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Full-Text Articles in Islamic World and Near East History

Here And There, Now And Then: Portrayals Of The Third Crusade In Film And How Their Inaccuracies Encompass Contemporary Movements, Steven Anthony Oct 2019

Here And There, Now And Then: Portrayals Of The Third Crusade In Film And How Their Inaccuracies Encompass Contemporary Movements, Steven Anthony

History in the Making

This paper examines the relationship between films dealing with historical events and how they encompass events of the time the film was made. This work uses two film representations of the Third Crusade, from 1187 – 1192; the first is Youssef Chahines’ 1963 film Al Nasser Salah Ad-Din and the second is Ridley Scotts’ 2005 film, Kingdom of Heaven. Between the films’ narrations of events and the actual history, parallels are created between past and present, dealing with ideas such as tolerance and peaceful dialogue, as well as movements such as national, ethnic, or religious unity and inclusiveness.


Kurdish Women Guerrilla Fighters, Meagan Muschara Oct 2019

Kurdish Women Guerrilla Fighters, Meagan Muschara

History in the Making

This article focuses on the female fighters of the PKK. The media over the past four years have continued to report about the female inclusion into this male dominated resistance group, the PKK in Turkey. The addition of women to the fight spread to various Kurdish resistance groups throughout the Middle East. The interviews brought about a plethora of questions about egalitarian rights for women entering the PKK. The questions that arose are: How equal are women’s rights? Are there any stipulations? Why are females willing to fight for the cause and what do these women gain by fighting ...


Palestinian-Jews And Israel’S Dual Identity Crisis, Rafael Perez Oct 2019

Palestinian-Jews And Israel’S Dual Identity Crisis, Rafael Perez

History in the Making

This paper looks to explore the complex combination of those who are both Arab in culture and Jewish by faith. This complex dual identity is generally known as Mizrahim or Arab Jews. Within the general Arab-Israeli dispute, this identity complicates the conflict by challenging the normative understanding of nationalism. Moreover, this paper examines the history of the Mizrahim through the Palestinian-Jewish experience in pre-establishment Israel and further examines the social changes that affected Mizrahim within the Israeli State after the 1948 War. Various primary source documents, essays, personal accounts, peer-reviewed journals, and surveys are used to understand the identity and ...


Film Review: 1948 Creation And Catastrophe, Melissa Sanford Oct 2019

Film Review: 1948 Creation And Catastrophe, Melissa Sanford

History in the Making

No abstract provided.


From Female Moneylenders To Church Shares: The Coptic Village Of Jeme, Marmar Zakher Oct 2019

From Female Moneylenders To Church Shares: The Coptic Village Of Jeme, Marmar Zakher

History in the Making

No abstract provided.


Continuity At Luxor Temple, Matthew Unruh Oct 2019

Continuity At Luxor Temple, Matthew Unruh

History in the Making

No abstract provided.


Israel, Allegra Glaviano Oct 2019

Israel, Allegra Glaviano

History in the Making

Describes the author's travel experiences in Israel.


Unconditional Surrender: The Rise Of President Erdogan And The End Of Kemalist Turkey, Amelia Sullivan Oct 2019

Unconditional Surrender: The Rise Of President Erdogan And The End Of Kemalist Turkey, Amelia Sullivan

History in the Making

In October 1923, Mustafa Kemal, or Ataturk, became leader of Turkey. Over the next decade and a half, Kemal used his considerable political power to reform the nation. He modernized infrastructure, reorganized government, and led an aggressive campaign to westernize and secularize Turkish society. By the time Kemal passed in 1938, Turkey rose from the ashes of the Ottoman Empire and reestablished itself as a democracy. Almost eighty years later, Ataturk’s legacy is in jeopardy. In 2017, the Turkey held a constitutional referendum to radically restructure the nation’s government and place an unprecedented degree of power in the ...


Politics On The Periphery: Oscar Ewing And A Special Relationship With Israel, Sarah Weaver Sep 2019

Politics On The Periphery: Oscar Ewing And A Special Relationship With Israel, Sarah Weaver

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

This essay explores the role of Oscar Ewing, an Indiana native and a graduate of Indiana University (IU), in the story of the U.S. relationship with Israel, forming even prior to Israeli statehood in 1948. The essay will show that Oscar Ewing strategically utilized his political influence and role as U.S. federal security administrator—not diplomat or member of the State Department—to impact U.S. policy toward Israel. Although Ewing is a relatively unknown name in the history of the Truman administration and Israel, his influence and contribution to the early development of the well-known special relationship ...


Images Of Kingship: Statebuilding, Patronage, And Architecture In The Capitals Of The Mughal And Ottoman Empires, Meenakshi Krishnan Jun 2019

Images Of Kingship: Statebuilding, Patronage, And Architecture In The Capitals Of The Mughal And Ottoman Empires, Meenakshi Krishnan

Augsburg Honors Review

The Ottoman and the Mughal Empires, though widely recognized for their political prowess, military expansion, and systems of religious tolerance, are also renowned for their architectural contributions. Structures like the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul and Red Fort in Delhi immediately capture the grandeur and magnificence of the empires of the Ottomans and Mughals, simultaneously serving as symbols of their artistic patronage and testaments to their splendor. Beyond establishing the empires' greatness, however, architecture was often directly tied to a specific agenda, reflecting poiitical goals, religious doctrines, and particular ideologies. A closer analysis of three cities in each of these empires ...


Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers Apr 2019

Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

This paper gives an overview of how the conflict in Syria has evolved from a revolution into a sectarian civil war. Power is maintained by the ruling Assad family through promotion of the Alawite minority within the government and military. Methods of persecution on the Sunni majority by the Assad government are discussed as well as a policy of strategic expulsion of the Sunni enclave to Idlib, a city on the outskirts of Syria (bordering Turkey).


Wisdom (Hikmah) As Perceived By Iranian Muslim Scholars: Reflections On Ibn Sina, Ghazali, And Suhrawardi, Leyla H. Tajer, Amir H. Zekrgoo Apr 2019

Wisdom (Hikmah) As Perceived By Iranian Muslim Scholars: Reflections On Ibn Sina, Ghazali, And Suhrawardi, Leyla H. Tajer, Amir H. Zekrgoo

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

The evolution of the concept of spiritual/religious wisdom (ḥikamt) by the Iranian Muslim philosophers from the 10th to 12th century, may be studied under three main trends namely Mashā’i (Peripatetic), Kalām (theology), and Ishrāq (Illumination). Despite the correlation among these trends each of them grew independently. Among the three, the Hikmat-i Ishrāq (Illumination Wisdom) which is also known as Ḥikamt-i Dhawqi (Intuitive Wisdom) of Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (1153-1191) found a special place as it tended to bring together the philosophical and theological aspects of wisdom. This survey would address the development of ikmat (wisdom) among ...


The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter Jan 2019

The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter

Manuscript Studies

The Historia de los Reyes Moros de Granada, written by the chronicler Hernando de Baeza in the first half of the XVI century, in Spain, is a valuable text that provides a very different perspective from other late medieval Spanish official chronicles. This article provides an account of the discovery of a previously unknown manuscript of this chronicle which, unlike the two others already known, is complete and includes the ending, which narrates the negotiations between the Catholic Kings of Spain and the last Nasrid sultan Boabdil for the Islamic surrender of Granada. The article describes this previously unknown manuscript ...


Ike’S Constitutional Venturing: The Institutionalization Of The Cia, Covert Action, And American Interventionism, Jacob A. Bruggeman Nov 2018

Ike’S Constitutional Venturing: The Institutionalization Of The Cia, Covert Action, And American Interventionism, Jacob A. Bruggeman

Grand Valley Journal of History

U.S. covert action from the 1950s onward was shaped, in part, by the success a CIA-orchestrated coup d'état in which the United States deposed the popular Iranian nationalist Mohammed Mossadegh. Ordered by president Eisenhower, the coup in Iran set the precedent for utilizing covert action as a means of achieving State goals. In so doing, President Eisenhower overturned the precedent set by his immediate predecessor, President Truman: that is, the precedent of using the CIA in its intended function, gathering and evaluating intelligence. The coup, then, is an exemplary case of venture constitutionalism. Eisenhower, in ordering the coup ...


Understanding Muhammad's Interaction With The Church, Devonte Narde Sep 2018

Understanding Muhammad's Interaction With The Church, Devonte Narde

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

My research focuses on understanding Muhammad’s (the Islamic prophet) interaction with what he perceived to be the Christian church to find out why his understanding of Biblical narratives and theology is incorrect. With this information, Christians should reintroduce Christian scripture and theology to Muslims since Muhammad’s rejection of Christian doctrine is based on associating wrong texts as authoritative Christian teaching. The following questions that shape this research are: What possible sources did Muhammad use to learn about biblical narratives and themes? What did the first Muslims think about the canonical gospels of Jesus? How did early Muslims view ...


The Shariah Scare Industry And The Clash Of Temporalities, Steven Fink Sep 2018

The Shariah Scare Industry And The Clash Of Temporalities, Steven Fink

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

Islamophobic alarms over shariah have resounded in the United States during the second decade of the twenty-first century. These alarms perpetuate the notion of a clash of civilizations, pitting Islam versus the West. Instead of discussing the clash of civilizations thesis, however, this article proposes that a clash of temporalities has been constructed by a “shariah scare industry.” Focusing on the Center for Security Policy and Nonie Darwish, this article discloses the shariah scare argument that Muslims and non-Muslims experience time in two contrasting manners, what I call frozen past time and ominous future time.


The Shapers Of Memory: The Theatrics Of Islamic Historiography, Aaron M. Hagler May 2018

The Shapers Of Memory: The Theatrics Of Islamic Historiography, Aaron M. Hagler

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This paper employs and describes an experimental methodology of viewing medieval Arabic authors through the lens of stage actor performance theory. In particular, it argues that semi-canonical writings, such as al-Ṭabarī’s History of the Prophets and Kings, become the “script” that later authors, such as Ibn al-Athīr and Ibn Kathīr “perform” as actors. This methodology is novel, and argues that by examining the changes authors made to narratives presented in earlier Arabic texts, we can draw important conclusions about the authors’ opinions of the relative importance of narrative elements, the authors’ literary-narrative strategies for endowing memories with meaning, and ...


Zionism, Ottomanism, And The Young Turk Revolution: What Palestinian Jewish Identity Says About Zionist Political Separatism In 1908-1912, Dimitri Savidis May 2018

Zionism, Ottomanism, And The Young Turk Revolution: What Palestinian Jewish Identity Says About Zionist Political Separatism In 1908-1912, Dimitri Savidis

Of Life and History

No abstract provided.


Of Life And History, Vol. 1 (May 2018) May 2018

Of Life And History, Vol. 1 (May 2018)

Of Life and History

No abstract provided.


A History Of Slavery In Central Asia: Shī’Ī Muslim Enslavement In 19th Century Bukhara, Robert Dunbar May 2018

A History Of Slavery In Central Asia: Shī’Ī Muslim Enslavement In 19th Century Bukhara, Robert Dunbar

Verbum

In lieu of an abstract, below is the essay's first paragraph.

Despite more than a century of interest on the part of western scholars and historians in the region of Central Asia, in many respects our knowledge of many topics in Central Asian history remains limited. To date, when compared to the body of historical works treating the history of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and slavery in the Americas, or even the history of slavery within the Arab-Muslim world, the history of slavery in Islamic Central Asia has received little attention. Thus, it stands to reason that the history ...


Zionism, Imperialism, And Indigeneity In Israel/Palestine: A Critical Analysis, Ran Ukashi May 2018

Zionism, Imperialism, And Indigeneity In Israel/Palestine: A Critical Analysis, Ran Ukashi

Peace and Conflict Studies

This article explores the similarities and differences between Zionism and archetypical European modes of settler colonialism to demonstrate the incongruence between the two phenomena. This analysis is contextualized around the recent discourse surrounding the competing claims of indigeneity to historic Israel/Palestine. The claims of both the Jewish and Palestinian Arab communities are explored to demonstrate that both communities can rightfully claim degrees of Indigenous connection to the territory, but that Palestinian Arab claims of being the sole Indigenous inheritors of the land are dubious. The analysis utilizes Burton's unmet human needs theory, and Kriesberg's theories on identity ...


Dangerous Liaisons In Cairo: Reginald Q. Henriques And The Taylor-Schechter Genizah Manuscript Collection, Rebecca J. W. Jefferson Dec 2017

Dangerous Liaisons In Cairo: Reginald Q. Henriques And The Taylor-Schechter Genizah Manuscript Collection, Rebecca J. W. Jefferson

Judaica Librarianship

When Solomon Schechter published his opus magnum, the co-edited volume of The Wisdom of Ben Sira, in 1899, he took the trouble to express his gratitude towards one Reginald Q. Henriques for his help in the past and still ongoing. This article attempts to answer the question: who was this Mr. Henriques and what was the nature of his connection to Schechter? Using previously unpublished archival evidence, this question is explored in depth, as well as the question of why Schechter chose to acknowledge this individual precisely at that point. It also provides an in-depth account, together with transcriptions of ...


Book Review: Justifying Genocide: Germany And The Armenians From Bismarck To Hitler, Vahram Ter-Matevosyan Oct 2017

Book Review: Justifying Genocide: Germany And The Armenians From Bismarck To Hitler, Vahram Ter-Matevosyan

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


The Pedagogical Needs Of Children And Adults Living In The Calais Jungle Refugee Camp: Existential Issues And Perspectives Of Volunteer Teachers And Workers, Theresa C. Bodon, Nancy K. Votteler Sep 2017

The Pedagogical Needs Of Children And Adults Living In The Calais Jungle Refugee Camp: Existential Issues And Perspectives Of Volunteer Teachers And Workers, Theresa C. Bodon, Nancy K. Votteler

FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education

This study aimed at examining the pedagogical needs and challenges of children and young adults living in a refugee camp in France known as the Calais Jungle. Through the researchers’ observations and interviews with volunteer teachers and workers at the camp, insights into their perspectives shed light on the pedagogical needs of refugees. Also, utilizing Paulo Freire’s philosophical stance, this study provides a contextual approach to the educational practices and ideological viewpoints represented within unregulated refugee camp settings.


Differentiating Averroes’ Accounts Of The Metaphysics Of Human Epistemology In His Middle And Long Commentaries On Aristotle’S De Anima, Caleb H A Brown Jun 2017

Differentiating Averroes’ Accounts Of The Metaphysics Of Human Epistemology In His Middle And Long Commentaries On Aristotle’S De Anima, Caleb H A Brown

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

Averroes (an Islamic Andalusian philosopher in the 12th century) discusses the metaphysics of human epistemology extensively, and his socio-religious context sheds light on this discussion. Several of his works, most prominently his three commentaries on Aristotle’s De Anima, attempt to explain how finite, particular minds interact with universal, eternal intelligibles. Current scholarship focuses on the two longer commentaries, the Middle Commentary and the Long Commentary, but there is no consensus regarding which of these presents Averroes’ final articulation of the metaphysics of human epistemology. Those who maintain that Averroes wrote the Middle Commentary last tend to minimize the ...


Discovering Jerusalem’S First Mosque On The Haram Al-Sharif And Capitalizing Jerusalem In The Seventh Century, Beatrice St. Laurent May 2017

Discovering Jerusalem’S First Mosque On The Haram Al-Sharif And Capitalizing Jerusalem In The Seventh Century, Beatrice St. Laurent

Bridgewater Review

No abstract provided.


Imperialism, Self Determination, And The Failure Of The Nation State: European Influence In The Middle East At The Turn Of The Nineteenth Century, Clay H. Cade Feb 2017

Imperialism, Self Determination, And The Failure Of The Nation State: European Influence In The Middle East At The Turn Of The Nineteenth Century, Clay H. Cade

Exigence

An effort to demonstrate French and British influence in Iraq, Syria, and Palestine in relation to the Mandate system have led to systematic instability throughout the region


The Committee Of Union And Progress And World War I, Ella Shipp Jan 2017

The Committee Of Union And Progress And World War I, Ella Shipp

The Student Researcher: A Phi Alpha Theta Publication

The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), which was born out of the Young Turks (founded in 1889), had the stated goal of restoring the 1876 Constitution and Parliament, and was inspired by Young Ottomans such as Namik Kemal.1 However, the group also had a strong streak of nationalism and Social Darwinism influenced by strands of European thought. It became increasingly dominated by rigid thinking and unexperienced young officers who ultimately formed a triumvirate and brought the Ottoman Empire into WWI on the side of the Germans. (first paragraph)


The Wwi Middle East: Western Intervention And Modern-Day Political Conflict, Pauline Park Jan 2017

The Wwi Middle East: Western Intervention And Modern-Day Political Conflict, Pauline Park

Global Tides

This paper analyzes three conflicting agreements made by the Allied powers between 1915 and 1917: the Husayn-McMahon correspondence, the Sykes-Picot arrangements, and the Balfour Declaration. It reveals the agreements as demonstrative of deeper patterns of political power and strategy in the Middle East that persist today. This paper moreover compares the Middle East with the European colonization of Rwanda in the 1880s, and how the nation's internal division was caused by external global powers seeking political and economic gain. This analysis seeks to connect global events as part of a wider political agenda propagated by Western powers.


The Moroccan Jurist Al-Khamlīshī: Can A Woman Become A Legislator (Mujtahid)?, Nayel A. Badareen Nov 2016

The Moroccan Jurist Al-Khamlīshī: Can A Woman Become A Legislator (Mujtahid)?, Nayel A. Badareen

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

The idea of deducing legal rulings in Islamic law, or ijtihād, as well as the qualifications of the person who practices ijtihād, known as the mujtahid, has been a complex issue among Muslim ʿulamāʾ for centuries. Many Muslim ʿulamāʾ and Western scholars have maintained that the gate of ijtihād was closed. The title of mujtahid was therefore impossible to attain. The Moroccan intellectual al-Khamlīshī maintains that the strenuous conditions put forth by some of the Sunni jurists to qualify an individual to become a mujtahid actually contributed to the demise of ijtihād. These qualifications, according to al-Khamlīshī, were proven to ...