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Full-Text Articles in Islamic World and Near East History

No Riddle But Time: Historical Consciousness In Two Islamicate Films, David Sander Mar 2020

No Riddle But Time: Historical Consciousness In Two Islamicate Films, David Sander

Journal of Religion & Film

This article explores ways in which film expresses “internal history” in the context of Muslim cultures. As such, it enquires how film can work as both Islamic art and historical contemplation. The films discussed here, Nacer Khemir’s Wanderers in the Desert and Muhammad Rasoulof’s Iron Island, inhabit and explore the borderline between imagination and reality. The films in question offer an imaginal interspace between “modern” and “traditional” worlds. As such they open up critical perspectives on the meaning of history. What follows is a discussion of how each film offers a window onto differing perceptions of time, and ...


‘Poised On The Higher Horizon’: Seeing God In The Sahara, Ariela Marcus-Sells Feb 2020

‘Poised On The Higher Horizon’: Seeing God In The Sahara, Ariela Marcus-Sells

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This article presents an Arabic transcription and complete English translation of an untitled text – labelled “Khalwa” in the manuscript catalogue - attributed to Sīdī al-Mukhtār al-Kuntī, a Saharan scholar and Sufi teacher of the late-eighteenth century. In the accompanying commentary, I demonstrate how this text draws together two passages in the Qur’ān: the ambiguous visionary encounters of 53:1-18 and Moses’s request to see God in 7:142-143 to argue that, unlike Moses, Muḥammad received a direct vision of God. I further argue that, for Sīdi al-Mukhtār al-Kuntī, the question of seeing God was linked to his concern over ...


Yalda, A Night For Forgiveness, John C. Lyden Jan 2020

Yalda, A Night For Forgiveness, John C. Lyden

Journal of Religion & Film

This is a film review of Yalda, A Night for Forgiveness (2019) directed by Massoud Bakhshi.


The Politics Of Pity Versus Piety: The Poetics And Politics Behind Different Feminist Accounts On The Muslim Woman, Wei Mei Wong Dec 2019

The Politics Of Pity Versus Piety: The Poetics And Politics Behind Different Feminist Accounts On The Muslim Woman, Wei Mei Wong

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This article analyzes two books that utilize the construct of “The Muslim Woman” as a symbol for public consumption across a global and conceptual scale: Saba Mahmood’s book, 'Politics of Piety', and Malala Yousafzai’s and Christina Lamb’s 'I am Malala'. The motivation behind the analysis is to situate the texts within debates on essentialism within accounts of Muslim women. While essentialism and the critique of it in such discussions are not a novelty, the books demonstrate a physical manifestation of essentialism and a reductionist reaction toward this brand of essentialism. Through analysis of the content, poetics, and ...


New Bottles, Old Wine: The Contemporary Palestinian Political Division, Abdalhadi Alijla, Aziz Al Masri Nov 2019

New Bottles, Old Wine: The Contemporary Palestinian Political Division, Abdalhadi Alijla, Aziz Al Masri

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This study examines the prolonged Palestinian division. Its essential focus is to explore the various stages that the Palestinian political system has gone through and track its development from the British mandate up to the ongoing division between Fatah and Hamas. It aims to uncover the roles of regional and foreign actors which have destabilized the Palestinian national movement. Moreover, it demonstrates the role of the United Kingdom and Israel in inciting the divide and conquer principle during the British mandate, as well as the way the Palestine Liberation Organisation managed to maintain national unity from the 1960s. Finally, this ...


Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers Apr 2019

Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

This paper gives an overview of how the conflict in Syria has evolved from a revolution into a sectarian civil war. Power is maintained by the ruling Assad family through promotion of the Alawite minority within the government and military. Methods of persecution on the Sunni majority by the Assad government are discussed as well as a policy of strategic expulsion of the Sunni enclave to Idlib, a city on the outskirts of Syria (bordering Turkey).


Wisdom (Hikmah) As Perceived By Iranian Muslim Scholars: Reflections On Ibn Sina, Ghazali, And Suhrawardi, Leyla H Tajer, Amir H Zekrgoo Apr 2019

Wisdom (Hikmah) As Perceived By Iranian Muslim Scholars: Reflections On Ibn Sina, Ghazali, And Suhrawardi, Leyla H Tajer, Amir H Zekrgoo

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

The evolution of the concept of spiritual/religious wisdom (ḥikamt) by the Iranian Muslim philosophers from the 10th to 12th century, may be studied under three main trends namely Mashā’i (Peripatetic), Kalām (theology), and Ishrāq (Illumination). Despite the correlation among these trends each of them grew independently. Among the three, the Hikmat-i Ishrāq (Illumination Wisdom) which is also known as Ḥikamt-i Dhawqi (Intuitive Wisdom) of Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (1153-1191) found a special place as it tended to bring together the philosophical and theological aspects of wisdom. This survey would address the development of ikmat (wisdom) among ...


The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter Jan 2019

The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter

Manuscript Studies

The Historia de los Reyes Moros de Granada, written by the chronicler Hernando de Baeza in the first half of the XVI century, in Spain, is a valuable text that provides a very different perspective from other late medieval Spanish official chronicles. This article provides an account of the discovery of a previously unknown manuscript of this chronicle which, unlike the two others already known, is complete and includes the ending, which narrates the negotiations between the Catholic Kings of Spain and the last Nasrid sultan Boabdil for the Islamic surrender of Granada. The article describes this previously unknown manuscript ...


Understanding Muhammad's Interaction With The Church, Devonte Narde Sep 2018

Understanding Muhammad's Interaction With The Church, Devonte Narde

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

My research focuses on understanding Muhammad’s (the Islamic prophet) interaction with what he perceived to be the Christian church to find out why his understanding of Biblical narratives and theology is incorrect. With this information, Christians should reintroduce Christian scripture and theology to Muslims since Muhammad’s rejection of Christian doctrine is based on associating wrong texts as authoritative Christian teaching. The following questions that shape this research are: What possible sources did Muhammad use to learn about biblical narratives and themes? What did the first Muslims think about the canonical gospels of Jesus? How did early Muslims view ...


The Shariah Scare Industry And The Clash Of Temporalities, Steven Fink Sep 2018

The Shariah Scare Industry And The Clash Of Temporalities, Steven Fink

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

Islamophobic alarms over shariah have resounded in the United States during the second decade of the twenty-first century. These alarms perpetuate the notion of a clash of civilizations, pitting Islam versus the West. Instead of discussing the clash of civilizations thesis, however, this article proposes that a clash of temporalities has been constructed by a “shariah scare industry.” Focusing on the Center for Security Policy and Nonie Darwish, this article discloses the shariah scare argument that Muslims and non-Muslims experience time in two contrasting manners, what I call frozen past time and ominous future time.


A History Of Slavery In Central Asia: Shī’Ī Muslim Enslavement In 19th Century Bukhara, Robert Dunbar May 2018

A History Of Slavery In Central Asia: Shī’Ī Muslim Enslavement In 19th Century Bukhara, Robert Dunbar

Verbum

In lieu of an abstract, below is the essay's first paragraph.

Despite more than a century of interest on the part of western scholars and historians in the region of Central Asia, in many respects our knowledge of many topics in Central Asian history remains limited. To date, when compared to the body of historical works treating the history of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and slavery in the Americas, or even the history of slavery within the Arab-Muslim world, the history of slavery in Islamic Central Asia has received little attention. Thus, it stands to reason that the history ...


Differentiating Averroes’ Accounts Of The Metaphysics Of Human Epistemology In His Middle And Long Commentaries On Aristotle’S De Anima, Caleb H A Brown Jun 2017

Differentiating Averroes’ Accounts Of The Metaphysics Of Human Epistemology In His Middle And Long Commentaries On Aristotle’S De Anima, Caleb H A Brown

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

Averroes (an Islamic Andalusian philosopher in the 12th century) discusses the metaphysics of human epistemology extensively, and his socio-religious context sheds light on this discussion. Several of his works, most prominently his three commentaries on Aristotle’s De Anima, attempt to explain how finite, particular minds interact with universal, eternal intelligibles. Current scholarship focuses on the two longer commentaries, the Middle Commentary and the Long Commentary, but there is no consensus regarding which of these presents Averroes’ final articulation of the metaphysics of human epistemology. Those who maintain that Averroes wrote the Middle Commentary last tend to minimize the ...


The Moroccan Jurist Al-Khamlīshī: Can A Woman Become A Legislator (Mujtahid)?, Nayel A Badareen Nov 2016

The Moroccan Jurist Al-Khamlīshī: Can A Woman Become A Legislator (Mujtahid)?, Nayel A Badareen

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

The idea of deducing legal rulings in Islamic law, or ijtihād, as well as the qualifications of the person who practices ijtihād, known as the mujtahid, has been a complex issue among Muslim ʿulamāʾ for centuries. Many Muslim ʿulamāʾ and Western scholars have maintained that the gate of ijtihād was closed. The title of mujtahid was therefore impossible to attain. The Moroccan intellectual al-Khamlīshī maintains that the strenuous conditions put forth by some of the Sunni jurists to qualify an individual to become a mujtahid actually contributed to the demise of ijtihād. These qualifications, according to al-Khamlīshī, were proven to ...


Intercultural Connectivity: Intertwined Through Islamic Design, Sandra Bird Jan 2016

Intercultural Connectivity: Intertwined Through Islamic Design, Sandra Bird

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

This paper is a critical inquiry examining the works of an art exhibit, Geometric Aljamia: A Cultural Transliteration, hosted during Kennesaw State University’s Year of the Arabian Peninsula. It includes a brief interdisciplinary discussion of the importance of geometry to the development of Islamic art and design. The contemporary artists who produced these works under study integrate drawing and paper-cutting techniques that display characteristics of art found throughout the Muslim world.


Emigration As A Political Stance? Moroccan Migrants' Narratives Of Dignity, Human Rights And Minority Identities In Transnational Context, Anna Virkama Jul 2015

Emigration As A Political Stance? Moroccan Migrants' Narratives Of Dignity, Human Rights And Minority Identities In Transnational Context, Anna Virkama

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

The protest movements known as the Arab Spring brought the frustration and disappointment of the North African citizens with their governments to the world's attention. Five years after the Arab Spring, the issues of human rights and individual freedom remain important issues in the democratic transition of the Arab societies. Since the countries in North Africa have also been important migrant sending countries for decades, the connection between mass emigration and human right issues forms an interesting research area. This empirical article aims to bring a new perspective to the debate by analysing the narratives dignity, human rights and ...


The Independent Press After The "Moroccan Spring", Hamza Tayebi Jul 2015

The Independent Press After The "Moroccan Spring", Hamza Tayebi

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

The wave of Arab Spring that started in Tunisia and Egypt arrived to Morocco in 2011 paving the way to unprecedented organized mass-protests all over the country. Among the demands raised by the 20 February Movement protesters was the demand for free and independent media outlets, especially the press. King Mohammed VI, the Commander of the Faithful and the highest authority in Morocco, promised in a televised speech on March 9th to introduce "radical" and "genuine" constitutional reforms that would democratize the country. In fact, King Mohammed VI has so far succeeded in calming down and co-opting the demonstrations, but ...


Political Islamism In Tunisia: A History Of Repression And A Complex Forum For Potential Change, Sarah R Louden Apr 2015

Political Islamism In Tunisia: A History Of Repression And A Complex Forum For Potential Change, Sarah R Louden

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This paper argues that the growth and legalization of Political Islamism in Tunisia will naturally hinder the contemporary influence of violent extremism, leading to partnership and inclusion within a Democratic government. The basis for this claim rests on the idea that the condemnation and repression of Political Islamism in Tunisia historically backfired and led to the further underground radicalization of Tunisians, along with scores of human rights abuses by authorities. Specifically, this essay will focus on the moderate Islamist party Ennahda, the Salafist party Ansar al-Sharia, and their complex relationship to each other as well as to domestic and regional ...


The Movie Mogul, Moses And Muslims: Islamic Elements In Cecil B. Demille’S The Ten Commandments (1956), Michael D. Calabria Ofm Apr 2015

The Movie Mogul, Moses And Muslims: Islamic Elements In Cecil B. Demille’S The Ten Commandments (1956), Michael D. Calabria Ofm

Journal of Religion & Film

Cecil B. DeMille’s 1956 film, The Ten Commandments, has come to define the genre of the biblical epic. It has earned a permanent place in American culture due to its annual airing on television during the Easter and Passover holidays. Most viewers are unaware, however, that DeMille had sought to make a film that would appeal to Jews, Christians and Muslims at a time when their common Abrahamic ancestry had yet to be articulated, and interreligious dialogue was all but unheard of. To this end, Henry Noerdlinger, DeMille’s researcher for the film, consulted the Qur’an, and screenwriters ...


State Sovereignty And Citizen Agency: The Nationalist-Islamic Discourse Of Shaykh Muhammad Mahdi Shams Al-Din, Dina Jadallah Feb 2014

State Sovereignty And Citizen Agency: The Nationalist-Islamic Discourse Of Shaykh Muhammad Mahdi Shams Al-Din, Dina Jadallah

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

Using the discourse of Shaykh Muhammad Mahdi Shams al-Din, this article examines the contestation of sovereignty in Lebanon. His discourse on questions of sovereignty and agency offers an alternative vision of modernity that is part of an evolving struggle in the Lebanese political system. Lebanon’s consociational democratic system of structured political sectarianism necessitated an enmeshed and interactive theological, organizational, and political response. The article asks how political and ideational challenge – in the sense of empowering a disempowered group – occurs within a dominant political system of democratic exclusion? In addition, the geo-political reality of diminished state-level sovereignty, both vis-à-vis regional ...


Atatürk's Balancing Act: The Role Of Secularism In Turkey, Patrick G. Rear Jan 2014

Atatürk's Balancing Act: The Role Of Secularism In Turkey, Patrick G. Rear

Global Tides

The intersection of religion and politics in the form of a civil religion has been present since time immemorial. This paper looks specifically to the relationship between Turkey’s development of a secular civil religion after gaining independence and the advancing of women’s rights and democratic values. In examining the intersections of state and religion in a secular Islamic society, it draws parallels to the French civil religion as it came to be following the French Revolution. Though Atatürk and other secularists were strong forces in developing the civil religion, the paper also examines liberal democratic and conservative Islamic ...


Head Of The Jews In Spain In Comparison To Head Of The Jews In Egypt, Elinoar Bareket Aug 2013

Head Of The Jews In Spain In Comparison To Head Of The Jews In Egypt, Elinoar Bareket

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

Two big Jewish settlements were sitting on the shores of the Mediterranean in the 11th century: one in Fatimid Egypt, mainly in the city of Fustat, close to Cairo, the second in Muslim-Suni Spain, mainly in the cities of Cordova – the capital of the Umyyads caliphs, and Granada – the capital of the Granada Emirate.

How related were those two settlements to each other by means of communication, mutual influences, similar behavior and the main aspect: relying on a Muslim rule which might be similar in its basis but completely different in its outlook. This article aims to look at ...


Repurposed Narratives: The Battle Of Ṣiffīn And The Historical Memory Of The Umayyad Dynasty, Aaron M Hagler Apr 2013

Repurposed Narratives: The Battle Of Ṣiffīn And The Historical Memory Of The Umayyad Dynasty, Aaron M Hagler

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

The Battle of Ṣiffīn (36/657) is the flash point in the emergence of sects within Islam. The presentation of the Ṣiffīn story in Arabic historical writing therefore changed over time as the sectarian split among Sunnīs and Shīʿites became increasingly defined. This paper will trace the development of the presentation of the Ṣiffīn story in Arabic histories across developing Sunnī and Shīʿite identity crystallization and the region of origin of their authors, as well as literary and stylistic developments in the field of Arabic historical writing.

The specific historians examined have been chosen in part because they demonstrate a ...


“Islamicizing” A Euro/American Curriculum, Mary Ball Howkins Jan 2011

“Islamicizing” A Euro/American Curriculum, Mary Ball Howkins

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

A curriculum revision task that seems compelling in 2011, ten years after 9/11/2001, is “Islamicizing” my part in an art history and General Education liberal arts curriculum. Standard art history survey texts include historical sections on Islamic visual traditions but decline to integrate new information on the ways in which medieval Islamic scholars contributed to the foundation of the 15th and 16th century Renaissances in Europe, or the ways in which global trade and cultural contact influenced the appearance of visual art of that time and region, and in later centuries. Recent re-evaluators of Islamic cultural contributions make ...


Religions: From Phobia To Understanding, Nasr Abu-Zayd Jan 2010

Religions: From Phobia To Understanding, Nasr Abu-Zayd

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

This lead article in the Fall 2010 issue of Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge celebrating him is one of the last published by the renowned scholar of Islam and Humanism, Professor Nasr Hamed Abu-Zayd, before his sudden passing in July 2010. In this paper, he argues that the challenge for Muslim thinkers nowadays is how to reconnect the fragmented Islamic culture of the past, which made the great Islamic civilization between the 9th and the 12th centuries, and contributed to the modern world’s values of freedom, equality and justice. It is not an impossible task to ...


Unconscious Islamophobia, Gema Martín-Muñoz Jan 2010

Unconscious Islamophobia, Gema Martín-Muñoz

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

Our historical relationship with Islam has accumulated a whole series of negative perceptions dominated by prejudices and stereotypes. We have internalized a reductionist and monolithic image of “us” and of “them” (the two “cultures”). It is as if these were closed universes in which millions of human beings are designated as “Western” or “Muslims” and represent alien and even antagonistic cultures. This concept of “cultures” in relations between the Muslim world and “us” is a product of a Western construct in which “Islam” and therefore all individuals within Islam are fictitiously represented, labelled ideologically as a dominant global force, in ...


Fundamentally Danish?: The Muhammad Cartoon Crisis As Transitional Drama, Heiko Henkel Jan 2010

Fundamentally Danish?: The Muhammad Cartoon Crisis As Transitional Drama, Heiko Henkel

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

A closer look at the Muhammad cartoon crisis illuminates some of the key issues that were, and continue to be, at stake for the various actors in the public contestations over the legitimate place of Muslims (and the Islamic tradition) in Danish society. Using a conceptual framework developed by Axel Honneth, I suggest in this article that the cartoon crisis is part of an ongoing struggle for recognition in Denmark, through which the terms by which Muslims residing in Denmark are recognized as legitimate citizens/residents of Danish society are negotiated—and on which Muslims may recognize the demands of ...


Introduction: Debating Islamophobia, Ramón Grosfoguel, Gema Martín-Muñoz Jan 2010

Introduction: Debating Islamophobia, Ramón Grosfoguel, Gema Martín-Muñoz

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

This essay is an introduction by the co-organizers to the proceedings of the academic conference on “Debating Islamophobia” organized by Casa Árabe-IEAM, Spain, in collaboration with the Program of Comparative Ethnic Studies in the Department of Ethnic Studies, U.C. Berkeley, in May 2009, published in the Fall 2010 issue of Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge. In sum, the co-organizers, who also served as co-editors of this issue of the journal, expect the publication of this volume to be an academic contribution to the outlined questions regarding Islamophobia, a tool for social researchers and useful to overcome ...


Epistemic Islamophobia And Colonial Social Sciences, Ramón Grosfoguel Jan 2010

Epistemic Islamophobia And Colonial Social Sciences, Ramón Grosfoguel

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

This article explores how epistemic racism shapes contemporary discussions on Islamophobia. Epistemic Racism is an underestimated aspect of racism. The first part is a discussion about epistemic racism in the world-system. The second part is on the Western male hegemonic identity politics and the fundamentalist responses to it. The third part is on epistemic Islamophobia and the social sciences.


Islamophobia: A French Specificity In Europe?, Vincent Gessier Jan 2010

Islamophobia: A French Specificity In Europe?, Vincent Gessier

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

This paper argues that France is not more Islamophobic than other European countries. An ‘institutional Islamophobia’ or ‘State Islamophobia’ doesn’t really exist. However, the relation toward Islam is complex and determined by the “missionary mind” which persists by wishing to emancipate Muslims from their religion, perceived as an archaic, obscurantist and despotic phenomenon. French society specificity expresses itself in the tendency to ‘ideologize’ Islam. In front of the ‘danger’ of the political Islam (fundamentalism, radical Islam, Islamoterrorism…), French institutions would like to promote their own conception of a ‘regenerated Islam’ (comparable to the ‘regenerated Judaism’ during the Third Republic ...


Terror And The Politics Of Containment: Analysing The Discourse Of The ‘War On Terror’ And Its Workings Of Power, Farish A. Noor Jan 2010

Terror And The Politics Of Containment: Analysing The Discourse Of The ‘War On Terror’ And Its Workings Of Power, Farish A. Noor

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

Since 11 September 2001, the discourse of the ‘war on terror’ has become one of the most over-used and hegemonic discourses that has shaped domestic politics and international relations worldwide. This paper focuses on the workings of the discourse of ‘anti-terrorism’ and its linkages to power structures and the institutions that are supported by them. It will look at how the discourse of the ‘war on terror’ has been used by the governments of Southeast Asia and Western Europe in particular in relation to oppositional forces, both legal and extra-legal; and its wider implications on the development of democracy and ...