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Full-Text Articles in Islamic World and Near East History

The Politics Of Pity Versus Piety: The Poetics And Politics Behind Different Feminist Accounts On The Muslim Woman, Wei Mei Wong Dec 2019

The Politics Of Pity Versus Piety: The Poetics And Politics Behind Different Feminist Accounts On The Muslim Woman, Wei Mei Wong

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This article analyzes two books that utilize the construct of “The Muslim Woman” as a symbol for public consumption across a global and conceptual scale: Saba Mahmood’s book, 'Politics of Piety', and Malala Yousafzai’s and Christina Lamb’s 'I am Malala'. The motivation behind the analysis is to situate the texts within debates on essentialism within accounts of Muslim women. While essentialism and the critique of it in such discussions are not a novelty, the books demonstrate a physical manifestation of essentialism and a reductionist reaction toward this brand of essentialism. Through analysis of the content, poetics, and ...


New Bottles, Old Wine: The Contemporary Palestinian Political Division, Abdalhadi Alijla, Aziz Al Masri Nov 2019

New Bottles, Old Wine: The Contemporary Palestinian Political Division, Abdalhadi Alijla, Aziz Al Masri

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This study examines the prolonged Palestinian division. Its essential focus is to explore the various stages that the Palestinian political system has gone through and track its development from the British mandate up to the ongoing division between Fatah and Hamas. It aims to uncover the roles of regional and foreign actors which have destabilized the Palestinian national movement. Moreover, it demonstrates the role of the United Kingdom and Israel in inciting the divide and conquer principle during the British mandate, as well as the way the Palestine Liberation Organisation managed to maintain national unity from the 1960s. Finally, this ...


Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers Apr 2019

Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

This paper gives an overview of how the conflict in Syria has evolved from a revolution into a sectarian civil war. Power is maintained by the ruling Assad family through promotion of the Alawite minority within the government and military. Methods of persecution on the Sunni majority by the Assad government are discussed as well as a policy of strategic expulsion of the Sunni enclave to Idlib, a city on the outskirts of Syria (bordering Turkey).


Local Perceptions Of Cannabis And Cannabis Laws In Morocco: Unpacking Past Laws, Moroccans' Perceptions, And Exploring Organizational Efforts, Shadae Tingman Apr 2019

Local Perceptions Of Cannabis And Cannabis Laws In Morocco: Unpacking Past Laws, Moroccans' Perceptions, And Exploring Organizational Efforts, Shadae Tingman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In Morocco, cannabis production and consumption are illegal, both medicinally and recreationally. The cultivation of the plant is among the top five in the world. This research will explore many aspects of cannabis in Morocco. There is much literature that exists surrounding the agricultural, economic, and political implications of cannabis, but this research will focus on social perceptions of cannabis and cannabis laws of local Moroccans. This research will explore past government attempts to legalize marijuana and why they did not pass. It will also explore the work of local youth organizations (that focus on cannabis) to understand what they ...


Understanding Muhammad's Interaction With The Church, Devonte Narde Sep 2018

Understanding Muhammad's Interaction With The Church, Devonte Narde

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

My research focuses on understanding Muhammad’s (the Islamic prophet) interaction with what he perceived to be the Christian church to find out why his understanding of Biblical narratives and theology is incorrect. With this information, Christians should reintroduce Christian scripture and theology to Muslims since Muhammad’s rejection of Christian doctrine is based on associating wrong texts as authoritative Christian teaching. The following questions that shape this research are: What possible sources did Muhammad use to learn about biblical narratives and themes? What did the first Muslims think about the canonical gospels of Jesus? How did early Muslims view ...


A History Of Slavery In Central Asia: Shī’Ī Muslim Enslavement In 19th Century Bukhara, Robert Dunbar May 2018

A History Of Slavery In Central Asia: Shī’Ī Muslim Enslavement In 19th Century Bukhara, Robert Dunbar

Verbum

In lieu of an abstract, below is the essay's first paragraph.

Despite more than a century of interest on the part of western scholars and historians in the region of Central Asia, in many respects our knowledge of many topics in Central Asian history remains limited. To date, when compared to the body of historical works treating the history of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and slavery in the Americas, or even the history of slavery within the Arab-Muslim world, the history of slavery in Islamic Central Asia has received little attention. Thus, it stands to reason that the history ...


I Am A Magic Carpet: Life In A Liminal Space, Yasmin Mazloom Apr 2018

I Am A Magic Carpet: Life In A Liminal Space, Yasmin Mazloom

Art Practices MFA Theses

The life of immigrants is discussed in two chapters: living in the country of origin and living abroad. The space that exists in between these two countries and places, is diminished and not discussed because it is not physical but more of a mental space that is rarely recognized unless it is experienced firsthand. Even though only a minority of people will understand this liminal space, it is important to be aware of its existence. Those who reside in this space need to recognize they are not alone, even if their liminal space is different from others, so that they ...


Locating Palestine’S Summer Residence: Mandate Tourism And National Identity, Andrea L. Stanton Jan 2018

Locating Palestine’S Summer Residence: Mandate Tourism And National Identity, Andrea L. Stanton

Religious Studies: Faculty Scholarship

The carving up of the Ottoman Levant into British and French Mandates after World War I introduced new realities for the inhabitants of the region. This article uses Lebanese tourism and the promotion of Lebanon as a tourist destination to Palestinians of all religious backgrounds as a case study to investigate the challenges and potentials of the new Mandate structures. Using Palestinian government archives and newspapers, it examines how Lebanon was marketed to Palestinian vacationers. It concludes by suggesting that tourism, with its mixture of private and government sector interests, serves as a key node for observing the messy process ...


'Not Cruelty But Piety': Circumscribing European Crusading Violence, Susanna A. Throop Jan 2018

'Not Cruelty But Piety': Circumscribing European Crusading Violence, Susanna A. Throop

History Faculty Publications

Was there such a thing as “crusading violence”? Traditionally the crusading movement has been sharply distinguished from other forms of Christian violence motivated, or at least justified, by religion. However, we have increasingly come to recognize the difficulties of drawing clear-cut boundaries between crusading and other aspects of western European culture in the Middle Ages. This chapter assesses the ways in which crusader violence was like and unlike other forms of medieval Christian violence.


Sacred Orientation: The Qibla As Ritual, Metaphor, And Identity Marker In Early Islam, Ari Michael Gordon Jan 2018

Sacred Orientation: The Qibla As Ritual, Metaphor, And Identity Marker In Early Islam, Ari Michael Gordon

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Scholars of early Islam often take for granted the title of this study—that facing the qibla (i.e. the geographic direction of worship) is an important Islamic ritual and that Muḥammad’s turn toward the Kaʿba after facing Jerusalem for prayer marked the identity of his nascent community. This postulate is rarely questioned, but the mechanisms by which the qibla expressed and inscribed a collective Islamic identity remain largely unexplored. Rather, study of Islam’s sacred direction tends to focus on either historical reconstruction of Islamic origins or on the science of qibla-calculation. The former seeks to question or ...


Finding Lost & Found: Designer’S Notes From The Process Of Creating A Jewish Game For Learning, Owen Gottlieb Dec 2017

Finding Lost & Found: Designer’S Notes From The Process Of Creating A Jewish Game For Learning, Owen Gottlieb

Articles

This article provides context for and examines aspects of the design process of a game for learning. Lost & Found (2017a, 2017b) is a tabletop-to-mobile game series designed to teach medieval religious legal systems, beginning with Moses Maimonides’ Mishneh Torah (1180), a cornerstone work of Jewish legal rabbinic literature. Through design narratives, the article demonstrates the complex design decisions faced by the team as they balance the needs of player engagement with learning goals. In the process the designers confront challenges in developing winstates and in working with complex resource management. The article provides insight into the pathways the team found ...


A Fractured Family And Its Heirs: Seljuq Power And The “Sunni Revival” In The Middle East, 1000-1200 Ce, Elijah Sloat Jul 2017

A Fractured Family And Its Heirs: Seljuq Power And The “Sunni Revival” In The Middle East, 1000-1200 Ce, Elijah Sloat

History Summer Fellows

The Seljuq Turks were a group of nomadic warriors who converted to Sunni Islam by the end of the tenth century. Over the course of the next half century the Seljuqs conquered the majority of what we now call the Middle East. One Seljuq dynasty in particular, known to historians as the Great Seljuqs, positioned themselves as the dominant political power in the region as well as champions of Sunni Islam. Scholars refer to this period of Seljuq control as the “Sunni Revival” and debate heavily whether Seljuq political and religious practices were the cause of this “Revival,” as well ...


Differentiating Averroes’ Accounts Of The Metaphysics Of Human Epistemology In His Middle And Long Commentaries On Aristotle’S De Anima, Caleb H A Brown Jun 2017

Differentiating Averroes’ Accounts Of The Metaphysics Of Human Epistemology In His Middle And Long Commentaries On Aristotle’S De Anima, Caleb H A Brown

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

Averroes (an Islamic Andalusian philosopher in the 12th century) discusses the metaphysics of human epistemology extensively, and his socio-religious context sheds light on this discussion. Several of his works, most prominently his three commentaries on Aristotle’s De Anima, attempt to explain how finite, particular minds interact with universal, eternal intelligibles. Current scholarship focuses on the two longer commentaries, the Middle Commentary and the Long Commentary, but there is no consensus regarding which of these presents Averroes’ final articulation of the metaphysics of human epistemology. Those who maintain that Averroes wrote the Middle Commentary last tend to minimize the ...


Supplanting The Wrong With The Right: A Synoptic Overview Of Christian And Islamic Reactions Towards The Subject Of Heresy, Brett G. Barnard May 2017

Supplanting The Wrong With The Right: A Synoptic Overview Of Christian And Islamic Reactions Towards The Subject Of Heresy, Brett G. Barnard

Lawrence University Honors Projects

Whenever there is a faith that is claiming to be the “one true religion,” just what is it that defines that most sinister of opposition known as “heresy?” Is it the choices made by these aforementioned “heretics” to hold beliefs that are contrary to the mainstream? Or is the way in which “orthodox” authorities have historically asserted their own superiority while legally eliminating the competition? When overlooking monotheistic belief systems that claim universal theological authority, such as Christianity and Islam, what stands out the most is the fact that the greatest threat almost always comes not from exterior rivals, but ...


Sheikh Abdullah Quilliam’S International Influence: America, West Africa, And Beyond, Brent D. Singleton Jan 2017

Sheikh Abdullah Quilliam’S International Influence: America, West Africa, And Beyond, Brent D. Singleton

Library Faculty Publications

In the late 19th century, news concerning Abdullah Quilliam and the establishment of a community of British Muslim converts in Liverpool spread across the world, particularly among Muslims. As a well-placed Victorian convert to Islam in the heart of British Empire, Quilliam symbolized many things to Muslim communities worldwide, each group perceiving him in whatever light they needed to see him. For some Muslim converts in America he was a model, a mentor, and a mediator. For many Muslims in the British Empire, particularly West Africa, Quilliam provided a morale boost, a legitimatization for holding on to their religion ...


Salafism, Wahhabism, And The Definition Of Sunni Islam, Rob J. Williams Jan 2017

Salafism, Wahhabism, And The Definition Of Sunni Islam, Rob J. Williams

Honors Program: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

My capstone deals with the historical definition of Sunni Islam, and how it has changed in approximately the past 200 years. Around 1800, Sunni Islam was pretty clearly defined by an adherence to one of four maddhabs, or schools of law: the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali schools and are all based in nearly a millennium of legal scholarship. Since 1800, however, numerous reform movements have sprung up which disavow previous scholarship and interpret Islamic law their own way. However, certain reformist groups, such as Traditionalist Salafis and Wahhabis, claim that their version of Islam is the only “pure ...


Globalization Of Science In The Middle East And North Africa,18th-20th Centuries (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries Jan 2017

Globalization Of Science In The Middle East And North Africa,18th-20th Centuries (Library Resources), Holy Cross Libraries

Library Resources for Campus Events

A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to “Globalization of Science in the Middle East and North Africa,18th-20th Centuries" a conference held at the College of the Holy Cross March 24-24, 2017.

This conference brought together scholars to explore important issues related to the history of science in the Middle East and North Africa region during the 18th-20th centuries — a critical period of change and modernization when Middle Easterners were concerned about rising power of European states and societies and the relative weakness of Islamic ones. Keynote speaker Carla Nappi, Canada ...


Engagement And Resistance: African Americans, Saudi Arabia And Islamic Transnationalisms, 1975 To 2000, Jeffrey Diamant Sep 2016

Engagement And Resistance: African Americans, Saudi Arabia And Islamic Transnationalisms, 1975 To 2000, Jeffrey Diamant

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since the 1960s, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has financed missionary efforts to Muslims around the world, attempting to spread a Salafi form of Islam that professes strict adherence to Islamic sacred scripture. The effects of this transnational proselytization have depended on numerous factors in “host countries.” This project explores the various impacts of Saudi transnational religious influence in the United States among African-Americans. By relying on previously unused documentary sources and fresh oral histories, it shows how Saudi “soft power” attempted to effect change in religious practices of African-American Muslims from 1975 through 2000. It provides the most detailed ...


The Making Of Modern Egypt: The Egyptian Ulama As Custodians Of Change And Guardians Of Muslim Culture, Marai Boauod Aug 2016

The Making Of Modern Egypt: The Egyptian Ulama As Custodians Of Change And Guardians Of Muslim Culture, Marai Boauod

Dissertations and Theses

Scholarship on the modern history of the Middle East has undergone profound revision in the previous three decades or so. Many earlier perceptions, largely based on modernization theory, have been either contested or modified. However, the perception of the Egyptian ulama (the traditionally-educated, religious Muslim scholars) in academic scholarship remains largely affected by the legacy of hypotheses of the modernization theory. Old assumptions that the Egyptian ulama were submissive to political power and passive players incapable of accommodating, let alone of fathoming, conditions of the modern world, and who chose or were forced to retreat from this world, losing much ...


Unveiling Laïcité: Secularism Algerian Muslims And The Headscarf Affair In Modern France, Coleen Nugent Jun 2016

Unveiling Laïcité: Secularism Algerian Muslims And The Headscarf Affair In Modern France, Coleen Nugent

Honors Theses

The historical relationship between the French state and its form of secularism, laïcité, and the French Muslim population is fraught with conflict, misunderstanding, and ambivalence. Laïcité, is a form of secularism unique to France, thus why it refuses to be translated from its native French. France also has a unique colonial relationship with Algeria, which was considered an integral part of France during France's colonial empire. Both the history of laïcité and the history of this colonial relationship help to explain the modern relationship between laïcité and the French Muslim population. In order to analyze this conflict, the "Head ...


In Search Of Askia Mohammed: The Epic Of Askia Mohammed As Cultural History And Songhay Foundational Myth, Joe Wilson May 2016

In Search Of Askia Mohammed: The Epic Of Askia Mohammed As Cultural History And Songhay Foundational Myth, Joe Wilson

Masters Theses

This thesis offers a detailed historical analysis of The Epic of Askia Mohammed, a foundational myth that ranks among the more well-known global tales of cultural heroes and state formation. The sudden regime change that resulted in the collapse of the Songhay Sunni dynasty and the ascent of the Songhay Askia dynasty in 1492-93 is one of the most important events in West African history. This swift rebellion reversed decades of destructive economic and religious policies. As such, the memory of these dynamic and transformative times was captured by the griots, the oral historians of the Sudan. Nouhou Malio, a ...


Race, Rebellion, And Arab Muslim Slavery : The Zanj Rebellion In Iraq, 869 - 883 C.E., Nicholas C. Mcleod May 2016

Race, Rebellion, And Arab Muslim Slavery : The Zanj Rebellion In Iraq, 869 - 883 C.E., Nicholas C. Mcleod

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the ninth century, enslaved Africans from the east coast of Africa, called the Zanj, revolted for nearly fifteen years in southern Iraq against their Arab slave masters and challenged the social order of the Abbasid Empire. This thesis is a socio-historical investigation on the role that race played in starting the Zanj Rebellion of 869 C.E. It examines the Arab Islamic slave trade and the racial stratification experienced by blacks in the early centuries of Islamic history in conjunction with the Zanj Rebellion. The thesis applies a structural framework for analyzing race, to demonstrate the racialization process, prevalent ...


Medical Breakthroughs In The Islamic Golden Age: Models And Inspirations For Muslim Youth And Adults Alike, Shareef Gamal Mohamed Kotb Apr 2016

Medical Breakthroughs In The Islamic Golden Age: Models And Inspirations For Muslim Youth And Adults Alike, Shareef Gamal Mohamed Kotb

Honors Senior Capstone Projects

Great discoveries, inventions and innovations in the sciences as well as other branches of knowledge were developed during the Islamic Golden Age (7th-13th century). During this period in time, scientists such as Al Kindi and Avicenna (Ibn-Sina) served as bridges between the Ancient Greeks and the Western World, transferring and nurturing these branches of knowledge, most notably the field of medicine. These scientists were able to attain much knowledge about medicine through the support of the religion of Islam, the Caliphates of this region, and the language, as they all helped to support this one cause. These innovators were able ...


Bibliography Of Books On Muslims And Islam In The United States (1970-2015), Sahar Aziz, Cynthia Burress Feb 2016

Bibliography Of Books On Muslims And Islam In The United States (1970-2015), Sahar Aziz, Cynthia Burress

Cynthia Burress

For a variety of reasons, Muslims in America are in the public spotlight. As a result, the demand for information and analysis on Muslims and Islam in the United States has risen. In an effort to provide a resource for academics, advocates, journalists, and others, we created this bibliography composed of over 230 books published between 1970 and 2015 focused on Muslims and Islam in the United States. We did not include books that focus primarily on Islam and/or Muslims outside of the United States. The bibliography is categorized by subject matter and chronologically with the most recent publications ...


Intercultural Connectivity: Intertwined Through Islamic Design, Sandra Bird Jan 2016

Intercultural Connectivity: Intertwined Through Islamic Design, Sandra Bird

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

This paper is a critical inquiry examining the works of an art exhibit, Geometric Aljamia: A Cultural Transliteration, hosted during Kennesaw State University’s Year of the Arabian Peninsula. It includes a brief interdisciplinary discussion of the importance of geometry to the development of Islamic art and design. The contemporary artists who produced these works under study integrate drawing and paper-cutting techniques that display characteristics of art found throughout the Muslim world.


From Text To Law: Islamic Legal Theory And The Practical Hermeneutics Of Abū JaʿFar Aḥmad Al-Ṭaḥāwī (D. 321/933), Carolyn Anne Brunelle Jan 2016

From Text To Law: Islamic Legal Theory And The Practical Hermeneutics Of Abū JaʿFar Aḥmad Al-Ṭaḥāwī (D. 321/933), Carolyn Anne Brunelle

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Scholars of Islamic law point to the absence of any extant work of legal theory between the Risāla of al-Shāfiʿī and the Fuṣūl of al-Jaṣṣāṣ as a major barrier to reconstructing the history of Islamic legal thought. However, careful analysis of three major works of the Ḥanafī jurist al-Ṭaḥāwī, Aḥkām al-Qurʾān, Sharḥ maʿānī al-āthār and Sharḥ mushkil al-āthār, reveals the existence of myriad brief passages elaborating questions of legal theory scattered throughout their many volumes. This study reconstructs the legal thought of al-Ṭaḥāwī as a window onto legal theory in the late 3rd/9th and early 4th/10th centuries, a ...


Algerian, Tunisian, And Moroccan Students Abroad In France: The Importance Of History In Understading The International Student Experience, Hannah M. Ulrich Jan 2016

Algerian, Tunisian, And Moroccan Students Abroad In France: The Importance Of History In Understading The International Student Experience, Hannah M. Ulrich

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In the wake of two major terrorist attacks in the past year, the presence in France of a large Arab-Muslim population has gained new global attention. Whether or not the perpetrators of these events held French or other European nationalities, their names and faces all said “Arab” to the public and raised questions about immigration, terrorism, Islam and the presence and status of Arab-Muslims in France. These questions are nothing new, even if they seem to take on new urgency. Since North Africans began coming to France in significant numbers in the 1920s and 1930s their place in France has ...


Tracing Islamic Extremist Ideologies: The Historical Journey Of Jihad From The Late Antique Period To The 21st Century, Nikhil Kanade Jan 2016

Tracing Islamic Extremist Ideologies: The Historical Journey Of Jihad From The Late Antique Period To The 21st Century, Nikhil Kanade

CMC Senior Theses

Popular interpretations and academic scholarship tends to emphasize the relationship between jihad, military action, and communal violence. These reinforce a sense that violence is inherent to Islam. Investigations into the contexts where jihad has been deployed highlight how its use is often a call for unity believed to be necessary for political goals. Therefore, in order to deconstruct this belief, this thesis tackles instead the relationship between textual interpretations and historical actions, and how these varied across specific moments in time. The case studies examined range from the initial evolution of a theory of jihad in the late antique world ...


Haunted Histories And Ambiguous Burial Grounds In Iraqi Kurdistan, Nahro Zagros, Tyler Fisher, Muslih Mustafa Dec 2015

Haunted Histories And Ambiguous Burial Grounds In Iraqi Kurdistan, Nahro Zagros, Tyler Fisher, Muslih Mustafa

Tyler Fisher

As part of a wider research project that documents site-specific oral history associated with caves and cemeteries among the rapidly changing populations of Iraqi Kurdistan, the present study analyzes oral histories and traditions concerning one particular graveyard. Reputed to be the burial site of seventh-century Muslim conquerors, this graveyard is concomitantly preserved by taboo and subject to transgressive acts. This article discusses the anachronisms that underpin the cemetery’s reputation, the aetiological functions of the local lore, and the shifting significance of the memorial space in relation to current events. As the region faces the menace of the self-declared Islamic ...


The Muslim Mystique: The Use Of Rushdie’S Imaginary Homeland To Combat Prejudice Against Muslim Peoples Explored In Three Semi-Autobiographical Works Of Popular Fiction By Muslim Authors Of An American Immigrant Background, Lauren E. Nadolski Nov 2015

The Muslim Mystique: The Use Of Rushdie’S Imaginary Homeland To Combat Prejudice Against Muslim Peoples Explored In Three Semi-Autobiographical Works Of Popular Fiction By Muslim Authors Of An American Immigrant Background, Lauren E. Nadolski

Selected Honors Theses

There is a largely unexplored trend in recent popular fiction that regards the semi-autobiographical work of authors of an immigrant or refugee background. These works seldom fall into the trap exposed by Said’s Orientalism, but instead present the author’s native country and culture through a lens similar what Salman Rushdie described as “imaginary homelands.” This thesis examines three primary texts that fit that description: The Kite Runner by Kahled Hosseni, The Reluctant Fundamentalist by Moshin Hamid, and Habibi by Naomi Shihab Nye for their inclusion of the Islamic faith and their portrayal of America. The texts are analyzed ...