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2014

European History

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Articles 1 - 30 of 33

Full-Text Articles in Social History

Heroes Of Berlin Wall Struggle, William D. Bowman Nov 2014

Heroes Of Berlin Wall Struggle, William D. Bowman

History Faculty Publications

When the Berlin Wall fell 25 years ago, on Nov. 9, 1989, symbolically signaling the end of the Cold War, it was no surprise that many credited President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev for bringing it down.

But the true heroes behind the fall of the Berlin Wall are those Eastern Europeans whose protests and political pressure started chipping away at the wall years before. East German citizens from a variety of political backgrounds and occupations risked their freedom in protests against communist policies and one-party rule in what they called the "peaceful revolution." [excerpt]


Review Of Notable Men And Women Of Our Time, Brian Maxson Oct 2014

Review Of Notable Men And Women Of Our Time, Brian Maxson

Brian J. Maxson

Paolo Giovio wrote his text in the aftermath of the sack of Rome by imperial troops in 1527, although the work remained unfinished at the time of the author's death some twenty-five years.


Review Of Reviving The Eternal City: Rome And The Papal Court, 1420-1447 By Elizabeth Mccahill, Brian Maxson Oct 2014

Review Of Reviving The Eternal City: Rome And The Papal Court, 1420-1447 By Elizabeth Mccahill, Brian Maxson

Brian J. Maxson

No abstract provided.


The Intellectual Fallout From World War I, William Dean Oct 2014

The Intellectual Fallout From World War I, William Dean

Faculty Scholarship – History

Many books link World War II to postmodernism, but few link World War I in the same way. The author here explores the intellectual fallout from World War I as the context of the roots of post-modernism. His limited purpose in this paper is to explore one of many possible links between the unanticipated carnage of World War I, through existentialism, to the attack on meaning in history posed by postmodernism. The postmodern drive towards individual isolation and autonomy has a corrosive political impact on our world, as it does on individual well being.

One of the internal inconsistencies that ...


So We Ran..., Sara R. Bias Oct 2014

So We Ran..., Sara R. Bias

Student Publications

This paper tells the true story of a Hungarian refugee who's family fled the communist regime there in 1971. Gabriella Bercze's story reflects on what it was like to live in Hungary under communist rule, and her family's experience in escaping the country, and fleeing to Italy, where they lived in a refugee camp for months before immigrating to the United States in the early 70s.


'Fors Clavigera', The Young Women Of Whitelands College, And The Temptations Of Social History, Christopher Bischof Sep 2014

'Fors Clavigera', The Young Women Of Whitelands College, And The Temptations Of Social History, Christopher Bischof

History Faculty Publications

On the first of May each year from the 1880s onward the young women at Whitelands teacher training college in London celebrated by throwing to the wind the timetable that normally dictated how their every moment would be spent. Instead, they adorned the college in flowers, donned in white dresses, and spent the day dancing, singing, and reading poetry. The tradition of May Day helped to poke a hole in the rather dour institutional regimen of Whitelands, which opened the way for many smaller, everyday acts that gradually reworked the ethos of the college.


Emw 2014: Healing, Medicine, And Jews In The Early Modern World, Northwestern University, Evanston And Spertus Institute, Chicago Aug 2014

Emw 2014: Healing, Medicine, And Jews In The Early Modern World, Northwestern University, Evanston And Spertus Institute, Chicago

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Early modern healing and medicine continued medieval traditions and were simultaneously transformed as a result of radical scientific, religious, and social changes. Early modern scholars, pharmacists, medical doctors, and popular healers advanced significant arguments that drew from and shaped new understandings of human nature and subsequently altered the interactions between healing, religion, and society. Such changes afford a unique opportunity to discuss forms of Jewish interaction with Christian and Muslim societies and developments within Jewish learned and popular culture. They also engage and test the limits of new topics and methodologies employed in early modern studies, enriching the evaluation of ...


Jewel Of Womanhood: A Feminist Reinterpretation Of Queen Katherine Howard, Holly K. Kizewski Jul 2014

Jewel Of Womanhood: A Feminist Reinterpretation Of Queen Katherine Howard, Holly K. Kizewski

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research, Department of History

In 1540, King Henry VIII married his fifth wife, Katherine Howard. Less than two years later, the young queen was executed on charges of adultery. Katherine Howard has been much maligned by history, often depicted as foolish, vain, and outrageously promiscuous. Her few defenders often attempt to exonerate Katherine by claiming that she was chaste, innocent of the adultery charges brought against her, or a victim of rape. Both detractors and defenders usually reduce Katherine to her sexuality.

However, the surviving primary sources about Katherine reveal a more complex individual. In fact, examination of conduct books for young women of ...


Review Of Healthy Living In Late Renaissance Italy, Brian Maxson Jun 2014

Review Of Healthy Living In Late Renaissance Italy, Brian Maxson

Brian J. Maxson

This work offers an interdisciplinary study of preventative health in 16th and 17th century Italy. Previous studies on the practice and prescription of early modern preventative health are few, and scholars have tended to assume that medical understanding of the body's humors remained relatively static during this period.


The Truth Is In The Lye: Soap, Beauty, And Ethnicity In British Soap Advertisements., Michelle I. Parker Jun 2014

The Truth Is In The Lye: Soap, Beauty, And Ethnicity In British Soap Advertisements., Michelle I. Parker

History Undergraduate Theses

This paper explores the connection between historical soap advertisements and perceptions of race. It begins by exploring the history of advertising, beauty, and the Industrial Revolution. It analyzes four advertisements, three from the late nineteenth century and one from the early twenty-first century. It discusses the link between racial perceptions and acceptance of “The White Man’s Burden.” The focus of this paper is on soap brands owned by the contemporary company Unilever.


Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent May 2014

Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent

Doctoral Dissertations

What do community interpreting for the Deaf in western societies, conference interpreting for the European Parliament, and language brokering in international management have in common? Academic research and professional training have historically emphasized the linguistic and cognitive challenges of interpreting, neglecting or ignoring the social aspects that structure communication. All forms of interpreting are inherently social; they involve relationships among at least three people and two languages. The contexts explored here, American Sign Language/English interpreting and spoken language interpreting within the European Parliament, show that simultaneous interpreting involves attitudes, norms and values about intercultural communication that overemphasize information and ...


In Defense Of Our Brothers’ Cause: Argentine Perspectives On The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, Tomas E. Piedrahita May 2014

In Defense Of Our Brothers’ Cause: Argentine Perspectives On The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, Tomas E. Piedrahita

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Long a country of two faces – European and Latin American – Argentina saw the woes of the Spanish Civil War as deeply reflective of their struggles and immensely predictive of their fate. Their preoccupation with the war’s outcome was at once an expression of the country's long-simmering identity crisis and an attempt to affirm its Hispanic otherness, particularly in the wake of the 1930 coup d’état. This article explores the subtleties of this identity crisis with an eye toward determining the motives underlying claims and references to Spain, an exploration which rests primarily on the nexus of social ...


“Wir Streiken!”: Music And Political Activism In Cold War Germany, John Tyler Patty May 2014

“Wir Streiken!”: Music And Political Activism In Cold War Germany, John Tyler Patty

Masters Theses

Using print media such as band biographies, books, and journals that address youth, popular culture, and music in the German context, this thesis analyzes how music and musicians influenced political protest movements in West Germany during the Cold War and how, in turn, protest movements fostered the career of musicians. The relationship between music and social change in Germany throughout the Cold War is complicated and contains many aspects. This thesis focuses mainly on the effect American and British music had on divided Germany and examines how these influences helped shape the cultural climate in which political protests emerged. It ...


Bard In The Gondola, Barred In The Ghetto: Operatic Adaptations Of Shakespearean Text And Italian Identity In The Late Nineteenth Century, Anne M. Kehrli May 2014

Bard In The Gondola, Barred In The Ghetto: Operatic Adaptations Of Shakespearean Text And Italian Identity In The Late Nineteenth Century, Anne M. Kehrli

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis, Bard in the Gondola, Barred in the Ghetto: Operatic Adaptations of Shakespearean Text and Italian Identity in the Late Nineteenth Century, is based on the comparison between two texts. The first is William Shakespeare’s first quarto edition of The Merchant of Venice. The second is the 1873 vocal score and libretto of Ciro Pinsuti and G.T. Cimino’s opera, Il Mercante di Venezia: un melodramma in quattro atti. The contrast between the two works is made within the context of Italian unification, nationalism and identity juxtaposed with the literary and philosophical trends of the nineteenth century ...


The Power Of The People In Influencing The British Government: The Kindertransport, Sophia Cantwell Apr 2014

The Power Of The People In Influencing The British Government: The Kindertransport, Sophia Cantwell

Young Historians Conference

The Kindertransport was a program implemented by Britain throughout Europe during World War II to save thousands of persecuted Jewish children. While the British Parliament ultimately passed the movement as a bill and allowed it, the credit and work behind the movement belongs to the Quakers and various Jewish figures of authority in Britain. This paper explores the birth of this movement, its successes and struggles, and its lasting impact on the world today. Without the determination of a few willing people, thousands of lives would have perished during World War II.


Mothers Of The Nation: The Ambiguous Role Of Nazi Women In Third Reich, Samantha Schuring Apr 2014

Mothers Of The Nation: The Ambiguous Role Of Nazi Women In Third Reich, Samantha Schuring

Master's Theses

Women in Nazi Germany during the Third Reich adapted to the ever-changing demands that were placed on them by political and economic restrictions as well as the events of World War II. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the role of women in Germany through the years of 1933 to 1945, and how they were able to cope with the social separation between themselves and the men in their society. Often forgotten about in the discussion of Nazi history, German women played a significant role in the development of the Nazi Party along with providing a substantial contribution ...


The German Peasants’ War: The Intersection Of Theology And Society, Zachary Tyree Apr 2014

The German Peasants’ War: The Intersection Of Theology And Society, Zachary Tyree

Senior Honors Theses

This paper examines the way that Reformation theology, particularly that espoused by Martin Luther, impacted German society. Sixteenth-century German society was very hierarchical in nature, with the Roman Catholic Church at the top, followed by the nobility, and finally the peasants, who suffered economic and political plight. Luther’s break from the Church in 1517 and the subsequent years brought tension to society. Developments extending from that break challenged the social hierarchy. One of the major social consequences of the Protestant Reformation, which was rooted in Luther’s theology, was the Peasants’ War. Luther criticized the peasants for the uprising ...


Panel 10: "Complex Social Memory: Revolving Social Roles In Holodomor Survivor Testimony, 1986-1988", Johnathon Vsetecka Apr 2014

Panel 10: "Complex Social Memory: Revolving Social Roles In Holodomor Survivor Testimony, 1986-1988", Johnathon Vsetecka

Phi Alpha Theta Nu Alpha & UW History Club

In 1932 and 1933, Ukraine experienced a man-made famine that destroyed between three and five million people in less than two years. Scholars, members of the Ukrainian diaspora, and others now refer to the event as the Holodomor (death by starvation). The collectivization process brought upon Ukraine by the Soviet Union intended to procure grain from Ukraine’s fertile soil and sell it to Western markets at an increased in price. The result was disastrous and the famine left many dead due to disease, hunger, and malnutrition. Furthermore, the famine disrupted Ukrainian social life and forced people out of their ...


In Her Own Right: A Study Of Freya Von Moltke In The German Resistance 1940-1945, Sarah E. Hayes Apr 2014

In Her Own Right: A Study Of Freya Von Moltke In The German Resistance 1940-1945, Sarah E. Hayes

Student Publications

Freya von Moltke was a member of the Kreisau Circle resistance group in Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1944. This intellectual group planned for the future of Germany after the anticipated downfall of the Nazis and was led by Helmuth von Moltke, the husband of Freya, and Peter Yorck. Despite the significance of her resistance in comparison to the majority of the German population, the resistance story of Freya von Moltke is often overwhelmed by that of her husband. The examination of Freya von Moltke’s interviews, letters, and memoirs as well as a variety of secondary sources reveals that ...


Germany And History In Flux: The Generational Changes In Approaching Germany's Past, Louis T. Gentilucci Apr 2014

Germany And History In Flux: The Generational Changes In Approaching Germany's Past, Louis T. Gentilucci

Student Publications

Historical memory, how a people remember the past, is in a state of almost eternal flux. By following the development of historical memory in post-war Germany, historians can better understand the generational and contemporary impact on popular history. German history illustrates the importance of this concept, as German history has a great deal of 20th century historical baggage.


“Long Live Freedom!”: Moral Motives Behind The White Rose Resistance, Katelyn M. Quirin Apr 2014

“Long Live Freedom!”: Moral Motives Behind The White Rose Resistance, Katelyn M. Quirin

Student Publications

This paper examines the motives behind the White Rose resistance group. Active from 1942-1943, the White Rose consisted primarily of university students who produced anti-Nazi leaflets. By examining documents such as letters, diaries, the leaflets themselves, and Gestapo interrogations, the motives of the group are evident. The members resisted the Nazi regime for moral and ideological reasons, specifically in relation to the failures World War II, atrocities committed by Nazis in Poland and the Eastern Front, the restriction on personal rights, and an inner duty to oppose the regime.


Review Of Isabella D’Este And Francesco Gonzaga: Power Sharing At The Italian Renaissance Court, Brian Maxson Mar 2014

Review Of Isabella D’Este And Francesco Gonzaga: Power Sharing At The Italian Renaissance Court, Brian Maxson

Brian J. Maxson

The book reviewed depicts husband and wife, Francesco Gonzaga and Isabella d'Este, who worked together to direct the domestic and diplomatic affairs of Mantua far more than the scholarship on Isabella has usually assumed.


From Bread And Jam To Woolton Pie: Food Rationing And Improved Nutrition In Wwii Great Britain, Jennifer G. Joyner Mar 2014

From Bread And Jam To Woolton Pie: Food Rationing And Improved Nutrition In Wwii Great Britain, Jennifer G. Joyner

History Undergraduate Theses

The practice of controlling food supplies has existed since ancient times—driven by urbanization, the controls were of a protective nature, as the commercialization of food production and retailing led to opportunities for graft and corruption. Authorities, motivated by the belief in a “moral economy” that held the public good in higher esteem than market forces, attempted to curb these abuses with various controls. However, in Great Britain in the eighteenth century, rapid industrialization led to a new economic and political approach to governance: that the public was best served by free trade.

This premise meant that market demands now ...


Stalin's Russia: Visions Of Happiness, Omens Of Terror, Mark Konecny, Wendy Salmond Jan 2014

Stalin's Russia: Visions Of Happiness, Omens Of Terror, Mark Konecny, Wendy Salmond

Art Faculty Creative Works – Exhibitions

"In 1970 an American high school teacher began a thirty-year journey into Stalin’s Russia. The items you see here were selected from more than 8,000 artifacts conserved on that journey.

Tom Ferris (the teacher) began collecting early, and he collected just about everything. But in 1970 Tom found a focus for his collecting and a new love and passion – Russia herself...

Tom’s dream was that his collection of Russian memorabilia be preserved, kept safe, and made available for study so people could understand how Stalin came to be; so Soviet history would be real, not abstract; so ...


Prostitution And The Contagious Diseases Acts In 19th Century British Colonies, Katria Hiersche Jan 2014

Prostitution And The Contagious Diseases Acts In 19th Century British Colonies, Katria Hiersche

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

The Contagious Diseases Act allowed the British government to arrest anyone who was thought to be a prostitute and perform unauthorized, and oftentimes non consensual, medical tests on them. Despite the confidence the British government felt while backing up the Act, there has been plenty of evidence to show that the spread of disease actually increased while the Act was in place, and declined sharply after the repeal in the late 19th Century. Many different organizations were created to put a stop to the unfair treatment against women, such as the Woman’s Club and the protests put on by ...


Holes In The Historical Record: The Politics Of Torture In Great Britain, The United States, And Argentina, 1869-1977, Lynsey Chediak Jan 2014

Holes In The Historical Record: The Politics Of Torture In Great Britain, The United States, And Argentina, 1869-1977, Lynsey Chediak

CMC Senior Theses

While many politicians gain national or international acclaim, domestic political activists are rarely remembered for their dedication and, similarly, their sufferings. More specifically, the acts of female political activists, and the harsh punishments they endure following government pushback, are not appreciated or acknowledged by popular histories.

Across Great Britain, the United States, and Argentina, three women played crucial roles in advancing reform against unjust government policies. Josephine Butler (1828-1906) was a pivotal character in repealing laws allowing for the government regulation of prostitution, the Contagious Diseases Acts, in Great Britain. Similarly, Alice Paul (1885-1997) was essential in achieving the ratification ...


“To Fly Is More Fascinating Than To Read About Flying”: British R.F.C. Memoirs Of The First World War, 1918-1939, Ian A. Isherwood Jan 2014

“To Fly Is More Fascinating Than To Read About Flying”: British R.F.C. Memoirs Of The First World War, 1918-1939, Ian A. Isherwood

Civil War Institute Faculty Publications

Literature concerning aerial warfare was a new genre created by the First World War. With manned flight in its infancy, there were no significant novels or memoirs of pilots in combat before 1914. It was apparent to British publishers during the war that the new technology afforded a unique perspective on the battlefield, one that was practically made for an expanding literary marketplace. As such former Royal Flying Corps pilots created a new type of war book, one written by authors self-described as “Knights in the Air”, a literary mythology carefully constructed by pilots and publishers and propagated in the ...


Quantitative Literacy And The Humanities, Rachel Chrastil Jan 2014

Quantitative Literacy And The Humanities, Rachel Chrastil

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Finding The Witch’S Mark: Female Participation In The Judicial System During The Hopkins Trials 1645-47, Shannon M. Lundquist Jan 2014

Finding The Witch’S Mark: Female Participation In The Judicial System During The Hopkins Trials 1645-47, Shannon M. Lundquist

Departmental Honors Projects

Between the years of 1645 and 1647 in East Anglia, a series of witch trials known as the Hopkins Trials took place. In all, 250 witches were accused and 100 hanged. The ability to convict a person of the crime of witchcraft relied heavily on evidence which was hard to come by given the nature of the crime of witchcraft. Tangible proof of an intangible crime was needed; this came in the form of witch’s marks. To the learned population, marks were a symbol of the witch’s covenant with the devil. To the lay person, they were called ...


Hidden From Memory: Remembrance And Commemoration Of The Sherwood Foresters’ Involvement In Easter, 1916, Amanda S. Kinchen Jan 2014

Hidden From Memory: Remembrance And Commemoration Of The Sherwood Foresters’ Involvement In Easter, 1916, Amanda S. Kinchen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the level at which the Sherwood Foresters are commemorated for their service during the Easter Rising of 1916. The Sherwood Foresters, known officially as the Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment, were created in 1881 in England after combining the 45th (Nottinghamshire) and 95th (Derbyshire) Regiments of Foot and had previously served as part of the guard to the royal family. Four battalions were sent to Dublin to quell the rebellion, yet their efforts go largely unnoticed in the annals of the history of World War I. These men are not considered ...