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Islamic World and Near East History

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Articles 1 - 30 of 143

Full-Text Articles in Medieval History

Love, Sex, And Marriage In Ibn Battuta's Travels, Rachel Singer Jun 2019

Love, Sex, And Marriage In Ibn Battuta's Travels, Rachel Singer

MAD-RUSH Undergraduate Research Conference

Abu ‘Abdallah ibn Battuta was a Muslim legal scholar who traveled nearly 73,000 miles in the mid-fourteenth century and wrote a popular rihla, or travel diary, of his experiences. The rihla was a public and impersonal genre that traditionally contained little, if any, biographical material about its author. However, Ibn Battuta’s rihla includes detailed narratives about its author’s marriages, concubines, and sexual exploits. Although discussion of these themes is virtually unseen in other contemporary rihlas, few historians have discussed why Ibn Battuta breaks tradition to include this material.

This paper argues that Ibn Battuta describes his marital ...


The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter Jan 2019

The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter

Manuscript Studies

The Historia de los Reyes Moros de Granada, written by the chronicler Hernando de Baeza in the first half of the XVI century, in Spain, is a valuable text that provides a very different perspective from other late medieval Spanish official chronicles. This article provides an account of the discovery of a previously unknown manuscript of this chronicle which, unlike the two others already known, is complete and includes the ending, which narrates the negotiations between the Catholic Kings of Spain and the last Nasrid sultan Boabdil for the Islamic surrender of Granada. The article describes this previously unknown manuscript ...


The Lost & Found Game Series: Teaching Medieval Religious Law In Context, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber Aug 2018

The Lost & Found Game Series: Teaching Medieval Religious Law In Context, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber

Presentations and other scholarship

Lost & Found is a strategy card-to-mobile game series that teaches medieval religious legal systems with attention to period accuracy and cultural and historical context. The Lost & Found project seeks to expand the discourse around religious legal systems, to enrich public conversations in a variety of communities, and to promote greater understanding of the religious traditions that build the fabric of the United States. Comparative religious literacy can build bridges between and within communities and prepare learners to be responsible citizens in our pluralist democracy. The first game in the series is a strategy game called Lost & Found (high school and ...


Skbd-Kml, Mark Polczynski, Michael Polczynski Jun 2018

Skbd-Kml, Mark Polczynski, Michael Polczynski

SKBD - Sawran Kodyma Border Dispute

No abstract provided.


Skbd-Shp, Mark Polczynski, Michael Polczynski Jun 2018

Skbd-Shp, Mark Polczynski, Michael Polczynski

SKBD - Sawran Kodyma Border Dispute

No abstract provided.


Digital Addenda To: The French Of Outremer: Communities And Communications In The Crusading Mediterranean, Laura Morreale, Nicholas Paul, Alan M. Stahl, Philip Handyside, Massimiliano Gaggero, Angel Nicolaou-Konnari Feb 2018

Digital Addenda To: The French Of Outremer: Communities And Communications In The Crusading Mediterranean, Laura Morreale, Nicholas Paul, Alan M. Stahl, Philip Handyside, Massimiliano Gaggero, Angel Nicolaou-Konnari

Publications

Digital addendum to the essay collection originating with the 2014 Fordham conference entitled The French of Outremer. The addendum includes files for 3-D printing (in .stl format), an enriched manuscript stemma, a Byzantine genealogy, as well as more traditional textual addenda to contributions in the book.

Abstract of the book, from the Fordham University Press website: "The establishment of feudal principalities in the Levant in the wake of the First Crusade (1095-1099) saw the beginning of a centuries-long process of conquest and colonization of lands in the eastern Mediterranean by French-speaking Europeans. This book examines different aspects of the life ...


Skbd-Ichg18-Poster, Mark Polczynski, Michael Polczynski Jan 2018

Skbd-Ichg18-Poster, Mark Polczynski, Michael Polczynski

SKBD - Sawran Kodyma Border Dispute

No abstract provided.


Prosocial Religion And Games: Lost & Found, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber Jan 2018

Prosocial Religion And Games: Lost & Found, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber

Articles

In a time when religious legal systems are discussed without an understanding of history or context, it is more important than ever to help widen the understanding and discourse about the prosocial aspects of religious legal systems throughout history. The Lost & Found (www.lostandfoundthegame.com) game series, targeted for an audience of teens through twentysomethings in formal, learning environments, is designed to teach the prosocial aspects of medieval religious systems—specifically collaboration, cooperation, and the balancing of communal and individual/family needs. Set in Fustat (Old Cairo) in the 12th century, the first two games in the series address laws ...


'Not Cruelty But Piety': Circumscribing European Crusading Violence, Susanna A. Throop Jan 2018

'Not Cruelty But Piety': Circumscribing European Crusading Violence, Susanna A. Throop

History Faculty Publications

Was there such a thing as “crusading violence”? Traditionally the crusading movement has been sharply distinguished from other forms of Christian violence motivated, or at least justified, by religion. However, we have increasingly come to recognize the difficulties of drawing clear-cut boundaries between crusading and other aspects of western European culture in the Middle Ages. This chapter assesses the ways in which crusader violence was like and unlike other forms of medieval Christian violence.


Crusader Orientalism: Depictions Of The Eastern Other In Medieval Crusade Writings, Henry Schaller Jan 2018

Crusader Orientalism: Depictions Of The Eastern Other In Medieval Crusade Writings, Henry Schaller

Summer Research

This paper examines the ways in which different texts (crusade chronicles, French epic poems, and crusade sermons) written during the early Crusades and Crusader States created a coherent portrait of the East. It compare the ways Edward Said’s Orientalism, which examines colonial texts, and the effect their portrait of the East had on European identity, with texts of the Crusades. These texts cast the Orient into a place that was the antithesis of Christendom, defining what it meant to have a Christian, European white identity. This was done through representations of: threatening sexuality, skin color, unlimited wealth, and a ...


Finding Lost & Found: Designer’S Notes From The Process Of Creating A Jewish Game For Learning, Owen Gottlieb Dec 2017

Finding Lost & Found: Designer’S Notes From The Process Of Creating A Jewish Game For Learning, Owen Gottlieb

Articles

This article provides context for and examines aspects of the design process of a game for learning. Lost & Found (2017a, 2017b) is a tabletop-to-mobile game series designed to teach medieval religious legal systems, beginning with Moses Maimonides’ Mishneh Torah (1180), a cornerstone work of Jewish legal rabbinic literature. Through design narratives, the article demonstrates the complex design decisions faced by the team as they balance the needs of player engagement with learning goals. In the process the designers confront challenges in developing winstates and in working with complex resource management. The article provides insight into the pathways the team found ...


Differentiating Averroes’ Accounts Of The Metaphysics Of Human Epistemology In His Middle And Long Commentaries On Aristotle’S De Anima, Caleb H A Brown Jun 2017

Differentiating Averroes’ Accounts Of The Metaphysics Of Human Epistemology In His Middle And Long Commentaries On Aristotle’S De Anima, Caleb H A Brown

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

Averroes (an Islamic Andalusian philosopher in the 12th century) discusses the metaphysics of human epistemology extensively, and his socio-religious context sheds light on this discussion. Several of his works, most prominently his three commentaries on Aristotle’s De Anima, attempt to explain how finite, particular minds interact with universal, eternal intelligibles. Current scholarship focuses on the two longer commentaries, the Middle Commentary and the Long Commentary, but there is no consensus regarding which of these presents Averroes’ final articulation of the metaphysics of human epistemology. Those who maintain that Averroes wrote the Middle Commentary last tend to minimize the ...


The Price Revolution In The Ottoman Context: Economic Upheaval In The Sixteenth Century, Dylan Lawrence Russell Jun 2017

The Price Revolution In The Ottoman Context: Economic Upheaval In The Sixteenth Century, Dylan Lawrence Russell

Middle Eastern Communities and Migrations Student Research Paper Series

The inflationary pressures of the Price Revolution had an impact on Ottoman agricultural organization, state finances, industry, and the growth of corruption. This analysis will examine the causes, effects, and scope of inflation in the sixteenth century. Inflation alone did not cause these drastic changes, as other very significant developments also contributed to the turbulent economic environment. However inflation did, in fact, influence many basic transformations, including shifts in wealth, power, and the enrichment of specific social classes at the expense of others.


Inventing Saladin: The Role Of The Saladin Legend In European Culture And Identity, Brian C. David May 2017

Inventing Saladin: The Role Of The Saladin Legend In European Culture And Identity, Brian C. David

Masters Theses

This thesis seeks to uncover and understand the strange historical journey of the Muslim Sultan Yusuf ibn Ayyub, known to the West as Saladin. The historic Saladin was a ruler famous for his successful campaigns against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, his victory at the Battle of Hattin, and his holding action against the Third Crusade. Upon Saladin’s death in 1193, he became the subject of numerous legends, most of which describe him as a merciful, chivalric, and ideal leader of men. The epitome of what a thirteenth century European noble was supposed to be. This thesis seek to ...


The Crusades And The Crusaders (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries Jan 2017

The Crusades And The Crusaders (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries

Library Resources for Campus Events

A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to “Crusades and Crusaders,” a lecture by Kevin Madigan '82, held at the College of the Holy Cross on March 23, 2017.

Professor Madigan explains what the Crusades were and explores how Crusaders viewed themselves as pilgrims on an armed expedition undertaken for Christ, authorized by the Pope, who were given full remission of their sins. He also traces the historiography of the Crusades in the 19th and 20th centuries to lay context for decision of the Holy Cross student body in 1925 to adopt ...


Lost & Found, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber, Kelly Murdoch-Kitt Jan 2017

Lost & Found, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber, Kelly Murdoch-Kitt

Presentations and other scholarship

Lost & Found is a strategy card-to-mobile game series that teaches medieval religious legal systems with attention to period accuracy and cultural and historical context.

The Lost & Found games project seeks to expand the discourse around religious legal systems, to enrich public conversations in a variety of communities, and to promote greater understanding of the religious traditions that build the fabric of the United States. Comparative religious literacy can build bridges between and within communities and prepare learners to be responsible citizens in our pluralist democracy.

The first game in the series is a strategy game called Lost & Found (high-school and up). In Lost & Found, players take on the role of villagers who must balance family needs with communal needs. They must balance cooperative actions even while addressing individual needs. The game emphasizes the pro-social aspects of religious legal systems including collaboration and cooperation.

Both this game and the second game in the series (Order in the Court) are set in Fustat (Old Cairo) in the 12th Century, a crossroads of religions. Lost & Found and Order in the Court both teach elements of the Mishneh Torah, the Jewish legal code written by Moses Maimonides. Maimonides was influenced by the works of Islamic legal scholars and philosophers such as Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Al Ghazahli; he also influenced Islamic scholars.


Research And Study Of Fashion And Costume History Spanning From Ancient Egypt To Modern Day, Kaitlyn E. Dennis Miss Nov 2016

Research And Study Of Fashion And Costume History Spanning From Ancient Egypt To Modern Day, Kaitlyn E. Dennis Miss

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Through a generous donation to Morehead State University, research has been conducted on thousands of slides containing images of artwork and artifacts of historical significance. These images span from Egyptian hieroglyphs to the inaugural dress of every first lady of the United States. The slides are in the process of being recorded and catalogued for future use by students in hopes of furthering academic comprehension and awareness of the influence of fashion and costume history through the ages. Special thanks to the family of Gretel Geist Rutledge, faculty mentor Denise Watkins, as well as the Department of Music, Theatre, and ...


In Search Of Askia Mohammed: The Epic Of Askia Mohammed As Cultural History And Songhay Foundational Myth, Joe Wilson May 2016

In Search Of Askia Mohammed: The Epic Of Askia Mohammed As Cultural History And Songhay Foundational Myth, Joe Wilson

Masters Theses

This thesis offers a detailed historical analysis of The Epic of Askia Mohammed, a foundational myth that ranks among the more well-known global tales of cultural heroes and state formation. The sudden regime change that resulted in the collapse of the Songhay Sunni dynasty and the ascent of the Songhay Askia dynasty in 1492-93 is one of the most important events in West African history. This swift rebellion reversed decades of destructive economic and religious policies. As such, the memory of these dynamic and transformative times was captured by the griots, the oral historians of the Sudan. Nouhou Malio, a ...


In Search Of Askia Mohammed, Joe Wilson Apr 2016

In Search Of Askia Mohammed, Joe Wilson

Showcase of Graduate Research and Creative Activities

This is my MA thesis. I contextualized the Songhay oral history concerning king Askia Mohammed. I placed the folk lore in cultural and historical context to illustrate that the Epic of Askia Mohammed is a complex work of mythology that communicates difficult and complicated information in easily understandable "picture stories." These stories are not at all factual and often distort the historical narrative, but they do so in order that the audience is entertained, cultural norms are reinforced, and the historical account is preserved in a culturally approved framework.


Killing The Rotten Citric Lump: A Somatic Reading Of The Death Of Shahrazād’S Hunchback, Erin S. Lynch Jan 2016

Killing The Rotten Citric Lump: A Somatic Reading Of The Death Of Shahrazād’S Hunchback, Erin S. Lynch

The Hilltop Review

Throughout the narrative of the Hunchback’s Tale within the Thousand and One Nights, the hunchback is always at the center of the action, yet with the exception of the first time he is “killed,” he is never written as the reader’s focus, except in instances of violence performed against the hunchback’s body. The reader’s gaze is constantly drawn to the killer, rather than the victim, and led to laugh at or empathize with the killers of the hunchbacked corpse, rather than the deformed, ever-abused body. Neither the champion nor the foil, the body of the hunchback ...


The Medical Response To The Black Death, Joseph A. Legan May 2015

The Medical Response To The Black Death, Joseph A. Legan

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This paper discusses the medical response to the Black Death in both Europe and the Middle East. The Black Death was caused by a series of bacterial strands collectively known as Yersinia pestis. The Plague originated in the Mongolian Steppes. It was spread westward by the east-west trading system. Once it arrived in the Crimea in 1346, Italian merchants helped spread it throughout the Mediterranean. Medicine in Europe and the Middle East were centered on Galen’s theory of humors. There were many religious explanations for the Plague, but the main medical explanation was the spread of bad air, or ...


The Medieval Canon And The Renaissance Image Of The Turk: A Brief Historiography Of Pre-Modern European Conceptions Of The Muslim World, A. Blake Denton May 2015

The Medieval Canon And The Renaissance Image Of The Turk: A Brief Historiography Of Pre-Modern European Conceptions Of The Muslim World, A. Blake Denton

Madison Historical Review

This historiographic essay examines the scholarly debate over pre-modern European “images,” or conceptions, of the Muslim World during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Adopting a thematic approach, this study is guided by four themes shared by two or more works. While this essay largely revolves around the image studies of Nancy Bisaha, Norman Daniel, and Robert Schwoebel, the interpretations of additional scholars are presented as well. Though points of convergence exists between the works presented here, far more telling is the fact that the sharp contrasts between these historians aptly illustrates the challenge of determining the precise nature of ...


The Matter Of Jerusalem: The Holy Land In Angevin Court Culture And Identity, C. 1154-1216, Katherine Lee Hodges-Kluck May 2015

The Matter Of Jerusalem: The Holy Land In Angevin Court Culture And Identity, C. 1154-1216, Katherine Lee Hodges-Kluck

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation reshapes our understanding of the mechanics of nation-building and the construction of national identities in the Middle Ages, placing medieval England in a wider European and Mediterranean context. I argue that a coherent English national identity, transcending the social and linguistic differences of the post-Norman Conquest period, took shape at the end of the twelfth century. A vital component of this process was the development of an ideology that intimately connected the geography, peoples, and mythical histories of England and the Holy Land. Proponents of this ideology envisioned England as an allegorical new Jerusalem inhabited by a chosen ...


The Role Of Supernatural Powers In Arab-Byzantine Wars As Reflected By The Popular Imagination, Abdelaziz M. A. Ramadan Jan 2015

The Role Of Supernatural Powers In Arab-Byzantine Wars As Reflected By The Popular Imagination, Abdelaziz M. A. Ramadan

Abdelaziz M. A. Ramadan

Legends and myths seem lacking a solid historicity, but they often, if not always, reflect the imagination, culture and ideas of the peoples who created them. As the recent study demonstrates, aside from the political rivalry, military confrontation and religious difference that were arose between the Byzantines and the Arabs; they shared a similar popular belief in the supernaturalism of the divine powers.


The Struggle Between The Center And The Periphery: Justinian's Provincial Reforms Of The A.D. 530s, Mark-Anthony Karantabias Jan 2015

The Struggle Between The Center And The Periphery: Justinian's Provincial Reforms Of The A.D. 530s, Mark-Anthony Karantabias

Theses and Dissertations--History

This dissertation analyzes the struggle between the imperial court and the periphery in the context of Justinian’s reforms in the early A.D. 530s. The reforms targeting select Roman provinces sought to reduce the size of the imperial bureaucracy while simultaneously attempting to maintain imperial vertical authority. The reforms epitomize the imperial court’s struggle to rein in the imperial bureaucracy in the provinces of the Roman Empire. The analysis is framed within the cultural, social, political and economic evolution occurring in Late Antiquity. It shall be proposed that the reforms are one example of the imperial court’s ...


Going Gothic: Spanish Unity And Blame In The Legend Of Rodrigo And Florinda, Sara A. Gottardi Dec 2014

Going Gothic: Spanish Unity And Blame In The Legend Of Rodrigo And Florinda, Sara A. Gottardi

Doctoral Dissertations

The Legend of Rodrigo and Florinda is used to explain the causes for the successful Muslim invasion of Spain. My dissertation discusses six medieval versions of this legend, three Muslim and three Christian. I trace variations in blame to identify the different strata of society that are described as the corrosive catalysts for the Visigoths' divine punishment. I also analyze each source's presentation of the Visigothic prior to the invasion and examine how they assess the fracture of Spain into smaller kingdoms after the invasion. Identifying the Muslim invasion as a form of divine chastisement inherently includes the idea ...


Frederick Ii: Holy Roman Emperor Extraordinaire, Prose/Poem 7/23/2014, Charles Kay Smith Jul 2014

Frederick Ii: Holy Roman Emperor Extraordinaire, Prose/Poem 7/23/2014, Charles Kay Smith

Charles Kay Smith

Frederick avoided fighting the 6th Crusade by negotiating a peaceful sharing of Jerusalem by people of all faiths. No doubt it helped that he spoke Arabic and personally engaged in five months of negotiations rather than combat.


Dante And Islam, A Prose/Poem 6/19/2014, Charles Kay Smith Jun 2014

Dante And Islam, A Prose/Poem 6/19/2014, Charles Kay Smith

Charles Kay Smith

In this poem, Dante is revealed as a scholar of Islamic literature who was influenced by two islamic texts about Muhammad's visits to Purgatory and Hell narrated in the The Isra, and whose visit to Paradise was recorded in The Mirage. The concept of Limbo introduced by Dante in his Divine Comedy was an Islamic/Christian hybrid new to his first readers.


The Idea Of ‘Holy Islamic Empire’ As A Catalyst To Muslims’ Response To The Second Crusade, Emeel S. Lamey May 2014

The Idea Of ‘Holy Islamic Empire’ As A Catalyst To Muslims’ Response To The Second Crusade, Emeel S. Lamey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The oral traditions in the Islamic world presented only the moral benefits of Jihad. Yet, the fact is that, though the moral benefits continued to exist before and after the First Crusade, though the interest seemed to have been present and the necessary intellectual theories continued on, Muslims did not advance the practical Jihad. Nonetheless, the disastrous Second Crusade struck a powerful chord among Muslims. It forced Muslims to battle for their very survival, and to do so they would have to adapt, but equally they could only survive by drawing on their imperial inheritance built up over centuries. A ...


Aaron Swartz’S Legacy, Rebecca Gould Jan 2014

Aaron Swartz’S Legacy, Rebecca Gould

Rebecca Gould

“Aaron Swartz’s Legacy,” Academe: Magazine of the American Association of University Professors 95(1): 19-23. Special issue on the “New Public Intellectual.” http://www.aaup.org/article/aaron-swartz%E2%80%99s-legacy#.UtZGm2RDtmk