Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

United States History Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Western Michigan University

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 57

Full-Text Articles in United States History

Eternal Perspectives In Nineteenth-Century Friendship Albums, Jenifer Blouin Jan 2017

Eternal Perspectives In Nineteenth-Century Friendship Albums, Jenifer Blouin

The Hilltop Review

It is apparent through the inscriptions made in nineteenth-century friendship albums that the young women who wrote in and owned the albums were highly concerned with eternity, with things they believed would last forever. This preoccupation with eternity raises the question of how young women in the nineteenth century related to time and to religion, both of which are inherently concerned with eternity. These topics will therefore be addressed in brief discussions of how nineteenth-century conceptions of time and the Second Great Awakening affected young women. This will be followed by an examination of the friendship album verses themselves, which ...


From Love Canal To The Flint Water Crisis: Government, Public Opinion, And Environmental Crises, Sarah Hughey Dec 2016

From Love Canal To The Flint Water Crisis: Government, Public Opinion, And Environmental Crises, Sarah Hughey

Honors Theses

After the rise of the modern-day environmental movement, environmentalism in the United States focused more and more on issues and crises related to the areas in which people lived and to the aspects that impacted public health. In particular, the crisis at Love Canal in Niagara Falls, New York during the late 1970s and early 1980s provided a starting point to the awareness and activism of modern environmental history. Recently, an environmental crisis related to drinking water occurred in Flint, Michigan in the mid-2010s that showcases how various aspects of the environmental movement have developed over time since the Love ...


A Shrine For President Lincoln: An Analysis Of Lincoln Museums And Historic Sites, 1865-2015, Thomas D. Mackie Jr. Dec 2016

A Shrine For President Lincoln: An Analysis Of Lincoln Museums And Historic Sites, 1865-2015, Thomas D. Mackie Jr.

Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze how communities and special interest groups have presented Abraham Lincoln in historic sites and museums with significant Lincoln collections and interpretive themes. Commemoration of Abraham Lincoln began during the murdered president’s funeral trip and extended throughout the later nineteenth century with statues, biographies, Decoration Day oratories, historic sites, special exhibits, and museums. These sites devoted to the 16th president are among the earliest public historic museums and preserved sites. They include galleries, research exhibits, interactive galleries, pioneer villages, outdoor museums, and historic houses. After continued expansion in the twentieth and twenty-first ...


Only The River Remains: History And Memory Of The Eastland Disaster In The Great Lakes Region, 1915 – 2015, Caitlyn Perry Dial Aug 2016

Only The River Remains: History And Memory Of The Eastland Disaster In The Great Lakes Region, 1915 – 2015, Caitlyn Perry Dial

Dissertations

On July 24, 1915, the passenger boat Eastland capsized while docked in the Chicago River, killing 844 of its 2,500 passengers. The Eastland Disaster remains the greatest loss-of-life tragedy on the Great Lakes. Using museum exhibits, government documents, trial transcripts, period newspapers, oral interviews, images, ephemera, and popular culture materials, this study examines the century after the disaster in terms of the place the Eastland has held in regional and national public memory. For much of that period, the public memory of the tragedy had been lost, but private memories survived through storytelling within the families of survivors, rescuers ...


From “Black Is Beautiful” To “Gay Power”: Cultural Frames In The Gay Liberation Movement, Eric Denby May 2015

From “Black Is Beautiful” To “Gay Power”: Cultural Frames In The Gay Liberation Movement, Eric Denby

The Hilltop Review

In lieu of an abstract, a short excerpt is provided:

"

The 1960s and 1970s were a decade of turbulence, militancy, and unrest in America. The post-World War II boom in consumerism and consumption made way for a new post-materialist societal ethos, one that looked past the American dream of home ownership and material wealth. Many citizens were now concerned with social and economic equality, justice for all people of the world, and a restructuring of the capitalist system itself. According to Max Elbaum, the traditional narrative of the 1960s begins with an “idealistic, impassioned” youth working on voter registration and ...


Alexander Hamilton: Slavery, Politics, And Class Status, Sara Weyenberg Apr 2014

Alexander Hamilton: Slavery, Politics, And Class Status, Sara Weyenberg

Honors Theses

Though slavery is often connected with the Civil War, it was also a topic of great interest during the Revolutionary period. Many people had strong opinions on the morality of slavery, and they were not afraid to voice them. There are countless writings that, if nothing else, at least touch on the subject briefly. As one might imagine, there were people on both sides of the fence – those who took offense and those who did not. A new country was about to be born, and slavery provided just one of the tensions that was in existence at the time. When ...


The First Faith-Based Movement: The Religious Roots Of Social Progressivism In America (1880-1912) In Historical Perspective, Steven Stritt Jan 2014

The First Faith-Based Movement: The Religious Roots Of Social Progressivism In America (1880-1912) In Historical Perspective, Steven Stritt

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This re-evaluation of the published writings of Richard T. Ely, Josiah Strong, and Jane Addams during the Progressive era (1880- 1912) explores the themes of religious idealism and nationalism that figured prominently in the early formulation of modern liberal reform ideology in the United States. A specific focus will be placed on tracing themes of the America’s millennial destiny and how they gradually evolved into prophesies of social transformation through the applied use of social science knowledge. Beyond merely satisfying historical curiosity, this inquiry provides a new perspective from which to consider the fierce clashes over social welfare policy ...


Change And Continuity: Euro-American And Native American Settlement Patterns In The St. Joseph River Valley, Allison M. Kohley Jun 2013

Change And Continuity: Euro-American And Native American Settlement Patterns In The St. Joseph River Valley, Allison M. Kohley

Master's Theses

In recent years there has been a particular interest in the fur trade and colonialism through identification and investigation of Fort St. Joseph. This fort was an 18th century French trading post in the St. Joseph River valley located in southwestern Michigan and northwestern Indiana. This study expands our current understanding of the change and continuity of the Euro- American and Native American settlement patterns in the valley during the periods immediately prior to, during, and after the abandonment of Fort St. Joseph through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical analyses.


Black Women In The "Black Metropolis" Of The Early Twentieth Century: The Case Of Professional Occupations, Robert L. Boyd May 2013

Black Women In The "Black Metropolis" Of The Early Twentieth Century: The Case Of Professional Occupations, Robert L. Boyd

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Little research has examined the employment of Black women as teachers, nurses, and librarians in the urban Black communities of the early twentieth century. The present study fills this void, analyzing Census data on the largest urban Black communities at the start of the Great Migration to cities. The results show that, in spite of the supposed advantages of the northern "Black Metropolis," Black communities in the urban North were relatively limited in their potential to offer opportunities for Black women to enter pursuits that were, at the time, mainstays of a nascent class of Black professional women.


Building A House Of Peace: The Origins Of The Imperial Presidency And The Framework For Executive Power, 1933-1960, Katherine Elizabeth Ellison Apr 2013

Building A House Of Peace: The Origins Of The Imperial Presidency And The Framework For Executive Power, 1933-1960, Katherine Elizabeth Ellison

Dissertations

This project offers a fundamental rethinking of the origins of the imperial presidency, taking an interdisciplinary approach as perceived through the interactions of the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of government during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. In light of the end of the Cold War and twenty-first century recurrence of the imperial presidency after the September 11, 2001 attacks, the original thesis proposed by historian Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. in The Imperial Presidency and other works based on the periodization of the Cold War is in need of updating.

By utilizing legal theories, political science models, and historical analysis ...


The First And The Last: A Confluence Of Factors Leading To The Integration Of Carver School Of Missions And Social Work, 1955, Tanya Smith Brice, T. Laine Scales Mar 2013

The First And The Last: A Confluence Of Factors Leading To The Integration Of Carver School Of Missions And Social Work, 1955, Tanya Smith Brice, T. Laine Scales

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Carver School of Missions and Social Work, affiliated with the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky, was an all-female social work program that eventually became the first seminary-affiliated social work program accredited by the Council on Social Work Education. This article examines Carver's efforts towards racial integration during the late 1950s, which was a time of heightened racial tensions across the United States. This article is informed by a series of oral histories of the two African American women who integrated Carver in 1955.


Capacity Building Legacies: Boards Of The Richmond Male Orphan Asylum For Destitute Boys & The Protestant Episcopal Church Home For Infirm Ladies 1870-1900, F. Ellen Netting, Mary Katherine O'Connor, David P. Fauri Sep 2012

Capacity Building Legacies: Boards Of The Richmond Male Orphan Asylum For Destitute Boys & The Protestant Episcopal Church Home For Infirm Ladies 1870-1900, F. Ellen Netting, Mary Katherine O'Connor, David P. Fauri

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

What strategies did early boards of managers of charitable human service agencies pursue to build capacity in a way that sustained their efforts for more than a hundred years? Using primary and secondary documents to focus on two organizations- The Male Orphan Asylum (1846) and the Protestant Episcopal Church Home (1875)-three norms emerged: run it like a business, keep it like a house, and base it in the community, along with a host of associated activities. Based on these norms and activities, three strategies were identified: diversification of resources, working boards, and leadership continuity, all of which have implications ...


Faithful Remembering: Constructing Dutch America In The Twentieth Century, David E. Zwart Apr 2012

Faithful Remembering: Constructing Dutch America In The Twentieth Century, David E. Zwart

Dissertations

The people of the Dutch-American community constructed and maintained a strong ethnoreligion identity in the twentieth despite pressures to join the mainstream of the United States. A strong institutional completeness of congregations and schools resulted from and contributed to this identity. The people in these institutions created a shared identity by demanding the loyalty of members as well as constructing narratives that convinced people of the need for the ethnoreligious institutions.

The narratives of the Dutch-American community reflected and reinforced a shared identity, which relied on a collective memory. The framing, maintaining, altering, and remodeling of the collective memory from ...


A Position Of Strength: Arms Dealing As Diplomacy Under The Reagan Administration, William D. Watson Jun 2011

A Position Of Strength: Arms Dealing As Diplomacy Under The Reagan Administration, William D. Watson

Master's Theses

My thesis is an examination of the Cold War during the 1980s, with a focus on arms dealing and diplomacy under President Ronald Reagan from 1981-1989. I chose to write about three specific case studies based on the unique intersections of American diplomatic goals in relation to geography, the sophistication of weapons technology involved, and geopolitical considerations. The purpose of this thesis is to explain why and how the Reagan administration was able to carry out three separate arms deals, and in turn, how those deals fit into the broader, global Cold War between the United States and the Soviet ...


Undoing Plessy: Charles Hamilton Houston, Race, Labor, And The Law, Gordon Andrews Apr 2011

Undoing Plessy: Charles Hamilton Houston, Race, Labor, And The Law, Gordon Andrews

Dissertations

Undoing Plessy: Charles Hamilton Houston, Race, Labor, and the Law, 1895--1950, explores the manner in which African Americans countered racialized impediments during the first half of the twentieth century by attacking their legal underpinnings. Specifically, this work explores the professional life of Charles Hamilton Houston, and the degree to which it informs our understanding of change in the pre-Brown era. There were a wide range of forces at work, from individuals, organizations, and institutions, to government in its various forms (local, state, and federal), complicating any strategy to reformulate the parameters of equality. Using both labor and education law as ...


Lest We Forget: The Library Of Congress's Veterans History Project And "Radical Trust", Christopher Michael Jannings Dec 2010

Lest We Forget: The Library Of Congress's Veterans History Project And "Radical Trust", Christopher Michael Jannings

Dissertations

This dissertation examines the Veterans History Project (VHP), an official U.S. government project created under a bill signed into law by President William J. Clinton on October 27, 2000 to document the experiences of American veterans and their supporters in time of war. It explores the intersections between, cultural, social, public, and military history and addresses the following questions: Who created the VHP, what were the motivations, and what resources did Congress allocate the Library of Congress, the federal agency selected to fulfill the mandate? Who was charged with implementing the VHP, why, and what resources did they employ ...


My 21st Century Expedition: Following The Route Of Schoolcraft 1820, 1832 To The Source Of The Mississippi River, Lorah Patterson Oct 2010

My 21st Century Expedition: Following The Route Of Schoolcraft 1820, 1832 To The Source Of The Mississippi River, Lorah Patterson

Honors Theses

The journal of Lorah Patterson during her expedition from Schoolcraft, Michigan, to the source of the Mississippi River. Supplemental file contains complete Herbarium. The thesis includes only a few examples.


Bilingual Education, Federalism, And The Political Culture Of American Public Education, 1964-1980, Robert Harold Duke Aug 2008

Bilingual Education, Federalism, And The Political Culture Of American Public Education, 1964-1980, Robert Harold Duke

Dissertations

Five decades of English-only orthodoxy in American public schools came to an end with the passage of the Bilingual Education Act of 1968 (BEA). This research investigates how the convergence of community activism, ethnic pride, and union clout shaped and reshaped bilingual education programming at thelocal level within the broader context of post-WWII American society. By comparing and contrasting the experiences of communities in Texas and Michigan with the newly enacted BEA, this study illuminates the changing political culture of school governance from the high-water mark of Johnson-era liberalism tothe surging tide of Reaganite conservatism. It asserts that the tradition ...


Flights Past: The Wright Brothers’ Legacy And Dayton, Ohio, James Clayton Johnson Dec 2007

Flights Past: The Wright Brothers’ Legacy And Dayton, Ohio, James Clayton Johnson

Dissertations

During the early twentieth century, Wilbur and Orville Wright faced a lengthy struggle over their recognition as the inventors of the airplane. This controversy still lingers today. Even their hometown, Dayton, Ohio, where the brothers spent years engineering and perfecting the airplane, hesitated in acknowledging their success. Promoted by a small group of individuals from the Smithsonian Institution, a decades long struggle ensued over who first invented an aircraft capable of powered flight. During the "Smithsonian controversy," the institution embarked on a long and dangerous path of using its status as the nation's museum in an attempt to rewrite ...


"Put Up" On Platforms: A History Of Twentieth Century Adoption Policy In The United States, Michelle Kahan Sep 2006

"Put Up" On Platforms: A History Of Twentieth Century Adoption Policy In The United States, Michelle Kahan

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Adoption is closely intertwined with many issues that are central to public policy in this country-welfare and poverty, race and class, and gender. An analysis of the history of adoption shows how it has been shaped by the nation's mores and demographics. In order to better understand this phenomenon, and its significance to larger societal issues, this analysis reviews its historyfocusing on four key periods in which this country's adoption policy was shaped: the late Nineteenth Century's 'orphan trains'; the family preservation and Mothers' Pensions of the Progressive Era; World War II through the 1950s, with secrecy ...


Black Power In Green And White: Integration And Black Protest In Michigan State University Football, 1947-1972, John Matthew Smith Apr 2006

Black Power In Green And White: Integration And Black Protest In Michigan State University Football, 1947-1972, John Matthew Smith

Master's Theses

While southern college football teams remained all white until the late 1960s and early 1970s, Michigan State University head football coach Duffy Daugherty formed championship teams in 1965 and 1966 by recruiting the best southern black players. While coaches in the North recruited black athletes and played them regularly by the mid-1950s, no other coach took the risks Daugherty did to integrate his teams. Duffy Daugherty's path-breaking teams broke all the rules of integrated competition and forced southern schools to reconsider their stance on segregated college football.

The ground breaking integration of black athletes in the mid-1950s and 1960s ...


Selfhood And The Search For An Identity: Explaining The Emergence Of The Nineteenth-Century Holiness Movement And Early Church Of The Nazarene, Paul R. George Jr. Dec 2004

Selfhood And The Search For An Identity: Explaining The Emergence Of The Nineteenth-Century Holiness Movement And Early Church Of The Nazarene, Paul R. George Jr.

Dissertations

This dissertation seeks to explain the emergence of the nineteenth-century Holiness Movement and subsequent organization of a national holiness church asthe result of a reconstruction of the cultural-linguistic system of John Wesley. In the process of contact and exchange with American religious pluralism, Wesley's doctrine of Christian perfection and his system of societies were reconstructed by charismatic leaders who selected discursive and nondiscursive elements which they found efficacious. Theological and social changes in the Methodist Episcopal Church compelled holiness advocates to emphasize theinstantaneous aspect of Wesley's doctrine of Christian perfection (entire sanctification) and construct a ritual form which ...


“Imagined Communities” In Showcases: The Nationality Rooms Program At The University Of Pittsburgh (1926-1945), Lucia Curta Jun 2004

“Imagined Communities” In Showcases: The Nationality Rooms Program At The University Of Pittsburgh (1926-1945), Lucia Curta

Dissertations

From the inception of the program in 1926, the Nationality Rooms at the University of Pittsburgh were viewed as apolitical in their iconography. Their purpose was primarily didactic. Designed as classrooms meant for lectures and seminars, they were however ad-hoc museums for the display of symbols of national identity. In many ways, they constitute an excellent illustration in terms of the decorative arts of Benedict Anderson's concept of "imagined communities."

The identity referent of the symbolism attached to the decorative arrangements of these rooms was not that of the ethnic communities in Pittsburgh, for whom the rooms were supposedly ...


Recipes For Reform: Americanization And Foodways In Chicago Settlement Houses, 1890-1920, Stephanie J. Jass Jun 2004

Recipes For Reform: Americanization And Foodways In Chicago Settlement Houses, 1890-1920, Stephanie J. Jass

Dissertations

During the late nineteenth century as tens of thousands of immigrants flooded American cities, public debate among reformers--who tended to be middle-class, white, Anglo-Saxon Protestants--began to center on the best ways to assimilate these foreigners into American society. Although some Americanization groups stressed language and citizenship training, two major reform movements focused on foodways as an important tool of assimilation.

This dissertation examines how both the home economics and settlement house movements attempted to Americanize ethnic food practices. It describes why reformers saw foodways as a viable and meaningful avenue for reform, as well as the varied responses that reformers ...


Perspectives On Power: John F. Kennedy And U.S.-Middle East Relations, April R. Summitt Dec 2002

Perspectives On Power: John F. Kennedy And U.S.-Middle East Relations, April R. Summitt

Dissertations

A study of President John F. Kennedy's policy toward the Middle East illustrates the agency and unexpected power wielded by so-called "third world" countries during the Cold War era. In spite of careful planning in Washington, Middle East leaders often manipulated and directed Kennedy's approach to the region. Regional actors used American fears of Communism to gain increased financial aid, military support, and influence in the United Nations. Although seeming to submit to Western pressures in exchange for such support, these leaders played both superpowers against each other and shaped policy according to local needs. While this relationship ...


The Road Not Taken: A History Of Radical Social Work In The United States. Michael Reisch And Janice Andrews Dec 2002

The Road Not Taken: A History Of Radical Social Work In The United States. Michael Reisch And Janice Andrews

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book note for Michael Reisch and Janice Andrews, The Road not Taken: A History of Radical Social Work in the United States. New York: Brunner- Routledge, 2001. $59.95 hardcover.


School Social Work In Hartford, Connecticut: Correcting The Historical Record, James G. Mccullagh Jun 2002

School Social Work In Hartford, Connecticut: Correcting The Historical Record, James G. Mccullagh

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper corrects the historical record on why and how school social work began in Hartford and who was instrumental in establishing the new service. The findings, based on a study of primary sources, revealed that a school principal, and not a psychologist as previously claimed, initiated the process that led the Hartford Charity Organization Society to appoint its Visitor, Winifred Singleton Bivin, a social caseworker, to also become the first social worker in the schools in January 1907. The social work profession, which owes its origin to the Charity Organization Movement, is also obligated to the Hartford Charity Organization ...


"A Conflict Of Truth With Error": Southern Preachers, Their Worldview, And Sectional Tensions, 1830-1865, Timothy A. Ehrhardt Apr 2002

"A Conflict Of Truth With Error": Southern Preachers, Their Worldview, And Sectional Tensions, 1830-1865, Timothy A. Ehrhardt

Master's Theses

White evangelical preachers of the antebellum era presented the American South with a cosmology that was rooted in the Bible as God's revelation to all humans, with God as sovereign over a strict social hierarchy that placed the white male as household head, and women, children, and black slaves (in that order) as subordinates. This cosmology contributed to sectional tensions, as southern pastors were at the forefront of advocating a proslavery worldview, and supported secession from the Union and war as an act of purification from northern infidels who did not endorse the ministers' brand of biblical literalism.

Southern ...


Ladies' Library Associations Of Michigan: Women, Reform, And Use Of Public Space, Sharon Carlson Apr 2002

Ladies' Library Associations Of Michigan: Women, Reform, And Use Of Public Space, Sharon Carlson

Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the ladies' library associations in Southwestern Michigan from the middle nineteenth century through the early twentieth century to explore the impact of these organizations as agents of reform and in shaping public space. Ladies' library association records provide a major component of this study. Association records, consisting of constitutions, bylaws, minutes, treasurer records, book catalogs, yearbooks, and published reports yield valuable information to analyze and interpret the activities of ladies' library associations. Plat maps, panoramic maps, photographs, architectural drawings, and tax records offer evidence about the built environment and material culture of ladies' library associations. The actual ...


One Third Of A Nation: Lorena Hickok Reports On The Great Depression. Richard Lowitt And Maurine Beasley (Eds.). Review By John M. Herrick, John M. Herrick Mar 2002

One Third Of A Nation: Lorena Hickok Reports On The Great Depression. Richard Lowitt And Maurine Beasley (Eds.). Review By John M. Herrick, John M. Herrick

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Richard Lowitt and Maurine Beasley (Eds.), One Third of a Nation: Lorena Hickok Reports on the Great Depression. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2000. $21.95 papercover.