the specific experiences of students and staff that served during the conflict. The goal is that by sharing these experiences, the UNK community might be better able to identify, understand, and overcome new challenges that will no doubt shape the future of the University and the country.


The Saga Of American Catholicism: Family As Microcosm, Kathrine Esten Jun 2019

The Saga Of American Catholicism: Family As Microcosm, Kathrine Esten

University of Massachusetts Undergraduate History Journal

The story of American Catholicism since the 19th century is one of social isolation, family devotion, and strict religious doctrine. In contrast, this story is also one of progressive development, Americanization, and the creation of a unique American Catholic identity, even if unintended by the Church. Combining a historical analysis of Catholic movements in the 19th and 20th centuries for Catholic immigrants and their descendants in the Northeastern United States with personal interviews of late 20th century members of my own Catholic family, I argue that the decreasing reliance of later generations of Catholics on Church authority, coupled with friction ...


Wreckless Endangerment: How Nuclear Weapons Affected Us And Soviet Foreign Policy 1945-1962, Conor Morrissey Jun 2019

Wreckless Endangerment: How Nuclear Weapons Affected Us And Soviet Foreign Policy 1945-1962, Conor Morrissey

University of Massachusetts Undergraduate History Journal

This paper seeks to answer the question of how the development of nuclearweapons changed the nature of warfare, diplomacy, and international relations. It frames thehistorical context in which these weapons were invented, how they were used to achieve militarygoals, and asks ethical and moralistic questions about how they changed the way global affairswere conducted. The focus of this paper begins with the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, and ends with the Cuban missile crisis in October 1962. This seventeen-year period marks the era of the Cold War upon which nuclear weapons had the most pronounced and profound ...


The Absence Of Clarity And The Effects On Minorities, Zachary Lavoie Jun 2019

The Absence Of Clarity And The Effects On Minorities, Zachary Lavoie

University of Massachusetts Undergraduate History Journal

This paper involves discovering how the lack of clarity in the American refugee policy post-World War II affected members of multiple minorities: namely Jews, suspected Communists, and homosexuals. The goal is to show that the lack of clarity in American policy and pre-established prejudice were factors that encouraged nativism and xenophobia within the American people. This has been done by examining secondary sources of analyses given by historians like Carl Bon Tempo and Torrie Hester, and by also drawing on primary news articleswritten from 1948 to 1980. Upon examination of these sources, it became clear that the uncertain refugee policy ...


Book Review: Palaces For The People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, And The Decline Of Civic Life, Eric Klinenberg, Georgia Westbrook Jun 2019

Book Review: Palaces For The People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, And The Decline Of Civic Life, Eric Klinenberg, Georgia Westbrook

School of Information Student Research Journal

No abstract provided.


From Farming To Gaming: How Native Americans Have Been Pushed Into Poverty, Sarah E. Boomgarden Jun 2019

From Farming To Gaming: How Native Americans Have Been Pushed Into Poverty, Sarah E. Boomgarden

Inter-Text: An Undergraduate Journal for Social Sciences and Humanities

No abstract provided.


Wagon Tracks Volume 33, Issue 2 (February 2019) Jun 2019

Wagon Tracks Volume 33, Issue 2 (February 2019)

Wagon Tracks

2 On the Cover: Winter at Fort Larned

4 President: As I See It

5 Manager: Joanne's Jottings

6 Symposium 2019

9 Trail News

10 DAR Legislation Names Fines

13 SFTA 2018 Hall of Fame Inductees

16 Dedication of Marker at Dry Route Crossing of Pawnee Fork and Boyd's Ranch

19 Taking the Leap Forward

20 Las Vegas Transformed: Under Military Occupation 1846-1851

26 Winter on the Plains

27 Books: The Chisholm Trail: Joseph McCoy's Great Gamble

28 Chapter Reports

29 Membership Form

32 Calendar


Wagon Tracks, Volume 33, Issue 3 (May 2019) Jun 2019

Wagon Tracks, Volume 33, Issue 3 (May 2019)

Wagon Tracks

2 On the Cover: Rock Creek Camping

4 President: As I See It

5 Manager: Joanne's Jottings

6 Trail News

7 Symposium 2019

10 Symposium 2021

12 SFTA 2019 Board of Directory Nominees

15 New Mexico Daughters Sent to School in St. Louis

20 St. Louis, the Santa Fe trade, and the Great Flood of 1844

27 Books: Coast to Coast Empire: Manifest Destiny and the New Mexico Borderlands

28 Chapter Reports

29 Membership Form

32 Calendar


Panic, Erratic Behavior, And The Psychological Impact Of The Battle Of The Little Bighorn On The Soldiers, Including The Swiss Troopers, Albert Winkler Dr. Jun 2019

Panic, Erratic Behavior, And The Psychological Impact Of The Battle Of The Little Bighorn On The Soldiers, Including The Swiss Troopers, Albert Winkler Dr.

Swiss American Historical Society Review

Twelve men born in Switzerland were in the Seventh Cavalry at the time of the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Of these, five were on detached service at that time and did not participate in the campaign and battle. The other seven participated in the encounter. Also , many other men in the Seventh Cavalry at that time had at least some Swiss ancestry, and all of them like ly suffered from the psychological effects of the battle as did numerous other participants.


Texas Indian Holocaust And Survival: Mcallen Grace Brethren Church V. Salazar, Milo Colton Jun 2019

Texas Indian Holocaust And Survival: Mcallen Grace Brethren Church V. Salazar, Milo Colton

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

When the first Europeans entered the land that would one day be called Texas, they found a place that contained more Indian tribes than any other would-be American state at the time. At the turn of the twentieth century, the federal government documented that American Indians in Texas were nearly extinct, decreasing in number from 708 people in 1890 to 470 in 1900. A century later, the U.S. census recorded an explosion in the American Indian population living in Texas at 215,599 people. By 2010, that population jumped to 315,264 people.

Part One of this Article chronicles ...


Ohio, Evangelical Religion, And The Merging Of The Antislavery Movement: Joshua R. Giddings, Salmon P. Chase, And Their Remarkable Crusades Against Slavery, Douglas Montagna May 2019

Ohio, Evangelical Religion, And The Merging Of The Antislavery Movement: Joshua R. Giddings, Salmon P. Chase, And Their Remarkable Crusades Against Slavery, Douglas Montagna

Studies in Midwestern History

This article will treat the antislavery careers of Joshua R. Giddings and Salmon P. Chase in three parts. The first part will show that they were exposed to evangelical religion early in their lives and that their religious lives continued to develop throughout their childhoods and young adulthoods. The second part will show what experiences inspired each to become antislavery activists. And the third part will show how religion remained the cornerstones of both of their fights against slavery while working within the American political system. Both themes of this essay—the importance of the Ohio society and environment in ...


Considerations In Historical Research: Nwp Strategies – A Case Study, Demery Little May 2019

Considerations In Historical Research: Nwp Strategies – A Case Study, Demery Little

Augsburg Honors Review

Historical research is most often focused on deconstructing stories from the past in order to better understand our current situation. In this way, proper historical research is vital to the continuing improvement of any part of society; whether that is through understanding systems of government or religion, or through understanding cultural and societal norms in the context in which they came to be. Because of the impact historical research can have on our society, it is important to consider biases in both sources and in the researcher themselves when evaluating historical research. The American women’s suffrage movement, and more ...


Herbert Hoover And The Problem Of American Indians, Mary Levine May 2019

Herbert Hoover And The Problem Of American Indians, Mary Levine

Across the Bridge: The Merrimack Undergraduate Research Journal

In the 1930s, federal American Indian policy shifted dramatically away from seeking to end all tribes and break up reservation lands. The shift towards re-recognizing American Indian Native nations as enduring political entities is often characterized as beginning under President Roosevelt and with the guidance of John Collier. In fact, it was Roosevelt's predecessor, Herbert Hoover, who gave attention to and laid the foundation for this profound shift in federal Indian policy. This paper presents the historical evidence of Hoover's deeply held interest in American Indian affairs and the consequences of this interest. Hoover began his term as ...


Ghosts Of The Revolution: Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, And The Legacy Of The Founding Generation, Amelia F. Wald May 2019

Ghosts Of The Revolution: Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, And The Legacy Of The Founding Generation, Amelia F. Wald

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

For the wartime generation, the Civil War in many ways represented a recapitulation of the American Revolution. Both the Union and Confederate civilian populations viewed themselves as the true successors of the Founding Generation. Throughout the Antebellum years and the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis frequently invoked the Founders and their legacy. The two future executives did so in order to both justify their own political ideologies as well as inspire their respective civilian populations. Their sense of ownership over the legacy of the Founders reflected one of the uniquely American conflicts of the Civil War Era.


“Mulatto, Indian, Or What”: The Racialization Of Chinese Soldiers And The American Civil War, Angela He May 2019

“Mulatto, Indian, Or What”: The Racialization Of Chinese Soldiers And The American Civil War, Angela He

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

About fifty Chinese men are known to have fought in the American Civil War. “'Mulatto, Indian, or What': The Racialization of Chinese Soldiers and the American Civil War" seeks to study how Chinese in the eastern portion of the United States were viewed and racialized by mainstream American society, before the Chinese Exclusion Act and rise of the "Yellow Peril" myth. Between 1860 and 1870, "Chinese" was added as a racial category on the U.S. federal census, but prior to 1870 such men could be fitted into the existing categories of "black," "white," or "mulatto." The author aims to ...