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Articles 1 - 30 of 43

Full-Text Articles in Islamic World and Near East History

Images Of Kingship: Statebuilding, Patronage, And Architecture In The Capitals Of The Mughal And Ottoman Empires, Meenakshi Krishnan Jun 2019

Images Of Kingship: Statebuilding, Patronage, And Architecture In The Capitals Of The Mughal And Ottoman Empires, Meenakshi Krishnan

Augsburg Honors Review

The Ottoman and the Mughal Empires, though widely recognized for their political prowess, military expansion, and systems of religious tolerance, are also renowned for their architectural contributions. Structures like the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul and Red Fort in Delhi immediately capture the grandeur and magnificence of the empires of the Ottomans and Mughals, simultaneously serving as symbols of their artistic patronage and testaments to their splendor. Beyond establishing the empires' greatness, however, architecture was often directly tied to a specific agenda, reflecting poiitical goals, religious doctrines, and particular ideologies. A closer analysis of three cities in each of these empires ...


Understanding Muhammad's Interaction With The Church, Devonte Narde Sep 2018

Understanding Muhammad's Interaction With The Church, Devonte Narde

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

My research focuses on understanding Muhammad’s (the Islamic prophet) interaction with what he perceived to be the Christian church to find out why his understanding of Biblical narratives and theology is incorrect. With this information, Christians should reintroduce Christian scripture and theology to Muslims since Muhammad’s rejection of Christian doctrine is based on associating wrong texts as authoritative Christian teaching. The following questions that shape this research are: What possible sources did Muhammad use to learn about biblical narratives and themes? What did the first Muslims think about the canonical gospels of Jesus? How did early Muslims view ...


The Lost & Found Game Series: Teaching Medieval Religious Law In Context, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber Aug 2018

The Lost & Found Game Series: Teaching Medieval Religious Law In Context, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber

Presentations and other scholarship

Lost & Found is a strategy card-to-mobile game series that teaches medieval religious legal systems with attention to period accuracy and cultural and historical context. The Lost & Found project seeks to expand the discourse around religious legal systems, to enrich public conversations in a variety of communities, and to promote greater understanding of the religious traditions that build the fabric of the United States. Comparative religious literacy can build bridges between and within communities and prepare learners to be responsible citizens in our pluralist democracy. The first game in the series is a strategy game called Lost & Found (high school and ...


The Shapers Of Memory: The Theatrics Of Islamic Historiography, Aaron M. Hagler May 2018

The Shapers Of Memory: The Theatrics Of Islamic Historiography, Aaron M. Hagler

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This paper employs and describes an experimental methodology of viewing medieval Arabic authors through the lens of stage actor performance theory. In particular, it argues that semi-canonical writings, such as al-Ṭabarī’s History of the Prophets and Kings, become the “script” that later authors, such as Ibn al-Athīr and Ibn Kathīr “perform” as actors. This methodology is novel, and argues that by examining the changes authors made to narratives presented in earlier Arabic texts, we can draw important conclusions about the authors’ opinions of the relative importance of narrative elements, the authors’ literary-narrative strategies for endowing memories with meaning, and ...


Morocco & The United States: A Shared History, Daniel Valentin Jan 2018

Morocco & The United States: A Shared History, Daniel Valentin

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

This thesis reviews existing literature on domestic affairs in Morocco and its interactions with the United States with the goal of examining the main reasons why both countries have been in positive relations throughout their shared history. Through an extensive analysis of time periods that include their origin of international relations, the American-led invasion of Axis-controlled Morocco during World War II, and the Cold War collaboration between both countries, I argue that the current friendship between the United States and Morocco is the result of unprecedented and unexpected actions taken by leaders in both countries on behalf of the other ...


Environmental Mastery Of The Biopolitical: Water And The Birth Of The Modern Al-Sabah State, Benjamin Elrod Jan 2018

Environmental Mastery Of The Biopolitical: Water And The Birth Of The Modern Al-Sabah State, Benjamin Elrod

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ascension to power of Shaykh Mubarak al-Sabah in 1896 has been treated by many historians as the beginning of the modern Kuwaiti state. With the bloody murder of the Shaykh Muhammad and his brother Jarrah, leadership of the al-Sabah family fell without further contention into Mubarak’s lap. In the cosmopolitan, trade driven urban society that characterized the port city of the nineteenth century, however, this transition of power meant little to the merchant families that operated as Kuwait’s de facto government. Similarly, a narrative familiar to states’ across the broader Gulf region, the discovery of oil in ...


Eisenhower Internationalism And Nasser Nationalism: The Suez Crisis Defining International Policy In Post-Colonial Egypt, Dominic Supple Dec 2017

Eisenhower Internationalism And Nasser Nationalism: The Suez Crisis Defining International Policy In Post-Colonial Egypt, Dominic Supple

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

The nationalization of the Suez Canal by the Egyptians in 1956 was an international controversy. As history, the topic has been just as controversial among scholars; however events such as: the planning of the Aswan Dam, the Protocol of Sèvres, the Bandung Conference, and the Baghdad Pact have helped crystalize the perspective and significance of the Suez Crisis. The United States dealings in Egypt during the Suez Crisis, and subsequent relations with Abdel Nasser, cemented United States Cold War foreign policy, culminating in the passing of the Eisenhower Doctrine. While these events were the enactment of containment policy, they also ...


Tourism And Representation: Digital Expressions And Implications Of Orientalism, Lily P. Ayau Oct 2017

Tourism And Representation: Digital Expressions And Implications Of Orientalism, Lily P. Ayau

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As the tourism industry in Morocco expands, so does Morocco’s online presence. Digital representations of Morocco are often written by and geared toward Westerners; these are often projections of an imagined Morocco, one that is informed by Orientalist conceptions of the Arab/Islamic countries. This study aims to analyze a selection of online articles about touring Morocco in an effort to determine how the underlying Orientalist attitudes in these pieces fit into a larger narrative of exploitation and Western dominance.


The Price Revolution In The Ottoman Context: Economic Upheaval In The Sixteenth Century, Dylan Lawrence Russell Jun 2017

The Price Revolution In The Ottoman Context: Economic Upheaval In The Sixteenth Century, Dylan Lawrence Russell

Middle Eastern Communities and Migrations Student Research Paper Series

The inflationary pressures of the Price Revolution had an impact on Ottoman agricultural organization, state finances, industry, and the growth of corruption. This analysis will examine the causes, effects, and scope of inflation in the sixteenth century. Inflation alone did not cause these drastic changes, as other very significant developments also contributed to the turbulent economic environment. However inflation did, in fact, influence many basic transformations, including shifts in wealth, power, and the enrichment of specific social classes at the expense of others.


Salafism, Wahhabism, And The Definition Of Sunni Islam, Rob J. Williams Jan 2017

Salafism, Wahhabism, And The Definition Of Sunni Islam, Rob J. Williams

Honors Program: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

My capstone deals with the historical definition of Sunni Islam, and how it has changed in approximately the past 200 years. Around 1800, Sunni Islam was pretty clearly defined by an adherence to one of four maddhabs, or schools of law: the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali schools and are all based in nearly a millennium of legal scholarship. Since 1800, however, numerous reform movements have sprung up which disavow previous scholarship and interpret Islamic law their own way. However, certain reformist groups, such as Traditionalist Salafis and Wahhabis, claim that their version of Islam is the only “pure ...


The Time-Honored Friendship: A History Of Vietnamese-Algerian Relations (1946-2015), Ngoc H. Huynh May 2016

The Time-Honored Friendship: A History Of Vietnamese-Algerian Relations (1946-2015), Ngoc H. Huynh

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In 1958, the newly established Democratic Republic of Vietnam initiated a top secret program to ship a “large quantity” of submachine guns disguised as commercial goods to Algeria to assist the Front de libération nationale in its struggle for independence from French colonial rule. In 1973, Algeria leveraged its position as the host of the fourth Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement to issue a draft resolution requesting that all member nations pledge diplomatic support to the Việt Cộng, contribute to Vietnam’s post-war reconstruction, and demand the wholescale withdrawal of foreign troops from the Southeast Asian nation. At the close ...


Tracing Islamic Extremist Ideologies: The Historical Journey Of Jihad From The Late Antique Period To The 21st Century, Nikhil Kanade Jan 2016

Tracing Islamic Extremist Ideologies: The Historical Journey Of Jihad From The Late Antique Period To The 21st Century, Nikhil Kanade

CMC Senior Theses

Popular interpretations and academic scholarship tends to emphasize the relationship between jihad, military action, and communal violence. These reinforce a sense that violence is inherent to Islam. Investigations into the contexts where jihad has been deployed highlight how its use is often a call for unity believed to be necessary for political goals. Therefore, in order to deconstruct this belief, this thesis tackles instead the relationship between textual interpretations and historical actions, and how these varied across specific moments in time. The case studies examined range from the initial evolution of a theory of jihad in the late antique world ...


Partitioned Lives: Migrants, Refugees, Citizens In India And Pakistan, 1947-65, Haimanti Roy Oct 2015

Partitioned Lives: Migrants, Refugees, Citizens In India And Pakistan, 1947-65, Haimanti Roy

Haimanti Roy

Partitioned States offers new perspective in the histories of Partition and its aftermath by connecting it to the long, drawn out and skewed formation of new national entities: India and East Pakistan. The book focuses on the Bengal Partition and locates its narrative within the intersection of long term cross border movement, chronic small-scale violence, the emergence of a document regime, and biased national refugee policies, all of which contributed to the formation of national citizenships in India and East Pakistan. This book argues that minorities -- Hindus in East Pakistan, Muslims in eastern India -- and the discourse over their citizenship ...


The Effect Of Refugees On Jordanian Identity, Max Yenkin Apr 2015

The Effect Of Refugees On Jordanian Identity, Max Yenkin

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Jordan has become known as the home for refugees from the crises that have occurred along its borders. Several waves of large groups of refugees have come to Jordan: 1948, 1967, 1991, 2003, and 2011-present, with copious amounts of refugees coming from different surrounding countries to Jordan. The Hashemite Kingdom is ruled through keeping relations between the Bedouin tribes that have lived in the area from the founding of the country. This has led to the denial of equality for former refugees who obtained citizenship as well as the other refugee populations in areas such as work and education. As ...


The Integration History Of Kuwaiti Television From 1957-1990: An Audience-Generated Oral Narrative On The Arrival And Integration Of The Device In The City, Ahmad Hamada Jan 2015

The Integration History Of Kuwaiti Television From 1957-1990: An Audience-Generated Oral Narrative On The Arrival And Integration Of The Device In The City, Ahmad Hamada

Theses and Dissertations

This study attempts to compose an account of television history in Kuwait, one that focuses on its integration into society and is told from the audience's perspective and experience. This study represents a cultural alternative to the overwhelmingly national, institutional, and biographical focus that accompanies television history works in Kuwait and the Arab world.

The narrative is gathered and generated through the individual oral stories of 25 Kuwaitis over the age of 50, who generally represent the six geographical districts of Kuwait. Through their oral stories, the narrators examine the different areas in which television has integrated itself into ...


"The Garden Of Forking Paths": Islamic Legal Transformations In The Ottoman Empire During The Nineteenth Century, John Bugnacki Oct 2014

"The Garden Of Forking Paths": Islamic Legal Transformations In The Ottoman Empire During The Nineteenth Century, John Bugnacki

History Student Papers

In the popular imagination, misconceptions abound regarding islamic law. Many outside of the Islamic world believe that Islamic law consists of a discrete series of inviolable, unchanging commands. However, both in historical and contemporary contexts, this characterization is false. The different legal schools within Islamic law have evolved and changed over time in response to surrounding conditions and other legal traditions that have existed alongside it. In the Ottoman Empire this process was particularly evident and, during the nineteenth century, its main tradition of Islamic law underwent an unprecedented transformation that would seek to combine Islamic legal principles within statist ...


Whose India?: The Independence Struggle In British And Indian Fiction And History, Teresa Hubel Sep 2014

Whose India?: The Independence Struggle In British And Indian Fiction And History, Teresa Hubel

Teresa Hubel

For centuries, India has captured our imagination. Far more than a mere geographical presence, India is also an imaginative construct shaped by competing cultures, emotions, and ideologies. In Whose India? Teresa Hubel examines literary and historical texts by the British and Indian writers who gave meaning to the construct “India” during the final decades of the Empire. Feminist and postcolonial in its approach, this work describes the contest between British imperialists and Indian nationalists at that historical moment when India sought to achieve its independence; that is, when the definition, acquisition, and ownership of India was most vehemently at stake ...


Evidence And Analysis: The Iran-Contra Affair As Seen Through American, Middle Eastern, And Soviet News Sources, Devin Chavira Jan 2014

Evidence And Analysis: The Iran-Contra Affair As Seen Through American, Middle Eastern, And Soviet News Sources, Devin Chavira

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

No abstract provided.


A Dream Deferred: The United States' Role In The Development Of The Kurdistan Regional Government (Krg) From 1991 – 2011, John Bugnacki Nov 2013

A Dream Deferred: The United States' Role In The Development Of The Kurdistan Regional Government (Krg) From 1991 – 2011, John Bugnacki

History Student Papers

Throughout the history of the Iraqi Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), the United States has both supported and undermined Kurdish nationalism depending upon changing geopolitical realities. In particular, the U.S. has sought to mollify important regional partners such as Turkey that possess large Kurdish populations who would presumably secede if the KRG were able to demonstrate the viability of an independent, Kurdish state. Despite its general policy of realpolitick, during the Iraq War, the U.S. embarked upon a period of nearly unprecedented positive support to the KRG, which allowed it to emerge as a major force in post-Saddam Iraq ...


“Muslim” Vs “Islamic”, Jan-E-Alam Khaki May 2013

“Muslim” Vs “Islamic”, Jan-E-Alam Khaki

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


The Battle Of Beersheba: Strategic And Tactical Pivot Of Palestine, Zachary D. Grafman Apr 2013

The Battle Of Beersheba: Strategic And Tactical Pivot Of Palestine, Zachary D. Grafman

Senior Honors Theses

The Battle of Beersheba, fought on October 31, 1917, was a vital turning point in the British campaign against the Ottoman Turks. The battle opened a gap in the Turkish line that eventually resulted in the British takeover of Palestine. The British command saw the cavalry charge of the 4th Light Horse Brigade as a new tactical opportunity, and this factored into the initiative for new light tank forces designed around the concepts of mobility and flanking movements. What these commanders failed to realize was that the Palestine Campaign was an anachronistic theater of war in comparison to the rest ...


Coffee And Dates: Perceptions Of Life In The Modern Middle East, Patrick Edward Thevenow May 2012

Coffee And Dates: Perceptions Of Life In The Modern Middle East, Patrick Edward Thevenow

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Old men were everywhere. The Nizwa Souq was crawling with them as they wandered through the labyrinth of shops to converse, eat dates, and drink coffee. Instantly, scenes from Wilfred Thesiger's "Arabian Sands" came to mind as the old men of the souq went about their daily business. This was the first time I had truly been on my own in Oman-away from my school and the Americans there, away from the modern conveniences of Muscat-yet as my initial sense of bewilderment subsided, I began to realize this research was going to change the course of my life. The ...


Creating A Nation In Adversity: Advent Of Egyptian Nationalism In British Occupation, Kathryn Louise James May 2012

Creating A Nation In Adversity: Advent Of Egyptian Nationalism In British Occupation, Kathryn Louise James

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Nationalism is the process through which the groupings of ethnicity, nationhood, and statehood successfully merge into a nation-state. This study seeks to identify the cause of nationalism in Egypt and its characteristics.


America And Political Islam, Richard Lobban Apr 2012

America And Political Islam, Richard Lobban

Richard A Lobban

I received this book before 11 September 2001 and am reviewing it in the aftermath of that day. One could not imagine a more intense crucible in which to view a work on political Islam. Under the glare of the fiery collapse at the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and with bombs falling on Taliban and al-Qaeda camps in Afghanistan, the work of an author and a reviewer requires even greater scrutiny.


Kordofan Invaded, Richard Lobban Apr 2012

Kordofan Invaded, Richard Lobban

Richard A Lobban

The history of Sudan still reflects the country's struggle to find its identity between Middle Eastern and African studies. Even within Sudan, there are spheres of interest ranging from the expanding ancient studies of Nubia to the protracted conflict between so-called Afro-Arab northerners and Nilotic southerners. Lost in these expanding domains are the histories of eastern Sudan and Kordofan to the west. Even the historiography of Sennar and Darfur is far better established than that of Kordofan. Thus, the very title of the book being reviewed suggests that Kordofan is an "invaded" and "peripheral" area on the edge of ...


Seed Of Redemption, Richard Lobban Apr 2012

Seed Of Redemption, Richard Lobban

Richard A Lobban

It is hard to imagine that a single author could so consistently produce published works of the highest quality, with great creativity, on diverse subjects for a variety of audiences. Dr. Deng has made pioneering contributions to law and anthropology as well as to the analysis and practice of foreign relations and diplomacy, so perhaps it is not surprising that in writing his first novel, he should do very well again.


Black Athena Writes Back, Richard Lobban Apr 2012

Black Athena Writes Back, Richard Lobban

Richard A Lobban

Martin Beral has been defending Black Athena since 1987. By now, most scholars have drawn their own conclusions in various forums. In short, Bernal seeks to overthrow the dominant paradigm about the connections of Greco-Roman civilization to Egypt and the Near East. He attacked its logic and methodology and criticized possible contamination with anti-Semitism and reluctance to see Egyptian civilization, located in Africa, as an influence upon Greek civilization. I looked forward to the logic and evidence of his defense and especially to learn of any new ideas that Beral might present.


Cry Of The Owl / Book Review, Richard Lobban Apr 2012

Cry Of The Owl / Book Review, Richard Lobban

Richard A Lobban

Some may mistake this book for Francis Deng's sequel to his Seed of Redemption. True, this book builds on earlier themes and the setting has its similarities. This book is also destined to take a place of significance in Sudanese literature. Even with the thematic convergences, the issues at hand are so vital to the understanding of Sudanese culture and politics that they require deeper analysis.


Philosophy, Science, And Belles-Lettres In Syriac And Christian Arabic Literature: A Gentle Introduction And Survey, Adam C. Mccollum Apr 2012

Philosophy, Science, And Belles-Lettres In Syriac And Christian Arabic Literature: A Gentle Introduction And Survey, Adam C. Mccollum

Adam C McCollum

It might be assumed that the genres of Syriac and Christian Arabic literature are made up exclusively (or almost so) of sacred topics (Bible, commentary, liturgy, asceticism, hagiography, theology, etc.), the writers, scribes, and readers in these communities often being monks, presbyters, deacons, and bishops. A broad look at the surviving evidence of this literature, however, shows an immense interest in subjects not directly connected to the church, monastery, or Christian life at all, among them philosophy, science, and belles-lettres. This paper offers a basic overview of these subjects as Syriac and Christian Arabic authors dealt with them, especially from ...


A Union Of Negatives: Ayatollah Khomeini And The Mobilization Of Dissent In The Iranian Revolution Of 1979, Nicholas G. Sumski Apr 2012

A Union Of Negatives: Ayatollah Khomeini And The Mobilization Of Dissent In The Iranian Revolution Of 1979, Nicholas G. Sumski

History Student Papers

The Islamic Revolution of 1979 eradicated half a century of Westernization in Iran and installed Ayatollah Khomeini as the leader of Iran’s new Islamic Republic. However, the revolutionary forces were not strongly unified under Khomeini’s radical Islamic vision. Indeed, many facets of the opposition simply desired moderate political reforms to increase democratic participation in the government and opposed the imposition of a government directed under the auspices of Islam. By the late 1970s, though, these various moderate revolutionaries realized that the only legitimate means to overthrow the reign of the American-supported Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, would be to ...