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Bowdoin College

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Articles 1 - 30 of 210

Full-Text Articles in United States History

White Southerners Respond To Brown V. Board Of Education: Why Crisis Erupted When Little Rock, Arkansas, Desegregated Central High School, Abby Elizabeth Motycka May 2017

White Southerners Respond To Brown V. Board Of Education: Why Crisis Erupted When Little Rock, Arkansas, Desegregated Central High School, Abby Elizabeth Motycka

Honors Projects

What was the impact of Brown v. Board of Education on the United States and how did pro-segregationists in the South respond? In order to answer this question, I argue three key arguments over the course of three chronological chapters. In chapter one, I argue that segregationists from southern states responded to Brown by fighting to preserve segregation in order to protect a racial hierarchy they believed was essential. This racial hierarchy is magnified in the southern capital of Little Rock, Arkansas, which I argue in chapter two exposed segregationists’ political defiance and poor organization around racial integration of public ...


A "Peculiarly American" Enthusiasm: George Bellows, Traditional Masculinity, And The Big Dory, James W. Denison Iv May 2014

A "Peculiarly American" Enthusiasm: George Bellows, Traditional Masculinity, And The Big Dory, James W. Denison Iv

Honors Projects

A “Peculiarly American” Enthusiasm: George Bellows, Traditional Masculinity, and The Big Dory investigates the portrayal of masculinity in the oeuvre of the much-lauded yet enigmatic American painter George Bellows (1882-1925). Rather than relying on Bellows’ urban works for source material, a significant portion of this investigation is conducted via a case study of Bellows’ 1913 panel The Big Dory, a scene of fishermen pushing a boat into the North Atlantic off Monhegan Island, Maine that the artist painted during a sojourn on the island in the months after his involvement in the landmark Armory Show in New York. The paper ...


Reconsidering Operation Condor: Cross-Border Military Cooperation And The Defeat Of The Transnational Left In Chile And Argentina During The 1970s, Georgia C. Whitaker May 2014

Reconsidering Operation Condor: Cross-Border Military Cooperation And The Defeat Of The Transnational Left In Chile And Argentina During The 1970s, Georgia C. Whitaker

Honors Projects

In this study of the roots of Operation Condor, I track the development of this unusual military alliance forged by six Southern Cone governments (Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Paraguay) during the 1970s, as well as the push-and-pull relationship between the transnational migration of political militants and the military’s impetus for collaboration. While most accounts of Condor focus on the United States as the operation’s primary orchestrator, I contend that initial motivation for the type of cooperation that Condor would later formalize was driven not by the U.S., but by the Southern Cone militaries’ perception that ...


Who We Are: Incarcerated Students And The New Prison Literature, 1995-2010, Reilly Hannah N. Lorastein May 2013

Who We Are: Incarcerated Students And The New Prison Literature, 1995-2010, Reilly Hannah N. Lorastein

Honors Projects

This project focuses on American prison writings from the late 1990s to the 2000s. Much has been written about American prison intellectuals such as Malcolm X, George Jackson, Eldridge Cleaver, and Angela Davis, who wrote as active participants in black and brown freedom movements in the United States. However the new prison literature that has emerged over the past two decades through higher education programs within prisons has received little to no attention. This study provides a more nuanced view of the steadily growing silent population in the United States through close readings of Openline, an inter-disciplinary journal featuring poetry ...


Interview With Ernest F. “Fritz” Hollings By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Ernest 'Fritz' F. Hollings Jun 2012

Interview With Ernest F. “Fritz” Hollings By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Ernest 'Fritz' F. Hollings

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Ernest F. “Fritz” Hollings served in WWII, represented Charleston in the S.C. House, 1949-1954, and served as Lt. Governor and Governor, 1955-1963, and U.S. Senator, 1966-2005. In the House, he supported anti-lynching legislation, a sales tax for education, an increase in teacher salaries, and unemployment compensation reform. He went after industrial interests as Lt. Governor and built on this success as Governor. He worked to improve the state's educational system at all levels, develop industry, and balance the budget. As Senator, he cultivated a lasting interest and devotion to issues including campaign financing, international trade ...


Interview With George Mitchell (6) By Andrea L’Hommedieu, George J. Mitchell Jun 2011

Interview With George Mitchell (6) By Andrea L’Hommedieu, George J. Mitchell

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
George J. Mitchell was born on August 20, 1933, in Waterville, Maine, to Mary Saad, a factory worker, and George Mitchell, a laborer. Senator Mitchell spent his youth in Waterville. After receiving his bachelor's degree from Bowdoin College in 1954, he served as an officer in the U.S. Army Counter Intelligence Corps until 1956. In 1960 he earned a law degree from Georgetown University. Mitchell worked for Senator Edmund S. Muskie as executive assistant and as deputy campaign manager during Muskie's 1972 presidential campaign. He later became U.S. senator (D-Maine) 1980-1995, Senate majority leader ...


Interview With George Mitchell (5) By Andrea L’Hommedieu, George J. Mitchell May 2011

Interview With George Mitchell (5) By Andrea L’Hommedieu, George J. Mitchell

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
George J. Mitchell was born on August 20, 1933, in Waterville, Maine, to Mary Saad, a factory worker, and George Mitchell, a laborer. Senator Mitchell spent his youth in Waterville. After receiving his bachelor's degree from Bowdoin College in 1954, he served as an officer in the U.S. Army Counter-Intelligence Corps until 1956. In 1960 he earned a law degree from Georgetown University. Mitchell worked for Senator Edmund S. Muskie as executive assistant and as deputy campaign manager during Muskie's 1972 presidential campaign. He later became U.S. senator (D-Maine) 1980-1995, Senate majority leader 1989-1995 ...


Interview With George Mitchell (4) By Andrea L’Hommedieu, George J. Mitchell Mar 2011

Interview With George Mitchell (4) By Andrea L’Hommedieu, George J. Mitchell

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
George J. Mitchell was born on August 20, 1933, in Waterville, Maine, to Mary Saad, a factory worker, and George Mitchell, a laborer. Senator Mitchell spent his youth in Waterville. After receiving his bachelor's degree from Bowdoin College in 1954, he served as an officer in the U.S. Army Counter Intelligence Corps until 1956. In 1960 he earned a law degree from Georgetown University. Mitchell worked for Senator Edmund S. Muskie as executive assistant and as deputy campaign manager during Muskie's 1972 presidential campaign. He later became U.S. senator (D-Maine) 1980-1995, Senate majority leader ...


Interview With George Mitchell (3) By Andrea L’Hommedieu, George J. Mitchell Dec 2010

Interview With George Mitchell (3) By Andrea L’Hommedieu, George J. Mitchell

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
George J. Mitchell was born on August 20, 1933, in Waterville, Maine, to Mary Saad, a factory worker, and George Mitchell, a laborer. Senator Mitchell spent his youth in Waterville. After receiving his bachelor's degree from Bowdoin College in 1954, he served as an officer in the U.S. Army Counter Intelligence Corps until 1956. In 1960 he earned a law degree from Georgetown University. Mitchell worked for Senator Edmund S. Muskie as executive assistant and as deputy campaign manager during Muskie's 1972 presidential campaign. He later became U.S. senator (D-Maine) 1980-1995, Senate majority leader ...


Interview With Peter Lunder By Mike Hastings, Peter H. Lunder Oct 2010

Interview With Peter Lunder By Mike Hastings, Peter H. Lunder

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Peter H. Lunder was born in Lynn, Massachusetts, on September 14, 1933, to Ann and Michael Lunder. He was graduated from Colby College in 1956 with a degree in business. He joined the family shoe business, where he eventually became president and co-chair of the board for Dexter Shoes. His uncle was Harold Alfond. In 1977 he was part of the Yawkey Group that bought the Red Sox. He served on the Smithsonian American Art Museum Board in the early 1990s, and at the time of this interview he was an overseer of Colby College.

Summary
Interview includes ...


Interview With Harry Reid By Brien Williams, Harry M. Reid Jul 2010

Interview With Harry Reid By Brien Williams, Harry M. Reid

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Harry Mason Reid was born on December 2, 1939, in Searchlight, Nevada. He attended Utah State University and George Washington University Law School. He is a Democratic U.S. Senator from Nevada, first elected in 1986, and, at the time of this interview, had served as Senate majority leader since 2007. Previously, he represented Nevada’s 1st Congressional District in the U.S. House of Representatives, was a city attorney, a state legislator, Nevada’s lieutenant governor, and chairman of the Nevada Gaming Commission.

Summary
Interview includes discussion of: majority leader; the Budget Committee vote and Bob Kerrey ...


Interview With Bud Selig By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Allan 'Bud' H. Selig Jun 2010

Interview With Bud Selig By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Allan 'Bud' H. Selig

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Allan Huber “Bud” Selig was born on July 30, 1934, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. His father, Ben, was a businessman and his mother, Marie, taught school; they were both immigrants from Romania and the Ukraine, respectively. His mother instilled in him a love of baseball at a young age. He attended the University of Wisconsin and became president of the Milwaukee Brewers baseball team as a young man. At the time of this interview he was the ninth commissioner of Major League Baseball, having served in that capacity since 1992.

Summary
Interview includes discussion of: family and educational background ...


Interview With Gary Myrick By Brien Williams, Gary B. Myrick Jun 2010

Interview With Gary Myrick By Brien Williams, Gary B. Myrick

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Gary Blendon Myrick was born on July 20, 1967, in Dover-Foxcroft, Maine, to Carol and Warren Myrick. He attended the University of Maine and worked as a page in the Maine legislature during his final year of undergraduate studies. He worked as an intern in Senator Mitchell’s U.S. Senate office, answering mail and telephones, and in 1990 he was hired as a staff assistant in the personal office, moved to answering phones in Mitchell’s leadership office, and then took a position in the Senate Cloakroom. He earned his law degree from American University. From 1995-2003 ...


Interview With Warren Rudman By Brien Williams, Warren B. Rudman Jun 2010

Interview With Warren Rudman By Brien Williams, Warren B. Rudman

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Warren B. Rudman was born on May 18, 1930, and served as a Republican in the U.S. Senate from 1980-1993 representing New Hampshire. He worked with George Mitchell on the Iran-Contra and Sharm el-Sheikh committees, but they had known each other earlier through their respective legal careers. He was appointed by President Clinton to the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board and served from 1993-2001.

Summary
Interview includes discussion of: legal careers; Iran-Contra; position of Senate majority leader; Sharm el-Sheikh Fact-Finding Committee; Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act to balance the budget; relationships between senators; and changes in the Senate over ...


Interview With Jane O’Connor By Brien Williams, Jane F. O'Connor May 2010

Interview With Jane O’Connor By Brien Williams, Jane F. O'Connor

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Jane Frances O’Connor was born on March 13, 1960, in Augusta, Maine. She was one of twelve children born to Barbara Louise (Murray) and Dr. Francis J. O’Connor, both from Dorchester, Massachusetts. Her father was head of radiology at Augusta General Hospital; her mother was an artist and musician who stayed at home while her children were young. After growing up in Augusta in a nonpolitical family, Jane attended the University of Southern Maine and, later, Trinity College in Washington, DC. In the summer of 1980, she became an intern for Beverly Bustin-Hatheway, accompanying her around ...


Interview With Walter Corey By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Walter E. Corey Iii May 2010

Interview With Walter Corey By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Walter E. Corey Iii

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Walter Ellsworth Corey III was born June 19, 1941, in White Plains, New York, to Walter E., Jr. and Theresa (Stallone) Corey and grew up mainly on Staten Island. His father was an insurance executive with Metropolitan Life and his mother was a homemaker. They divided their time between New York and Ogunquit, Maine. He attended Yale Law School, then moved to Maine to join the Portland law firm Bernstein Shur; he left the firm to serve in the Ken Curtis administration as Maine’s first federal coordinator. He was active in several of Mitchell’s campaigns, for ...


Interview With Diane Dewhirst (2) By Mike Hastings, Diane Dewhirst May 2010

Interview With Diane Dewhirst (2) By Mike Hastings, Diane Dewhirst

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Diane Dewhirst was born on May 28, 1957, in Framingham, Massachusetts, to Joan Priscilla Audubon and Robert Thornton Dewhirst. She grew up in Boston and Philadelphia. Her father worked in sales for an energy firm. Majoring in journalism at the University of Ohio and then transferring to Northwestern, she was graduated with a degree in political science. She worked on Jimmy Carter’s presidential campaign in 1976, as an intern for Common Cause, the Democratic National Committee, and briefly for ABC News on delegate selection rules, covering the 1984 presidential election. She then became press secretary for the ...


Interview With Harold Decker By Brien Williams, Harold J. Decker May 2010

Interview With Harold Decker By Brien Williams, Harold J. Decker

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Harold James Decker was born February 23, 1945, in Kalamazoo, Michigan. His parents were Harold and Dena (Bouma) Decker, both children of Dutch immigrants. He was graduated from Kalamazoo College majoring in political science, joined the Army in 1968 and served during the Vietnam War. In 1973, he took his law degree from Southwestern Law School and subsequently practiced law in southern California for six years. He then worked for the pharmaceutical manufacturer Upjohn for eighteen years. In February, 2001, he was asked by Dr. Bernadine Healy to redesign the legal function of the American Red Cross. In ...


Interview With Barbara Mikulski By Brien Williams, Barbara A. Mikulski May 2010

Interview With Barbara Mikulski By Brien Williams, Barbara A. Mikulski

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Barbara Ann Mikulski was born on July 20, 1936, and grew up in the Highlandtown neighborhood of East Baltimore, Maryland. She attended Mount Saint Agnes College and received her M.S.W. from the University of Maryland School of Social Work. She became a social worker, community organizer, and Baltimore city councilor, and she made an unsuccessful bid for the U.S. Senate in 1974 before winning election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1976. After serving in the House for ten years, she ran for the U.S. Senate in 1986, becoming the first elected ...


Interview With Ed Bonney By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Edward 'Ed' M. Bonney Apr 2010

Interview With Ed Bonney By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Edward 'Ed' M. Bonney

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Edward Mason “Ed” Bonney was born April 5, 1933, in Buckfield, Maine, and grew up in Lisbon Falls, Maine. His parents, Mason Turner and Beatrice Evelyn (Dean) Bonney, were Roosevelt Democrats. Ed served four years in the Air Force and later became an air traffic controller in New York for several years. He and his wife moved back to Maine to raise their family and became involved in Maine Democratic politics. Ed served as chair of the Cumberland County Democratic Committee, where he first met George Mitchell, and later was executive director of the Maine Democratic Party when ...


Interview With Sherman Saperstein By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Sherman H. Saperstein Apr 2010

Interview With Sherman Saperstein By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Sherman H. Saperstein

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Sherman Saperstein was born in Waterville, Maine, on March 16, 1932, to Rose (Rosenthal) and Edward Saperstein, entered the family business in 1954, and remained there until the business was sold in 1997. A childhood friend of the Mitchell family, he was also a fund raiser for George Mitchell’s campaigns. At the time of this interview, he was a resident of Scottsdale, Arizona.

Summary
Interview includes discussion of: early family life in Waterville, Maine; being a classmate and childhood friend of George Mitchell et al.; Mitchell’s traits and personality; his selection to Boys State and election ...


Interview With Jim Sasser By Diane Dewhirst, James 'Jim' R. Sasser Apr 2010

Interview With Jim Sasser By Diane Dewhirst, James 'Jim' R. Sasser

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
James R. “Jim” Sasser was born in Memphis, Tennessee, on September 30, 1936. A graduate of Vanderbilt University, he was awarded a law degree in 1961, admitted to the Tennessee bar, and became active in the Democratic Party; he managed Albert Gore Sr.’s unsuccessful 1970 campaign. In 1976 he sought election and won a seat in the U.S. Senate; he was reelected to two further terms, serving until 1995. He first met George Mitchell in 1972 when they were both working on Ed Muskie’s presidential primary campaign. He worked with Senator Mitchell on the Democratic ...


Interview With Kelly Currie By Brien Williams, Kelly T. Currie Apr 2010

Interview With Kelly Currie By Brien Williams, Kelly T. Currie

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Kelly T. Currie was born on September 11, 1963, in Lewistown, Montana, to Edmund and Bette Currie, and grew up in Farmington, Maine. His father was a professor at the University of Maine, Farmington and his mother was a nurse. He attended the University of Virginia and was graduated in 1986, serving a summer internship with Senator Mitchell’s office between his junior and senior year. In the fall of 1986, he worked on Jim Tierney’s Maine gubernatorial campaign. He joined Senator Mitchell’s Senate staff full-time in January of 1987 as a legislative correspondent dealing with ...


Interview With Beverly Sherman By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Beverly M. Sherman Apr 2010

Interview With Beverly Sherman By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Beverly M. Sherman

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Beverly (Marshall) Sherman was born in 1937 in Old Orchard Beach, Maine, to Ruth and Norris Marshall. She attended the University of Michigan and the University of Southern Maine. She had slight involvement in Mitchell’s 1982 U.S. Senate campaign and was more deeply involved with events and fund-raising for his 1988 Senate reelection campaign. She also worked with Mitchell’s staff to organize several events, including visits from President Clinton and New York Governor Cuomo, as well as the “thank you” event in Maine upon Senator Mitchell’s retirement announcement.

Summary
Interview includes discussion of: family ...


Interview With Jay Rockefeller By Brien Williams, John 'Jay' D. Rockefeller Apr 2010

Interview With Jay Rockefeller By Brien Williams, John 'Jay' D. Rockefeller

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note

John Davison “Jay” Rockefeller was born June 18, 1937, in New York to Blanchette Ferry (Hooker) and John D. Rockefeller III. He has served as a Democratic U.S. Senator representing West Virginia since 1985. Prior to that (1977-1985), he was governor of West Virginia. He is married to Sharon Percy, daughter of former Illinois Senator Charles “Chuck” Percy. He worked closely with Senator Mitchell on the 1993 health care reform package.

Summary

Interview includes discussion of: description of Senator Mitchell; differences in majority leader styles; Senator Byrd; story of President Clinton’s coming to the Democratic Caucus ...


Interview With Paul Brountas (2) By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Paul P. Brountas Apr 2010

Interview With Paul Brountas (2) By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Paul P. Brountas

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Paul Peter Brountas was born on March 19, 1932, in Bangor, Maine. He and George Mitchell were classmates at Bowdoin College, where he was graduated with a bachelor’s degree in 1954; he took bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the University of Oxford in 1956 and his law degree from Harvard Law School in 1960. That same year, he joined Hale and Dorr, the predecessor of WilmerHale. He became a partner in 1968 and served as senior counsel to the firm from 2003 until his retirement in 2005. In 1987 and 1988, he served as national ...


Interview With Ken Curtis By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Kenneth 'Ken' M. Curtis Apr 2010

Interview With Ken Curtis By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Kenneth 'Ken' M. Curtis

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Kenneth Merwin “Ken” Curtis was born on February 8, 1931, in Leeds (Curtis Corner), Maine. He was graduated with a bachelor of science degree from the Maine Maritime Academy and rose to the rank of lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy. In 1959, he earned a law degree from the Portland University School of Law (now the University of Maine School of Law) and opened a private practice. A life-long Democrat, he served as Maine’s secretary of state from 1965-1966 before being elected govern in 1967, an office he held until 1975. He was chairman of ...


Interview With Paul Maroon By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Paul P. Maroon Mar 2010

Interview With Paul Maroon By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Paul P. Maroon

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Paul P. Maroon was born in Waterville, Maine, on January 19, 1932. His father, Sam Maroon, worked for Wyandotte Worsted Mills and his mother, Nimera Maroon, was a homemaker. He attended Waterville High School with George Mitchell and they were childhood friends. He served in the Navy and, upon completing his military service, he attended Husson College. He participated in local (Waterville) fund-raising activities in support of Mitchell’s political campaigns.

Summary
Interview includes discussion of: Waterville in the 1930s and 1940s; the Lebanese community in Waterville; Lebanese traditions; family relationship between the Maroons and Mitchells; Robbie Mitchell ...


Interview With Susan Longley By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Susan W. Longley Mar 2010

Interview With Susan Longley By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Susan W. Longley

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Susan Walsh Longley was born in December, 1955, in Lewiston, Maine, to James B. and Helen Longley. Her father, a successful insurance businessman, ran for governor in 1974 and won election during her senior year in high school. She attended Mt. Holyoke College, graduating in the class of 1978. In 1984-1985, she worked on Senator Mitchell’s Senate staff as a legislative correspondent. She established her own law practice in 1989 and later served as a Maine state senator representing Waldo County.

Summary
Interview includes discussion of: family and educational background; her father, former Maine governor Jim Longley ...


Interview With Donna Beck By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Donna L. Beck Mar 2010

Interview With Donna Beck By Andrea L’Hommedieu, Donna L. Beck

George J. Mitchell Oral History Project

Biographical Note
Donna Lee Beck was born in Virginia in 1949 and grew up in Washington, D.C. Her mother worked various jobs on the Hill, including in the cafeteria of the Senate and the folding room. After completing high school, Donna also went to work on the Hill, where she stayed for thirty-two years. She worked for Senators Everett Dirksen, Alan Cranston, Ed Muskie, and George Mitchell. When Mitchell replaced Muskie in the Senate, Beck went to work as Mitchell’s office manager, both in his personal office and the majority leader’s office.

Summary
Interview includes discussion of ...