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Full-Text Articles in Islamic World and Near East History

The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter Jan 2019

The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter

Manuscript Studies

The Historia de los Reyes Moros de Granada, written by the chronicler Hernando de Baeza in the first half of the XVI century, in Spain, is a valuable text that provides a very different perspective from other late medieval Spanish official chronicles. This article provides an account of the discovery of a previously unknown manuscript of this chronicle which, unlike the two others already known, is complete and includes the ending, which narrates the negotiations between the Catholic Kings of Spain and the last Nasrid sultan Boabdil for the Islamic surrender of Granada. The article describes this previously unknown manuscript ...


Sacred Orientation: The Qibla As Ritual, Metaphor, And Identity Marker In Early Islam, Ari Michael Gordon Jan 2018

Sacred Orientation: The Qibla As Ritual, Metaphor, And Identity Marker In Early Islam, Ari Michael Gordon

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Scholars of early Islam often take for granted the title of this study—that facing the qibla (i.e. the geographic direction of worship) is an important Islamic ritual and that Muḥammad’s turn toward the Kaʿba after facing Jerusalem for prayer marked the identity of his nascent community. This postulate is rarely questioned, but the mechanisms by which the qibla expressed and inscribed a collective Islamic identity remain largely unexplored. Rather, study of Islam’s sacred direction tends to focus on either historical reconstruction of Islamic origins or on the science of qibla-calculation. The former seeks to question or ...


Forging The Progressive Path: Literary Assemblies And Enlightenment Societies In Azerbaijan, 1850-1928, Kelsey Rice Jan 2018

Forging The Progressive Path: Literary Assemblies And Enlightenment Societies In Azerbaijan, 1850-1928, Kelsey Rice

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines the role ethnic Azeri enlightenment societies in the Southeastern Caucasus played in the broader movement of secular modernist reform throughout the Muslim world in the late nineteenth and early twentieth-century. These societies, which published literature and periodicals, founded schools, built reading rooms, and sponsored musical and dramatic performances, were the primary means through which intellectuals in Azerbaijan mobilized projects of cultural reform. Starting in the mid-nineteenth-century almost every significant Azeri artist and intellectual was involved in these societies to some degree, either as active members or through benefiting from society patronage. Azeri reformist intellectuals were ambitious in ...


Philadelphia And Its Iraqi Refugees: Lessons From The Northeast, Angela Perfetti May 2016

Philadelphia And Its Iraqi Refugees: Lessons From The Northeast, Angela Perfetti

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 produced millions of refugees, some of which were relocated to the United States. City planners need to consider refugees’ adaptation and movement within the United States and the impacts of migration on their communities. What can refugee communities can do for urban revitalization, and what can urban communities contribute to refugees’ resettlement success? These questions are answered in a case study of Iraqi refugees in Philadelphia using quantitative data from stakeholder agencies and geographic information system (GIS) data. Interviews with Philadelphia refugee resettlement stakeholders is incorporated with news reports and scholarship to ...


The Time-Honored Friendship: A History Of Vietnamese-Algerian Relations (1946-2015), Ngoc H. Huynh May 2016

The Time-Honored Friendship: A History Of Vietnamese-Algerian Relations (1946-2015), Ngoc H. Huynh

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In 1958, the newly established Democratic Republic of Vietnam initiated a top secret program to ship a “large quantity” of submachine guns disguised as commercial goods to Algeria to assist the Front de libération nationale in its struggle for independence from French colonial rule. In 1973, Algeria leveraged its position as the host of the fourth Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement to issue a draft resolution requesting that all member nations pledge diplomatic support to the Việt Cộng, contribute to Vietnam’s post-war reconstruction, and demand the wholescale withdrawal of foreign troops from the Southeast Asian nation. At the close ...


Commandeering Empires: Egypt, Tripoli, And Tunis In The Age Of Revolution, 1774-1835, Mukaram Hhana Jan 2016

Commandeering Empires: Egypt, Tripoli, And Tunis In The Age Of Revolution, 1774-1835, Mukaram Hhana

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation interrogates our conceptualizations of space, our understanding of the topographical borders of regions, and our historiographical depiction of the margins between imperial administration and local autonomy the Ottoman Maghreb. It does so by juxtaposing the history of corsairs, Bedouins, desert caravans and empires in turn-of-the-nineteenth-century North Africa. Further, it examines the horizontal connections among the North African provinces and their corresponding systems of governance. The central premise of this dissertation is that one cannot fully understand the policy and affairs of turn of the nineteenth century Egypt, or the Porte, without a firm grasp on the historical context ...


From Text To Law: Islamic Legal Theory And The Practical Hermeneutics Of Abū JaʿFar Aḥmad Al-Ṭaḥāwī (D. 321/933), Carolyn Anne Brunelle Jan 2016

From Text To Law: Islamic Legal Theory And The Practical Hermeneutics Of Abū JaʿFar Aḥmad Al-Ṭaḥāwī (D. 321/933), Carolyn Anne Brunelle

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Scholars of Islamic law point to the absence of any extant work of legal theory between the Risāla of al-Shāfiʿī and the Fuṣūl of al-Jaṣṣāṣ as a major barrier to reconstructing the history of Islamic legal thought. However, careful analysis of three major works of the Ḥanafī jurist al-Ṭaḥāwī, Aḥkām al-Qurʾān, Sharḥ maʿānī al-āthār and Sharḥ mushkil al-āthār, reveals the existence of myriad brief passages elaborating questions of legal theory scattered throughout their many volumes. This study reconstructs the legal thought of al-Ṭaḥāwī as a window onto legal theory in the late 3rd/9th and early 4th/10th centuries, a ...


Can “Law” Be Private? The Mixed Message Of Rabbinic Oral Law, Natalie B. Dohrmann Jan 2015

Can “Law” Be Private? The Mixed Message Of Rabbinic Oral Law, Natalie B. Dohrmann

Departmental Papers (Religious Studies)

A great deal of ink has been spilled on the question of early rabbinic literary culture and the rabbinic dedication to the development of an explicitly oral legal tradition. In this essay I will argue that given that the manifest content of early rabbinic discourse is law, it is productive to look to the very public practices of communication inscribed, literally and figuratively, in the Roman legal culture of the east. Within this context, the rabbinic legal project makes sense as a form of provincial shadowing of a dominant Roman legal culture. This paper will explore the paradoxical rabbinic deployment ...


Grand Plans In Glass Bottles: The Economic, Social, And Technological History Of Beer In Egypt 1880-1970, Omar D. Foda Jan 2015

Grand Plans In Glass Bottles: The Economic, Social, And Technological History Of Beer In Egypt 1880-1970, Omar D. Foda

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Contrary to common perceptions, the history of beer (and indeed of other alcoholic beverages) in the Muslim-majority context of Egypt has not been a history of government officials desperately seeking to extirpate the evil of alcohol as rumrunners, backyard brewers, and moonshiners stayed one step ahead. Rather it was a history of a commercially-marketed product that enjoyed relatively wide popularity and robust growth from 1880 to 1980, and sat at the cutting edge of technological innovation in Egypt in that same period. Its success was not only evident from the profitability of the companies that sold it, but also from ...


Making Spaces Sacred: The Sayyeda Zaynab And Bibi Pak Daman Shrines And The Construction Of Modern Shia Identity, Noor Zaidi Jan 2015

Making Spaces Sacred: The Sayyeda Zaynab And Bibi Pak Daman Shrines And The Construction Of Modern Shia Identity, Noor Zaidi

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation is a study of the Bibi Pak Daman shrine in Lahore, Pakistan and the Sayyeda Zaynab shrine in Damascus, Syria and of how these shrines were made sacred in the 20th century. Said to house the graves of Ruqayyah and Zaynab, two daughters of â??Ali ibn Abu Talib, the first Shiâ??a Imam, the two shrines would grow from local sites of devotion to critical pilgrimage sites in the 20th century. The dissertation will first trace hagiographies related to Zaynab and Ruqayyah and how these narratives capitalized on transnational collective memories of Karbala to reinterpret their significance ...


Evidence And Analysis: The Iran-Contra Affair As Seen Through American, Middle Eastern, And Soviet News Sources, Devin Chavira Jan 2014

Evidence And Analysis: The Iran-Contra Affair As Seen Through American, Middle Eastern, And Soviet News Sources, Devin Chavira

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

No abstract provided.


In The Shadow Of Osiris: Non-Royal Mortuary Landscapes At South Abydos During The Late Middle And New Kingdoms, Kevin Michael Cahail Jan 2014

In The Shadow Of Osiris: Non-Royal Mortuary Landscapes At South Abydos During The Late Middle And New Kingdoms, Kevin Michael Cahail

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Kevin M. Cahail

Dr. Josef W. Wegner

The site of South Abydos was home to royal mortuary complexes of both the late Middle, and New Kingdoms, belonging to Senwosret III and Ahmose. Thanks to both recent and past excavations, both of these royal establishments are fairly well understood. Yet, we lack a clear picture of the mortuary practices of the non-royal individuals living and working in the shadow of these institutions. For both periods, the main question is where the tombs of the non-royal citizens might exist. Additionally for the Middle Kingdom is the related issue of how these people ...


Milk & Honey: Technologies Of Plenty In The Making Of A Holy Land, 1880-1960, Tamar Novick Jan 2014

Milk & Honey: Technologies Of Plenty In The Making Of A Holy Land, 1880-1960, Tamar Novick

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Studies of modern Palestine and Israel usually highlight the struggle of European powers for control and the formation of Jewish and Palestinian nationalisms. This dissertation does otherwise. With a thesis centered on the physical "making of a Holy Land," this work combines the perspectives of cultural history, environmental history, and science and technology studies (STS) to examine the ways in which settlers in Palestine and Israel in the late nineteenth and twentieth century used science and technology to construct a religious idea of the past. In particular, this project centers on the design of certain agricultural productions, which reflected the ...


Assessing The Legacy Of The Ottoman Reform Of 1856: Possibilities, Impossibilities, And Situational Changes In Religious Freedom, Heather J. Sharkey Dec 2013

Assessing The Legacy Of The Ottoman Reform Of 1856: Possibilities, Impossibilities, And Situational Changes In Religious Freedom, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Conflict, Conquest, And Conversion: Two Thousand Years Of Christian Missions In The Middle East [Review], Heather J. Sharkey Jan 2013

Conflict, Conquest, And Conversion: Two Thousand Years Of Christian Missions In The Middle East [Review], Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

Compared to their counterparts in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia, Christian missionaries in the modern Middle East affected relatively few formal conversions. Nevertheless, in the past 15 years, scholars have begin to appreciate how missionaries in the Middle East exerted far-reaching cultural, political, and economic influences on the region, through schools, hospitals, and other institutions. Scholars have also begin to appreciate how missionaries variously strengthened, mediated, and deflected forms of European and American imperialism, while forging long-distance connections between the Middle East and their home countries.


Manumission And Transformation In Jewish And Roman Law, Natalie B. Dohrmann Jan 2013

Manumission And Transformation In Jewish And Roman Law, Natalie B. Dohrmann

Departmental Papers (Religious Studies)

In Roman and rabbinic legal and literary sources from the first centuries of the Common Era, the institution of slavery exhibits a double nature. For both Jews and Romans, slavery is a dreaded state of denigrated non-personhood, and yet in both legal worlds, slavery can be a site of acculturation, even conversion, to the dominant status and ideals of rabbinic and Roman civilization. Initial research into key symbols and ideas on this topic reveal some suggestive similarities--structural and conceptual homologies between Roman and rabbinic constructions of slavery and the modes and cultural valuations of the manumission of slaves. The slave ...


Embracing The Divine: Passion And Politics In The Christian Middle East, Heather J. Sharkey Nov 2012

Embracing The Divine: Passion And Politics In The Christian Middle East, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Arab France: Islam And The Making Of Modern Europe, 1798–1831, Heather J. Sharkey Aug 2012

Arab France: Islam And The Making Of Modern Europe, 1798–1831, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Jihads And Crusades In Sudan From 1881 To The Present, Heather J. Sharkey Jan 2012

Jihads And Crusades In Sudan From 1881 To The Present, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

This chapter grapples with several difficult questions that arise from the history of conquest, revolution, and colonial rule in Sudan. To what extent was the Mahdist jihad anti-Christian at its inception; to what extent did the jihad reflect, instead, a battle among Muslims over the nature of Islamic government and society? How did Muslim religious sensibilities influence popular responses to British colonialism after 1898? To what extent did jihadist discourses persist among Sudanese Muslims, both in the Anglo-Egyptian period and in the decades following decolonization? Reciprocally, to what extent were British policies anti-Muslim? How did British fears of Muslim “fanaticism ...


No Longer Dhimmis: How European Intervention In The Nineteenth And Early Twentieth Centuries Empowered Copts In Egypt, Patrick Victor Elyas Jan 2012

No Longer Dhimmis: How European Intervention In The Nineteenth And Early Twentieth Centuries Empowered Copts In Egypt, Patrick Victor Elyas

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This paper will examine how European intervention in Egypt from Napoleon's occupation in 1798 to the departure of the monarchy in 1952 changed the social landscape of the country. Through Napoleonic decrees, diplomatic pressure, influence on the Mohammad Ali dynasty, and the expansion of European missionary education in Egypt, European involvement in Egyptian affairs was essential in allowing Copts and other Christians to reverse centuries of second-class status and ascend to play outsized roles in the economic and political life of the country.


The Most Sovereign Of Masters: The History Of Opium In Modern Iran, 1850-1955, Ram Baruch Regavim Jan 2012

The Most Sovereign Of Masters: The History Of Opium In Modern Iran, 1850-1955, Ram Baruch Regavim

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study surveys a century of commercial opium production in Iran, from 1850 to 1955. From an insignificant contributor to the global opium market, Iran became within a few decades an important exporter, turning to the market between 5-10% of the entire global production of opium. Opium-poppy cultivation and opium production formed part of a larger process of transition within the agricultural sector to cash-crop production. Under the growing pressure of increasing imports of European manufactured goods and the collapse of the local manual industries, the production of cash-crops, and particularly opium, was intended to balance Iran's trade deficit ...


Sacred Biography, Translation, And Conversion ; The Nabīvaṃśa Of Saiyad Sultān And The Making Of Bengali Islam, 1600-Present, Ayesha A. Irani Dec 2011

Sacred Biography, Translation, And Conversion ; The Nabīvaṃśa Of Saiyad Sultān And The Making Of Bengali Islam, 1600-Present, Ayesha A. Irani

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The present dissertation is a study of the Nabīvaṃśa, “The Prophet’s Lineage,” the first biography of the Prophet Muḥammad to be composed in Bangla, in the first half of the seventeenth century. A literary milestone in the multi-ethnic, multi-cultural history of Islam, it marks a significant contribution to Bangla’s rich literary corpus, and became a canonical work for the late-medieval Islamic Bangla literary tradition. This hitherto little-studied text is used to examine the nature of Islamic expansion on Bengal’s eastern frontier, addressing issues of religious competition, identity formation, and conversion. These were central concerns of the author ...


Middle East Missions: Nationalism, Religious Liberty, And Cultural Encounter, Heather J. Sharkey Nov 2011

Middle East Missions: Nationalism, Religious Liberty, And Cultural Encounter, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


The Echoes Of Fitna: Developing Historiographical Interpretations Of The Battle Of Siffin, Aaron M. Hagler Aug 2011

The Echoes Of Fitna: Developing Historiographical Interpretations Of The Battle Of Siffin, Aaron M. Hagler

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The Battle of Ṣiffīn (36/657) is the flash point in the emergence of sects within the Islamic religion. This dissertation traces the presentation of the story Ṣiffīn in a specific line of Arabic universal histories, starting with the establishment of the ―vulgate‖ text, Naṣr ibn Muzāḥim al-Minqarī‘s Waqʿat Ṣiffīn, and culminating in the Sunnī Syrian works of Ibn ʿAsākir, Ibn al-ʿAdīm, and Ibn Kathīr. As the vulgate text, al-Minqarī‘s Waqʿat Ṣiffīn forms the basis for every presentation of the story that follows it, including often being reproduced word for word. Developments in the Islamic political and religious ...


Book Of The Occurrences Of The Times To Jeshurun In The Land Of Israel - ḲOrot Ha-ʻItim Li-Yeshurun Be-ʾErets YiśRaʾEl, David G. Cook, Sol P. Cohen Aug 2011

Book Of The Occurrences Of The Times To Jeshurun In The Land Of Israel - ḲOrot Ha-ʻItim Li-Yeshurun Be-ʾErets YiśRaʾEl, David G. Cook, Sol P. Cohen

Miscellaneous Papers

This work was authored by Menahem Mendel me-Kaminitz (an ancestor of one of the current translators David Cook) following his first attempt to settle in the Land of Israel in 1834.


Reconciling Nature And Culture After "Naissance Des Divinités, Naissance De L’Agriculture", Naomi F. Miller May 2011

Reconciling Nature And Culture After "Naissance Des Divinités, Naissance De L’Agriculture", Naomi F. Miller

University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology Papers

In Naissance des divinités, Naissance de l’agriculture, Jacques Cauvin proposes that agriculture could not have begun without a prior sudden mental transformation, and that the Near East case is exceptional. His emphasis on the primacy of ideas leads him to devalue the influence that foragers have on their environment, and to erroneously assume that agriculture represented a “control” over nature that was qualitatively new. It is clear that ancient people had a deep understanding of their physical, biotic, and sociocultural environments, and societies that succeeded worked within the constraints imposed by all those domains.


The Challenge Of Political Islam: Non-Muslims And The Egyptian State, Heather J. Sharkey May 2011

The Challenge Of Political Islam: Non-Muslims And The Egyptian State, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Review Of Sarah Sorour Soroudi, The Folktales Of The Jews From Iran, Central Asia, And Afghanistan: Tale-Types And Genres, Dan Ben-Amos Jan 2011

Review Of Sarah Sorour Soroudi, The Folktales Of The Jews From Iran, Central Asia, And Afghanistan: Tale-Types And Genres, Dan Ben-Amos

Departmental Papers (NELC)

Sarah Sorour Soroudi (1938-2002) was born in Tehran, Iran and immigrated to Israel in 1959, where she resumed at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem her academic studies that she had begun at the University of Tehran. She received her doctorate from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1972 and returned to Israel, joining faculty of the department of Indian, Iranian and Armenian studies of the Hebrew University. Persian literature and poetry was her primary scholarly concern, but over the years her interest in Persian culture and folklore evolved with a particular focus on the folklore of Iranian Jews. The ...


Modeling The Mechanics Of Temple Production In The Middle Kingdom: An Investigation Of The Shena Of Divine Offerings Adjacent To The Mortuary Temple Of Senwosret Iii At Abydos, Egypt, Vanessa E. Smith Aug 2010

Modeling The Mechanics Of Temple Production In The Middle Kingdom: An Investigation Of The Shena Of Divine Offerings Adjacent To The Mortuary Temple Of Senwosret Iii At Abydos, Egypt, Vanessa E. Smith

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

During the Middle Kingdom, the term Sna or shena, was used by the ancient Egyptians to denote a food production area, primarily of bread and beer, which was attached to religious institutions. As a production area, the shena represented a place of pivotal importance in the economic structure of the Egyptian temple as a producer of divine offerings, wages and pensions for temple personnel, and as a taxpayer to the Egyptian state. In theory, every temple would have had a shena to provide for its cultic and economic needs. Although there are thousands of temples identified archaeologically from ancient Egypt ...


American Christians And Islam: Evangelical Culture And Muslims From The Colonial Period To The Age Of Terrorism, Heather J. Sharkey Jul 2010

American Christians And Islam: Evangelical Culture And Muslims From The Colonial Period To The Age Of Terrorism, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.