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Full-Text Articles in Islamic World and Near East History

Sacred Orientation: The Qibla As Ritual, Metaphor, And Identity Marker In Early Islam, Ari Michael Gordon Jan 2018

Sacred Orientation: The Qibla As Ritual, Metaphor, And Identity Marker In Early Islam, Ari Michael Gordon

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Scholars of early Islam often take for granted the title of this study—that facing the qibla (i.e. the geographic direction of worship) is an important Islamic ritual and that Muḥammad’s turn toward the Kaʿba after facing Jerusalem for prayer marked the identity of his nascent community. This postulate is rarely questioned, but the mechanisms by which the qibla expressed and inscribed a collective Islamic identity remain largely unexplored. Rather, study of Islam’s sacred direction tends to focus on either historical reconstruction of Islamic origins or on the science of qibla-calculation. The former seeks to question or ...


Forging The Progressive Path: Literary Assemblies And Enlightenment Societies In Azerbaijan, 1850-1928, Kelsey Rice Jan 2018

Forging The Progressive Path: Literary Assemblies And Enlightenment Societies In Azerbaijan, 1850-1928, Kelsey Rice

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines the role ethnic Azeri enlightenment societies in the Southeastern Caucasus played in the broader movement of secular modernist reform throughout the Muslim world in the late nineteenth and early twentieth-century. These societies, which published literature and periodicals, founded schools, built reading rooms, and sponsored musical and dramatic performances, were the primary means through which intellectuals in Azerbaijan mobilized projects of cultural reform. Starting in the mid-nineteenth-century almost every significant Azeri artist and intellectual was involved in these societies to some degree, either as active members or through benefiting from society patronage. Azeri reformist intellectuals were ambitious in ...


Commandeering Empires: Egypt, Tripoli, And Tunis In The Age Of Revolution, 1774-1835, Mukaram Hhana Jan 2016

Commandeering Empires: Egypt, Tripoli, And Tunis In The Age Of Revolution, 1774-1835, Mukaram Hhana

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation interrogates our conceptualizations of space, our understanding of the topographical borders of regions, and our historiographical depiction of the margins between imperial administration and local autonomy the Ottoman Maghreb. It does so by juxtaposing the history of corsairs, Bedouins, desert caravans and empires in turn-of-the-nineteenth-century North Africa. Further, it examines the horizontal connections among the North African provinces and their corresponding systems of governance. The central premise of this dissertation is that one cannot fully understand the policy and affairs of turn of the nineteenth century Egypt, or the Porte, without a firm grasp on the historical context ...


From Text To Law: Islamic Legal Theory And The Practical Hermeneutics Of Abū JaʿFar Aḥmad Al-Ṭaḥāwī (D. 321/933), Carolyn Anne Brunelle Jan 2016

From Text To Law: Islamic Legal Theory And The Practical Hermeneutics Of Abū JaʿFar Aḥmad Al-Ṭaḥāwī (D. 321/933), Carolyn Anne Brunelle

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Scholars of Islamic law point to the absence of any extant work of legal theory between the Risāla of al-Shāfiʿī and the Fuṣūl of al-Jaṣṣāṣ as a major barrier to reconstructing the history of Islamic legal thought. However, careful analysis of three major works of the Ḥanafī jurist al-Ṭaḥāwī, Aḥkām al-Qurʾān, Sharḥ maʿānī al-āthār and Sharḥ mushkil al-āthār, reveals the existence of myriad brief passages elaborating questions of legal theory scattered throughout their many volumes. This study reconstructs the legal thought of al-Ṭaḥāwī as a window onto legal theory in the late 3rd/9th and early 4th/10th centuries, a ...


Grand Plans In Glass Bottles: The Economic, Social, And Technological History Of Beer In Egypt 1880-1970, Omar D. Foda Jan 2015

Grand Plans In Glass Bottles: The Economic, Social, And Technological History Of Beer In Egypt 1880-1970, Omar D. Foda

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Contrary to common perceptions, the history of beer (and indeed of other alcoholic beverages) in the Muslim-majority context of Egypt has not been a history of government officials desperately seeking to extirpate the evil of alcohol as rumrunners, backyard brewers, and moonshiners stayed one step ahead. Rather it was a history of a commercially-marketed product that enjoyed relatively wide popularity and robust growth from 1880 to 1980, and sat at the cutting edge of technological innovation in Egypt in that same period. Its success was not only evident from the profitability of the companies that sold it, but also from ...


Making Spaces Sacred: The Sayyeda Zaynab And Bibi Pak Daman Shrines And The Construction Of Modern Shia Identity, Noor Zaidi Jan 2015

Making Spaces Sacred: The Sayyeda Zaynab And Bibi Pak Daman Shrines And The Construction Of Modern Shia Identity, Noor Zaidi

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation is a study of the Bibi Pak Daman shrine in Lahore, Pakistan and the Sayyeda Zaynab shrine in Damascus, Syria and of how these shrines were made sacred in the 20th century. Said to house the graves of Ruqayyah and Zaynab, two daughters of â??Ali ibn Abu Talib, the first Shiâ??a Imam, the two shrines would grow from local sites of devotion to critical pilgrimage sites in the 20th century. The dissertation will first trace hagiographies related to Zaynab and Ruqayyah and how these narratives capitalized on transnational collective memories of Karbala to reinterpret their significance ...


In The Shadow Of Osiris: Non-Royal Mortuary Landscapes At South Abydos During The Late Middle And New Kingdoms, Kevin Michael Cahail Jan 2014

In The Shadow Of Osiris: Non-Royal Mortuary Landscapes At South Abydos During The Late Middle And New Kingdoms, Kevin Michael Cahail

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Kevin M. Cahail

Dr. Josef W. Wegner

The site of South Abydos was home to royal mortuary complexes of both the late Middle, and New Kingdoms, belonging to Senwosret III and Ahmose. Thanks to both recent and past excavations, both of these royal establishments are fairly well understood. Yet, we lack a clear picture of the mortuary practices of the non-royal individuals living and working in the shadow of these institutions. For both periods, the main question is where the tombs of the non-royal citizens might exist. Additionally for the Middle Kingdom is the related issue of how these people ...


Milk & Honey: Technologies Of Plenty In The Making Of A Holy Land, 1880-1960, Tamar Novick Jan 2014

Milk & Honey: Technologies Of Plenty In The Making Of A Holy Land, 1880-1960, Tamar Novick

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Studies of modern Palestine and Israel usually highlight the struggle of European powers for control and the formation of Jewish and Palestinian nationalisms. This dissertation does otherwise. With a thesis centered on the physical "making of a Holy Land," this work combines the perspectives of cultural history, environmental history, and science and technology studies (STS) to examine the ways in which settlers in Palestine and Israel in the late nineteenth and twentieth century used science and technology to construct a religious idea of the past. In particular, this project centers on the design of certain agricultural productions, which reflected the ...


The Most Sovereign Of Masters: The History Of Opium In Modern Iran, 1850-1955, Ram Baruch Regavim Jan 2012

The Most Sovereign Of Masters: The History Of Opium In Modern Iran, 1850-1955, Ram Baruch Regavim

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study surveys a century of commercial opium production in Iran, from 1850 to 1955. From an insignificant contributor to the global opium market, Iran became within a few decades an important exporter, turning to the market between 5-10% of the entire global production of opium. Opium-poppy cultivation and opium production formed part of a larger process of transition within the agricultural sector to cash-crop production. Under the growing pressure of increasing imports of European manufactured goods and the collapse of the local manual industries, the production of cash-crops, and particularly opium, was intended to balance Iran's trade deficit ...


Sacred Biography, Translation, And Conversion ; The Nabīvaṃśa Of Saiyad Sultān And The Making Of Bengali Islam, 1600-Present, Ayesha A. Irani Dec 2011

Sacred Biography, Translation, And Conversion ; The Nabīvaṃśa Of Saiyad Sultān And The Making Of Bengali Islam, 1600-Present, Ayesha A. Irani

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The present dissertation is a study of the Nabīvaṃśa, “The Prophet’s Lineage,” the first biography of the Prophet Muḥammad to be composed in Bangla, in the first half of the seventeenth century. A literary milestone in the multi-ethnic, multi-cultural history of Islam, it marks a significant contribution to Bangla’s rich literary corpus, and became a canonical work for the late-medieval Islamic Bangla literary tradition. This hitherto little-studied text is used to examine the nature of Islamic expansion on Bengal’s eastern frontier, addressing issues of religious competition, identity formation, and conversion. These were central concerns of the author ...


The Echoes Of Fitna: Developing Historiographical Interpretations Of The Battle Of Siffin, Aaron M. Hagler Aug 2011

The Echoes Of Fitna: Developing Historiographical Interpretations Of The Battle Of Siffin, Aaron M. Hagler

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The Battle of Ṣiffīn (36/657) is the flash point in the emergence of sects within the Islamic religion. This dissertation traces the presentation of the story Ṣiffīn in a specific line of Arabic universal histories, starting with the establishment of the ―vulgate‖ text, Naṣr ibn Muzāḥim al-Minqarī‘s Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, and culminating in the Sunnī Syrian works of Ibn ʿAsākir, Ibn al-ʿAdīm, and Ibn Kathīr. As the vulgate text, al-Minqarī‘s Waqʿat Ṣiffīn forms the basis for every presentation of the story that follows it, including often being reproduced word for word. Developments in the Islamic political and religious ...


Modeling The Mechanics Of Temple Production In The Middle Kingdom: An Investigation Of The Shena Of Divine Offerings Adjacent To The Mortuary Temple Of Senwosret Iii At Abydos, Egypt, Vanessa E. Smith Aug 2010

Modeling The Mechanics Of Temple Production In The Middle Kingdom: An Investigation Of The Shena Of Divine Offerings Adjacent To The Mortuary Temple Of Senwosret Iii At Abydos, Egypt, Vanessa E. Smith

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

During the Middle Kingdom, the term Sna or shena, was used by the ancient Egyptians to denote a food production area, primarily of bread and beer, which was attached to religious institutions. As a production area, the shena represented a place of pivotal importance in the economic structure of the Egyptian temple as a producer of divine offerings, wages and pensions for temple personnel, and as a taxpayer to the Egyptian state. In theory, every temple would have had a shena to provide for its cultic and economic needs. Although there are thousands of temples identified archaeologically from ancient Egypt ...


Terrorism In Pakistan: Incident Patterns, Terrorists’ Characteristics, And The Impact Of Terrorist Arrests On Terrorism, Syed Ejaz Hussain May 2010

Terrorism In Pakistan: Incident Patterns, Terrorists’ Characteristics, And The Impact Of Terrorist Arrests On Terrorism, Syed Ejaz Hussain

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation, in a 3-paper format, uses three data sets to study three aspects of terrorism in Pakistan. In the first paper, using data from the GTD, I describe empirically the temporal and spatial patterns of terrorism incidents in Pakistan from 1974 to 2007. In addition, I also describe the patterns in target types, weapon types and terrorist types and the patterns prior to and following the U.S.-led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. Analysis methods include the univariate time series, descriptive statistics and the GIS. The study offers new insights on the measurement of terrorism, the cyclical nature ...


The Persistence Of The Andalusian Identity In Rabat, Morocco, Beebe Bahrami Jan 1995

The Persistence Of The Andalusian Identity In Rabat, Morocco, Beebe Bahrami

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This thesis investigates the problem of how an historical identity persists within a community in Rabat, Morocco, that traces its ancestry to Spain. Called Andalusians, these Moroccans are descended from Spanish Muslims who were first forced to convert to Christianity after 1492, and were expelled from the Iberian peninsula in the early seventeenth century. I conducted both ethnographic and historical archival research among Rabati Andalusian families. There are four main reasons for the persistence of the Andalusian identity in spite of the strong acculturative forces of religion, language, and culture in Moroccan society. First, the presence of a strong historical ...


Interpreters And Egyptianized Nubians In Ancient Egyptian Foreign Policy: Aspects Of The History Of Egypt And Nubia, Lanny David Bell Jan 1976

Interpreters And Egyptianized Nubians In Ancient Egyptian Foreign Policy: Aspects Of The History Of Egypt And Nubia, Lanny David Bell

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study is a thorough philological investigation of the ancient Egyptian word íc3w (usually transliterated c in Old and Middle Egyptian texts and 3 c c in Late Egyptian). The approach is diachronic, with consideration of the various manifestations of the word over more than three thousand years; all known occurrences are examined. The etymology is determined, its meaning is discussed, and its semantic development traced. Historical linguistic technique is employed to reconstruct the vocalization of the word and demonstrate its phonetic development. Evidence for differential development in the pre-Coptic dialectal forms is adduced. Phonetically similar words are ...