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Full-Text Articles in United States History

Secrecy Broken: Reports Of The Delegates Following The Federal Convention, Peter Aschenbrenner Nov 2013

Secrecy Broken: Reports Of The Delegates Following The Federal Convention, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Despite the measures taken to ensure the secrecy of the proceedings during the federal convention, many delegates made reports to their states and explained the choices underlying various clauses. However, no delegate had access to the official journal of the constitutional convention.


A Horse! My Constitution For A Horse! Wm. Shakespeare And Alex. Pope Serve The Delegate Laureates, Peter Aschenbrenner Nov 2013

A Horse! My Constitution For A Horse! Wm. Shakespeare And Alex. Pope Serve The Delegate Laureates, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

‘We the people’ is justly celebrated, and was upon its first reading, by those assembled in Philadelphia. OCL, having studied the orthography and punctuography of the instrument, along with its semantic provenance, now turns to the meter of it all.


Table Annexed To Article: British Orthography In The Early Constitution, Peter Aschenbrenner Nov 2013

Table Annexed To Article: British Orthography In The Early Constitution, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

OCL surveys the appearance of British spelling in the Early Constitution. The stylistic developments during the course of 27 years are tracked.


Speeches And Essays On The Jay Treaty Funding Bill (1796), Peter Aschenbrenner Nov 2013

Speeches And Essays On The Jay Treaty Funding Bill (1796), Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

William Vans Murray challenged James Madison on the floor of the House to take up the mantle of “oracle” of the constitution. James Madison refused and returned that it was the ratifiers, not the writers, of the constitution whose opinion mattered. Hamilton, having had his say and taunted Murray into the fray, is quoted in full (and for good) measure. The year is 1796 and we still don’t know the answer to the question ‘Why do we have a constitution.’ OCL explores these issues.


'Dred Scott V. Sandford' Analysis, Sarah E. Roessler Nov 2013

'Dred Scott V. Sandford' Analysis, Sarah E. Roessler

Student Publications

The Scott v. Sandford decision will forever be known as a dark moment in America's history. The Supreme Court chose to rule on a controversial issue, and they made the wrong decision. Scott v. Sandford is an example of what can happen when the Court chooses to side with personal opinion instead of what is right.


Table Annexed To Article: Secrecy Broken: Reports Of The Delegates Following The Federal Convention, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Oct 2013

Table Annexed To Article: Secrecy Broken: Reports Of The Delegates Following The Federal Convention, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Despite the measures taken to ensure the secrecy of the proceedings during the federal convention, many delegates made reports to their states and explained the choices behind various clauses. However, no delegate had access to the official journal of the constitutional convention.


Table Annexed To Article: Our Constitutional Kinesis: Words That Can Go Like A Machine, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Oct 2013

Table Annexed To Article: Our Constitutional Kinesis: Words That Can Go Like A Machine, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Constitution II, the Philadelphia constitution (1787), inspired many ‘machine/ry’ references. OCL catalogs, with the help of acknowledged secondary sources, a working list of metaphors which were deployed to credit and discredit our second constitution.


Table Annexed To Article: Congress And Parliament Deploy Appraisives (1801-1802), Peter J. Aschenbrenner Oct 2013

Table Annexed To Article: Congress And Parliament Deploy Appraisives (1801-1802), Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Parliament (primary text writer, the House of Commons) produced 24,647 words beginning in 1801; in in a comparable interval, Congress produced 27,123 words. By coincidence, this was the first year that Parliament served as the text-writer for the newly-minted United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Appraisives in the English language, numbering 3,683 have been tested against the Early Constitution. Appraisives in the Early Constitution, 2 OCL 193. This investigation tests the known class of appraisives in these target vocabularies employed by Congress and Parliament. Mean words between ‘hits’ are returned.


Book Review Of Arnold H. Leibowitz, An Historical-Legal Analysis Of The Impeachments Of Presidents Andrew Johnson, Richard Nixon, And William Clinton: Why The Process Went Wrong, Jeffrey B. Morris Oct 2013

Book Review Of Arnold H. Leibowitz, An Historical-Legal Analysis Of The Impeachments Of Presidents Andrew Johnson, Richard Nixon, And William Clinton: Why The Process Went Wrong, Jeffrey B. Morris

Jeffrey B. Morris

No abstract provided.


Table Annexed To Article: Hamilton And Madison Deploy ‘Constitution’ In The Federalist Papers: Semantic Values Surveyed, Peter Aschenbrenner Oct 2013

Table Annexed To Article: Hamilton And Madison Deploy ‘Constitution’ In The Federalist Papers: Semantic Values Surveyed, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The eighty-five Federal Papers (authors James Madison and Alexander Hamilton; John Jay contributed five) are justifiably famous as elaborations of constitutional structure and text, sans citation to the convention, understandably, since secrecy imposed by Standing Order on May 28th was continued indefinitely (at the pleasure/non-action of Congress) on September 17th. Counts on semantic value/s of ‘constitution’ and ‘constitutional’ are surveyed.


A Detailed Breakdown Of Note-Takers Surveyed From Farrand’S Records Vols. 1 And 2 (1937), Peter Aschenbrenner Oct 2013

A Detailed Breakdown Of Note-Takers Surveyed From Farrand’S Records Vols. 1 And 2 (1937), Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Eleven of the fifty-five delegates that attended the Federal Convention took notes during the proceedings. These notes, along with Jackson’s official journal and available committee drafts, are assembled in Farrand’s Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 at volumes 1 and 2. OCL provides a page-by-page breakdown of the text [of their notes] which appears in the Farrandian presentation.


New York Times V. U.S.: Implications And Relevance In The 21st Century, Maria E. Lombardi Oct 2013

New York Times V. U.S.: Implications And Relevance In The 21st Century, Maria E. Lombardi

Student Publications

In 1971, the New York Times released the first installment in a series later referred to as the Pentagon Papers that would eventually have significant political, social, and historical impacts that are felt even in the 21st Century. Following the first release, President Nixon’s administration sought an injunction against the publication of the remaining contents of the classified study, ultimately becoming an extensive legal process that culminated in the Supreme Court. In a per curiam opinion, the Court ruled that in accordance with Organization for a Better Austin v. Keefe and Near v. Minnesota that the federal government did ...


Order Of Delegate Arrival At Philadelphia Tabled Against Support/Opposition To Constitution, Peter J. Aschenbrenner, David Kimball Sep 2013

Order Of Delegate Arrival At Philadelphia Tabled Against Support/Opposition To Constitution, Peter J. Aschenbrenner, David Kimball

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Fifty-five delegates were appointed by twelve states to attend the federal convention in May, 1787. Arrival of the delegates is matched with support/opposition for the Constitution.


Delegate Arrivals At Philadelphia Compared To Voting Records At The Ratification Conventions By State, Peter J. Aschenbrenner, David Kimball Sep 2013

Delegate Arrivals At Philadelphia Compared To Voting Records At The Ratification Conventions By State, Peter J. Aschenbrenner, David Kimball

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Fifty-five delegates were appointed by twelve states to attend the federal convention in May, 1787. Eleven states ratified the Constitution between December 7, 1787 and July 26, 1788. When delegate arrival dates are compared with the order in which their respective state ratification conventions completed their business, a significant number of delegates supporting the constitution are missing in action.


Table Annexed To Article: Delegate Arrivals In Philadelphia Compared To Voting Records, Peter J. Aschenbrenner, David Kimball Sep 2013

Table Annexed To Article: Delegate Arrivals In Philadelphia Compared To Voting Records, Peter J. Aschenbrenner, David Kimball

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Fifty-five delegates were appointed by twelve states to attend the federal convention in May, 1787. Eleven states ratified the Constitution between December 7, 1787 and July 26, 1788. When delegate arrival dates are compared with the order in which their respective state ratification conventions completed their business, a significant number of delegates supporting the constitution are missing in action.


Table Annexed To Article: A Detailed Breakdown Of Note-Takers Surveyed From Farrand’S Records Vols. 1 And 2 (1937), Peter J. Aschenbrenner Sep 2013

Table Annexed To Article: A Detailed Breakdown Of Note-Takers Surveyed From Farrand’S Records Vols. 1 And 2 (1937), Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Eleven of the fifty-five delegates that attended the Federal Convention took notes during the proceedings. These notes, along with Jackson’s official journal and available committee drafts, are assembled in Farrand’s Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 at volumes 1 and 2. OCL provides a page-by-page breakdown of the text [of their notes] which appears in the Farrandian presentation.


Table Annexed To Article: Introducing Constitutional Text Units, Peter Aschenbrenner Sep 2013

Table Annexed To Article: Introducing Constitutional Text Units, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The traditional citation format for reference to specific passages in the federal constitution does not account for the order in which text was added, changed or deleted; a new citation format is proposed, called ‘Constitutional Text Units’; Madison’s June, 1789 suggestion for maintaining a coherent presentation is explained and defended.


Naming Constitutions And Constitutional Text In The Early American Republic, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Aug 2013

Naming Constitutions And Constitutional Text In The Early American Republic, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

From the beginning of the nation (October 7, 1777) to the disaster of Dred Scott (March 6, 1857), the United States has produced thirty-two articles worth of constitutioinal text, in 133 constitutional text units, beginning with the Articles of Confederation (opening date noted above). OCL names all the writings and groups them, for the first time.


Table Annexed To Article: Naming Constitutions/ Constitutional Text In The Early American Republic, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Aug 2013

Table Annexed To Article: Naming Constitutions/ Constitutional Text In The Early American Republic, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

From the beginning of the nation to disaster of Dred Scott (March 6, 1857), the United States has produced twenty-one writings which may be grouped as constitutional text units after the Articles of Confederation. OCL names all the writings and groups them, for the first time.


Union And States’ Rights: A History And Interpretation Of Interposition, Nullification, And Secession 150 Years After Sumter, Neil H. Cogan Aug 2013

Union And States’ Rights: A History And Interpretation Of Interposition, Nullification, And Secession 150 Years After Sumter, Neil H. Cogan

The University of Akron Press Publications

Edited by Neil H. Cogan, who is a well-versed legal scholar of constitutional law, civil rights, and civil and criminal procedures, this volume is a collection of papers on a central issue of governance in the United States; namely, what is the power of the States to object to and cancel Federal law with which they disagree. For eighty-one years, from the ratification of the Constitution to the end of the Civil War, this issue of State power was the central issue of governance. Chapters address the history and legal arguments for three assertions of such State power: interposition, nullification ...


Table Annexed To Article: Our Aesthetic Constitution, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2013

Table Annexed To Article: Our Aesthetic Constitution, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

If natural language is deficient, then descriptions-in-words of constitutions may suffer the same fate. What other choices are there, when an investigator – or more typically, a speaker in ordered discourse – or even more usually a speaker uttering demotic elaboration – sets out to describe constitutional text? Isn’t it obvious that artifacts featuring words lock users into using more words? OCL offers (the first of) several studies.


Our Aesthetic Constitution, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2013

Our Aesthetic Constitution, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

If natural language is deficient, then descriptions-in-words of constitutions may suffer the same fate. What other choices are there, when an investigator – or more typically, a speaker in ordered discourse – or even more usually a speaker uttering demotic elaboration – sets out to describe constitutional text? Isn’t it obvious that artifacts featuring words lock users into using more words? OCL offers (the first of) several studies.


Tapp, George Hambleton, 1900-1994 (Sc 2739), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Jun 2013

Tapp, George Hambleton, 1900-1994 (Sc 2739), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 2739. Paper titled “Should Kentucky Revise Her 1891 Constitution by Convention?” written by George Hambleton Tapp and dated August 1947.


Table Annexed To Article: The Mathematical Logic Of Blocking Power: From Thirteen To Forty-Four States, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Apr 2013

Table Annexed To Article: The Mathematical Logic Of Blocking Power: From Thirteen To Forty-Four States, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

OCL explores the mathematical logic of blocking power, that is, the power to block organic change. In Constitution I (the Articles of Confederation) the formula was absurdly simple. Any state, no matter how geographically small, economically insignificant and revoltingly irrelevant could block organic change desired by all the other constituents. Hence, secession orchestrated (via Constitution II) so that the first nine states (willing to do so) could secede from Rhode Island.


The Mathematical Logic Of Blocking Power: From Thirteen To Forty-Four States, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Apr 2013

The Mathematical Logic Of Blocking Power: From Thirteen To Forty-Four States, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

OCL explores the mathematical logic of blocking power, that is, the power to block organic change. In Constitution I (the Articles of Confederation) the formula was absurdly simple. Any state, no matter how geographically small, economically insignificant and revoltingly irrelevant could block organic change desired by all the other constituents. Hence, secession orchestrated (via Constitution II) so that the first nine states (willing to do so) could secede from Rhode Island.


Table Annexed To Article: Detailed Breakdown Of Note-Takers In Farrand As Extracted From Farrand’S Records Vols. 1 And 2, Peter Aschenbrenner Apr 2013

Table Annexed To Article: Detailed Breakdown Of Note-Takers In Farrand As Extracted From Farrand’S Records Vols. 1 And 2, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Eleven of the fifty-five delegates that attended the Federal Convention took notes during the proceedings. These notes, along with Jackson’s official journal and available committee drafts, are assembled in Farrand’s Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 at volumes 1 and 2. OCL provides a page-by-page breakdown of the text [of their notes] which appears in the Farrandian presentation.


The Foreigners Among Us: Constituent Expulsion In The Early American Republic, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Mar 2013

The Foreigners Among Us: Constituent Expulsion In The Early American Republic, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

OCL surveys constituent explusion through the impost laws passed in the first session of the First Federal Congress. The purpose of the laws was to make clear to North Carolina and Rhode Island that Constitution II was a ‘take it or leave it’ affair. North Carolina, never truculent, merely slow to ratify, got the message; Rhode Island’s struggle with political reality created a near year-long sideshow before it finally bowed the neck Providential to the inevitable. Pay up or join up.


Table Annexed To Article: The Foreigners Among Us, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Mar 2013

Table Annexed To Article: The Foreigners Among Us, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

OCL surveys constituent explusion through the impost laws passed in the first session of the First Federal Congress. The purpose of the laws was to make clear to North Carolina and Rhode Island that Constitution II was a ‘take it or leave it’ affair. North Carolina, never truculent, merely slow to ratify, got the message; Rhode Island’s struggle with political reality created a near year-long sideshow before it finally bowed the neck Providential to the inevitable. Pay up or join up.


A Survey Of Note-Takers In Farrand, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Mar 2013

A Survey Of Note-Takers In Farrand, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Twelve writers took notes of proceedings at the federal convention beginning in May, 1787 at Philadelphia. The best known are Major Wm. Jackson and James Madison, the convention’s official Secretary and its unofficial note-taker, respectively. The efforts of all twelve note-takers are surveyed by output.


Table Annexed To Article: The Doctrine Of Stare Decisis In The United States Supreme Court, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Mar 2013

Table Annexed To Article: The Doctrine Of Stare Decisis In The United States Supreme Court, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

OCL surveys United States Supreme Court cases from 1791 to 1900 for deployment of the phrase stare decisis in opinions and published arguments before the Court. The people, as Madison conceded, make their own precedents; they do this by approving (or not disapproving) official action (in the recent past); in turn, these officials look back to official action taken at time/s more or less remote from the present for their precedents.