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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 58

Full-Text Articles in Islamic World and Near East History

Violence Against Women In Pakistan, Amina Bath Dec 2011

Violence Against Women In Pakistan, Amina Bath

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


The Vatican, American Catholics And The Struggle For Palestine, 1917-1958: A Study Of Cold War Roman Catholic Transnationalism, Adriano E. Ciani Dec 2011

The Vatican, American Catholics And The Struggle For Palestine, 1917-1958: A Study Of Cold War Roman Catholic Transnationalism, Adriano E. Ciani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The modern relationship between the Vatican and the state of Israel is rooted in a much deeper history of relations between Judaism and Christianity. In the main, this relationship was fraught with tensions and animosity, as early Christian writers chastised and demonized Judaism, ensconcing a hostility that endured for centuries. The advent of political Zionism in the nineteenth century renewed Roman Catholic fears of a Jewish-dominated Palestine, where religious sites sacred to Catholics would fall under the political jurisdiction of a Zionist state. In 1904, Pope Pius X granted an audience to the prominent Zionist Theodor Herzl, in which he ...


Sacred Biography, Translation, And Conversion ; The Nabīvaṃśa Of Saiyad Sultān And The Making Of Bengali Islam, 1600-Present, Ayesha A. Irani Dec 2011

Sacred Biography, Translation, And Conversion ; The Nabīvaṃśa Of Saiyad Sultān And The Making Of Bengali Islam, 1600-Present, Ayesha A. Irani

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The present dissertation is a study of the Nabīvaṃśa, “The Prophet’s Lineage,” the first biography of the Prophet Muḥammad to be composed in Bangla, in the first half of the seventeenth century. A literary milestone in the multi-ethnic, multi-cultural history of Islam, it marks a significant contribution to Bangla’s rich literary corpus, and became a canonical work for the late-medieval Islamic Bangla literary tradition. This hitherto little-studied text is used to examine the nature of Islamic expansion on Bengal’s eastern frontier, addressing issues of religious competition, identity formation, and conversion. These were central concerns of the author ...


The Geography Of Comparative Literature, Rebecca Gould Dec 2011

The Geography Of Comparative Literature, Rebecca Gould

Rebecca Gould

“The Geography of Comparative Literature,” Journal of Literary Theory 5.2 (2011): 167–186 (examines the disciplinary history of Comparative Literature in the Arab and Persian world in relation to Europe; reviewed in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 13.07.2011, No. 160, S. N5).


Wiki Leaks Revelations In Global Context—The War Between ‘Right To Publish’ And ‘Ethical Code Of Conduct, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr Nov 2011

Wiki Leaks Revelations In Global Context—The War Between ‘Right To Publish’ And ‘Ethical Code Of Conduct, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr

Ratnesh Dwivedi

WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes submissions of private, secret, and classified media from anonymous news sources, news leaks, and whistleblowers. Its website, launched in 2006 under The Sunshine Press organisation claimed a database of more than 1.2 million documents within a year of its launch. WikiLeaks describes its founders as a mix of Chinese dissidents, journalists, mathematicians, and start-up company technologists from the United States, Taiwan, Europe, Australia, and South Africa. Julian Assange, an Australian Internet activist, is generally described as its director. The site was originally launched as a user-editable wiki, but has progressively moved ...


A Critical Study Of Organizational Communication And Organizational Communication Theories- A Historical Perspective, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr Nov 2011

A Critical Study Of Organizational Communication And Organizational Communication Theories- A Historical Perspective, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr

Ratnesh Dwivedi

Organizational Communication is the study that looks at human communication within and outside the organization. Conrad and Poole (1998) break the definition of organizational communication in parts, by first defining communication and then analyses the organization. These researchers define communication as “a process through which people, acting together, create, sustain, and manage meanings through the use of verbal and nonverbal signs and symbols within a particular context” (Conrad and Poole, 1998, p. 5). In the context of this book, Kenyans and their leaders are communicating their views and final decision through the ballot box to elect their third president, during ...


Public Accountability And Media : Its Success And Failure In Performing The Role As A Force For Public Accountability, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr Nov 2011

Public Accountability And Media : Its Success And Failure In Performing The Role As A Force For Public Accountability, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr

Ratnesh Dwivedi

Media accountability is a phrase that refers to the general (especially western) belief that mass media has to be accountable in the public’s interest - that is, they are expected to behave in certain ways that contribute to the public good. The concept is not clearly defined, and often collides with commercial interests of media owners; legal issues, such as the constitutional right to the freedom of the press in the U.S.; and governmental concerns about public security and order. Several international organizations, like International Freedom of Expression Exchange, Freedom House, International Press Institute, World Press Freedom Committee and ...


Dearabizing Arabia: Tracing Western Scholarship On The History Of The Arabs And Arabic Language And Script, Saad D. Abulhab Nov 2011

Dearabizing Arabia: Tracing Western Scholarship On The History Of The Arabs And Arabic Language And Script, Saad D. Abulhab

Publications and Research

This book is a reference book on the history of the Arabic Language and script, which goes beyond the sole discussion of technical matters. It studies objectively the evidence presented by modern-day western archeological discoveries together with the evidence presented by the indispensable scholarly work and research of past Islamic Arab civilization era. The book scrutinizes modern western theories regarding the history of the Arabs and Arabic language and script in connection with the roles played by Western Near East scholarship, religion and colonial history in the formation of current belief system, which is an essential step to study this ...


Beyond Anti-Semitism, Rebecca Gould Nov 2011

Beyond Anti-Semitism, Rebecca Gould

Rebecca Gould

Focusing on internal contradictions within the Israeli left, this essay considers the impact of the historical legacy of anti-Semitism on everyday thinking about Israel and the Palestinian territories. Contesting the view that to criticize Israel is to engage in anti-Semitic defamation, it offers an historical account of how Israel's actions in the West Bank have come to be immunized from conscientious criticism. It also documents how progressive media outlets in contemporary Israel have silenced or otherwise marginalized Israel's most active critics.


Middle East Missions: Nationalism, Religious Liberty, And Cultural Encounter, Heather J. Sharkey Nov 2011

Middle East Missions: Nationalism, Religious Liberty, And Cultural Encounter, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Re-Visioning White Nudes: Race And Sexual Discourse In Ottoman Harems 1700-1900, Jennifer M. Black Sep 2011

Re-Visioning White Nudes: Race And Sexual Discourse In Ottoman Harems 1700-1900, Jennifer M. Black

The Hilltop Review

As a viable social actor, art constitutes one of many institutions participating in the creation and reification of ideologies constructed within our society. Investigating the work of Ingres, Gérôme, and others reveals striking connections between the ritual use of Europeanized women in Orientalist harem paintings and the perpetual nature of women’s social oppression. A close examination of prominent works provokes the question “why paint recognizably white women against such non-white Eastern backdrops?” Continually, visual hierarchies and prescriptive codes allow the virtual entrance of the male voyeur into the painting. (first paragraph)


Fictions Of Counterinsurgency, Louise K. Barnett Sep 2011

Fictions Of Counterinsurgency, Louise K. Barnett

Re-visioning Terrorism

My essay examines the disconnect between theory and practice in the American response to terrorism, primarily by comparing the policies advocated in the revised U.S. Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual (2006) with actual military practice in Afghanistan and Iraq. I refer to the official policies as "fictions" because they cannot be put into practice in any meaningful way: they create the illusion that military initiatives can effectively combat terrorism when their usual result is to breed more terrorism.


Totalitarian Threats And Colonial Geography: The Politics Of Defining Terrorism In Beauvoir, Camus, And Dib, Araceli Hernandez-Laroche Sep 2011

Totalitarian Threats And Colonial Geography: The Politics Of Defining Terrorism In Beauvoir, Camus, And Dib, Araceli Hernandez-Laroche

Re-visioning Terrorism

Can terrorism be justified as a means for social justice? Can a so-called democratic state engaged in indiscriminate bombardments of civilian populations be held accountable for terrorist acts? How is political crime different from senseless murder? Can and should genocide be defined differently from a civil war operation? Who has the right to decide for the life or death of others?

This paper compares important representations in prose and theater of moral dilemmas that plagued war-torn Europe and France during the Spanish Civil War, World War II, and the Algerian War. I analyze the complexities and divergences of existential writers ...


Jihadis And The Use Of The Terms Terrorism And Terrorist, Aaron Zelin Sep 2011

Jihadis And The Use Of The Terms Terrorism And Terrorist, Aaron Zelin

Re-visioning Terrorism

Previous studies on the usage of the terms terror, terrorist, and terrorism have taken a Western perspective on how these terms should be defined and then deployed, but the viewpoint of the “terrorist” (in this case jihadis) has yet to be examined. This study analyzes how jihadis understand these terms and critically assesses their interpretation based on classical Islamic doctrine. The basis and “proof” for jihadis’ legitimization of using terror is based upon the Qur’anic verse 8:60, but when taken into context and traditional understanding, jihadis miss the mark. Yet, at the same time, when exploring the linguistic ...


Secularism And Belief In Georgia’S Pankisi Gorge, Rebecca Gould Sep 2011

Secularism And Belief In Georgia’S Pankisi Gorge, Rebecca Gould

Rebecca Gould

No abstract provided.


Pakistani Stance On Fmct - An Alternative Approach (Centreline), Shams Uz Zaman Mr. Sep 2011

Pakistani Stance On Fmct - An Alternative Approach (Centreline), Shams Uz Zaman Mr.

Mr. Shams uz Zaman

It gives an alternative approach to Pakistan's policy on FMCT.


Complex Matrix Of Indo-Pak-Us Relations (Frontier Post) 2011, Shams Uz Zaman Mr. Aug 2011

Complex Matrix Of Indo-Pak-Us Relations (Frontier Post) 2011, Shams Uz Zaman Mr.

Mr. Shams uz Zaman

Define the complex relationship between India, Pakistan and the US focusing on the converging and diverging points.


The Echoes Of Fitna: Developing Historiographical Interpretations Of The Battle Of Siffin, Aaron M. Hagler Aug 2011

The Echoes Of Fitna: Developing Historiographical Interpretations Of The Battle Of Siffin, Aaron M. Hagler

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The Battle of Ṣiffīn (36/657) is the flash point in the emergence of sects within the Islamic religion. This dissertation traces the presentation of the story Ṣiffīn in a specific line of Arabic universal histories, starting with the establishment of the ―vulgate‖ text, Naṣr ibn Muzāḥim al-Minqarī‘s Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, and culminating in the Sunnī Syrian works of Ibn ʿAsākir, Ibn al-ʿAdīm, and Ibn Kathīr. As the vulgate text, al-Minqarī‘s Waqʿat Ṣiffīn forms the basis for every presentation of the story that follows it, including often being reproduced word for word. Developments in the Islamic political and religious ...


Book Of The Occurrences Of The Times To Jeshurun In The Land Of Israel - ḲOrot Ha-ʻItim Li-Yeshurun Be-ʾErets YiśRaʾEl, David G. Cook, Sol P. Cohen Aug 2011

Book Of The Occurrences Of The Times To Jeshurun In The Land Of Israel - ḲOrot Ha-ʻItim Li-Yeshurun Be-ʾErets YiśRaʾEl, David G. Cook, Sol P. Cohen

Miscellaneous Papers

This work was authored by Menahem Mendel me-Kaminitz (an ancestor of one of the current translators David Cook) following his first attempt to settle in the Land of Israel in 1834.


The Battle Of Las Navas De Tolosa: The Culture And Practice Of Crusading In Medieval Iberia, Miguel Dolan Gomez Aug 2011

The Battle Of Las Navas De Tolosa: The Culture And Practice Of Crusading In Medieval Iberia, Miguel Dolan Gomez

Doctoral Dissertations

This study examines the phenomenon of crusading in the Iberian Peninsula through the lens of the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212). This battle was both a major Christian victory over the Almohad Empire of Morocco and its Andalusian allies, and the most successful crusade of the papacy of Innocent III. As such, it serves as an ideal case study for the practice and culture of crusading in the early thirteenth century.

The examination of the battle helps to expand our understanding of crusading in a number of ways. First, by examining the institutional aspects of the battle, against ...


Jeopolitik Teoriler Acisindan Kibris'in Onemi (The Importance Of Cyprus Island In Geopolitical Theories), Soylap Tamcelik Aug 2011

Jeopolitik Teoriler Acisindan Kibris'in Onemi (The Importance Of Cyprus Island In Geopolitical Theories), Soylap Tamcelik

Center for Turkish Studies Occasional Paper Series

In this study, Cyprus has been evaluated according to geopolitical strategies as land, sea and air power and rimland theory. By this starting point, the main purpose of this study is to identify the importance of Cyprus according to these strategies. Mainly the geopolitical theories consist of four parts including land, sea, air and rimland theories. The discussion about which one of the air, land and sea powers are the main and which one is the sub power have not reach a definite conclusion yet. For this uncertainty, as an objective presentation a chronological line has been followed. According to ...


The Penetration Of Social Media In Governance,Political Reforms And Building Public Perception, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr May 2011

The Penetration Of Social Media In Governance,Political Reforms And Building Public Perception, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr

Ratnesh Dwivedi

Social media are media for social interaction, using highly accessible and scalable communication techniques. Social media is the use of web-based and mobile technologies to turn communication into interactive dialogue. While we know that social media can play an important role in publicizing political activities such as protests, do we have evidence that such actions have led to substantive political change? Is it possible to develop a set of indicators to more effectively gauge the impact of new technologies and media on questions of political change? That social media can help coordinate large and discrete activities, such as protests and ...


Reconciling Nature And Culture After "Naissance Des Divinités, Naissance De L’Agriculture", Naomi F. Miller May 2011

Reconciling Nature And Culture After "Naissance Des Divinités, Naissance De L’Agriculture", Naomi F. Miller

University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology Papers

In Naissance des divinités, Naissance de l’agriculture, Jacques Cauvin proposes that agriculture could not have begun without a prior sudden mental transformation, and that the Near East case is exceptional. His emphasis on the primacy of ideas leads him to devalue the influence that foragers have on their environment, and to erroneously assume that agriculture represented a “control” over nature that was qualitatively new. It is clear that ancient people had a deep understanding of their physical, biotic, and sociocultural environments, and societies that succeeded worked within the constraints imposed by all those domains.


Myth, Language, Empire: The East India Company And The Construction Of British India, 1757-1857, Nida Sajid May 2011

Myth, Language, Empire: The East India Company And The Construction Of British India, 1757-1857, Nida Sajid

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

My thesis investigates the discursive strategies employed by the East India Company during the early colonial period to legitimize mercantile imperialism as an act of preservation for the fast-disintegrating political order that was the Mughal empire in India. By arguing that the interrelationship of myth, history and archive was essential to networks of trade and the establishment of political domination, my thesis offers a new reading of the representations of the political debates surrounding the Company’s scandals and imperial ambitions in the English public sphere. It further demonstrates the centrality of the India question in defining the contours of ...


Mythological History, Identity Formation, And The Many Faces Of Alexander The Great, James Mayer May 2011

Mythological History, Identity Formation, And The Many Faces Of Alexander The Great, James Mayer

Classics Honors Projects

Alexander the Great, ruler of Macedonia and conqueror of much of the eastern Mediterranean world in the fourth century BCE, figures prominently in folklore for centuries afterward. This paper analyzes several stories about Alexander to explore the intersections among history, myth and identity. By looking at accounts of Alexander written by Jews living in Alexandria in the Roman period, by early Byzantine Christians and by medieval Persian Muslims, I demonstrate that communities from all over the Mediterranean used myths about Alexander to redefine their identity in response to catastrophic changes.


The Challenge Of Political Islam: Non-Muslims And The Egyptian State, Heather J. Sharkey May 2011

The Challenge Of Political Islam: Non-Muslims And The Egyptian State, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Two Faces Of Media While Covering Human Right Activities In India, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr Apr 2011

Two Faces Of Media While Covering Human Right Activities In India, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr

Ratnesh Dwivedi

The situation of human rights in India is a complex one, as a result of the country's large size and tremendous diversity, its status as a developing country and a sovereign, secular, democratic republic, and its history as a former colonial territory. The Constitution of India provides for Fundamental rights, which include freedom of religion. Clauses also provide for Freedom of Speech, as well as separation of executive and judiciary and freedom of movement within the country and abroad. In its report on human rights in India during 2010, Human Rights Watch stated India had "significant human rights problems ...


Philosophy, Science, And Belles-Lettres In Syriac And Christian Arabic Literature: A Gentle Introduction And Survey, Adam C. Mccollum Apr 2011

Philosophy, Science, And Belles-Lettres In Syriac And Christian Arabic Literature: A Gentle Introduction And Survey, Adam C. Mccollum

HMML Lectures

It might be assumed that the genres of Syriac and Christian Arabic literature are made up exclusively (or almost so) of sacred topics (Bible, commentary, liturgy, asceticism, hagiography, theology, etc.), the writers, scribes, and readers in these communities often being monks, presbyters, deacons, and bishops. A broad look at the surviving evidence of this literature, however, shows an immense interest in subjects not directly connected to the church, monastery, or Christian life at all, among them philosophy, science, and belles-lettres. This paper offers a basic overview of these subjects as Syriac and Christian Arabic authors dealt with them, especially from ...


Language Discourse- A Critical Analysis Of Michel Focault's Work On Language Discourse With Special Reference To His Masterpiece "The Archeology Of Knowledge", Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr Apr 2011

Language Discourse- A Critical Analysis Of Michel Focault's Work On Language Discourse With Special Reference To His Masterpiece "The Archeology Of Knowledge", Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr

Ratnesh Dwivedi

Discourse generally refers to "written or spoken communication or debate". The following are three more specific definitions: (1) In semantics and discourse analysis: A generalization of the concept of conversation to all modalities and contexts. (2) "The totality of codified linguistic usages attached to a given type of social practice. (E.g.: legal discourse, medical discourse, religious discourse.)" (3) In the work of Michel Foucault, and social theorists inspired by him: "an entity of sequences of signs in that they are enouncements (enoncés)" (Foucault 1969: 141). An enouncement (often translated as "statement") is not a unity of signs, but an ...


Piracy, Slavery, And Assimilation: Women In Early Modern Captivity Literature, David C. Moberly Apr 2011

Piracy, Slavery, And Assimilation: Women In Early Modern Captivity Literature, David C. Moberly

Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research: Department of English

This thesis examines a hitherto neglected body of works featuring female characters enslaved in Islamicate lands. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, many Englishmen and women were taken captive by pirates and enslaved in what is now the Middle East and North Africa. Several writers of the time created narratives and dramas about the experiences of such captives. Recent scholarship has brought to light many of these works and pointed out their importance in establishing what was still a young, unsure, and developing English identity in this early period. Most of this scholarship, however, has dealt with narratives of the ...