Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Islamic World and Near East History Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 924

Full-Text Articles in Islamic World and Near East History

Who Is A Muslim?: Orientalism And Literary Populisms [Toc], Maryam Wasif Khan Jan 2021

Who Is A Muslim?: Orientalism And Literary Populisms [Toc], Maryam Wasif Khan

Literature

Who is a Muslim? Orientalism and Literary Populisms argues that modern Urdu literature, from its inception in colonial institutions such as Fort William College, Calcutta to its dominant forms in contemporary Pakistan—popular novels, short stories, television serials—is formed around a question that is and historically has been at the core of early modern and modern Western literatures. The question—who is a Muslim—is predominant in eighteenth-century literary and scholarly orientalist texts, the English oriental tale chief amongst them, but takes on new and dangerous meanings once it travels to the North-Indian colony, and later to Pakistan. A ...


An Analysis Of Women And Terrorism: Perpetrators, Victims, Both?, Elizabeth Lauren Miller Jun 2020

An Analysis Of Women And Terrorism: Perpetrators, Victims, Both?, Elizabeth Lauren Miller

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This paper will analyze women’s participation in terrorism under groups like al-Qaeda and the Islamic State. It will research the use of violence within terrorist organizations, perpetrated by female participants. What leads women to join groups like the Islamic State? There will be an analysis of the factors that attract women to joining terrorist organizations, in addition to the practices of recruitment that aid in their radicalization. There is a misconception that women who join the Islamic State lack education, which is seen as the sole reasoning for their radicalization or involvement. In reality, several reasons exist leading to ...


Shock And Awe, Sectarianism, And Violence In Iraq Post-2003, Sarim Al-Rawi Jun 2020

Shock And Awe, Sectarianism, And Violence In Iraq Post-2003, Sarim Al-Rawi

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The violence systematically deployed upon the prosperous nation of Iraq in 2003 was directly influenced by the Shock and Awe doctrine set forth by Harlan K. Ullman and James P. Wade in their 1996 book Shock and Awe: Achieving Rapid Dominance. The experimental methods of warfare and violence outlined in the text describe methods for the systematic destruction of every major aspect of a nation and society, militarily, economically, and socially. In the wake of the US Invasion of Iraq, we saw the direct implementation of these methods by the occupation forces, setting off a brutal cycle of violence that ...


Devotional Literature Of The Prophet Muhammad In South Asia, Zahra F. Syed Jun 2020

Devotional Literature Of The Prophet Muhammad In South Asia, Zahra F. Syed

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Many Sufi poets are known for their literary masterpieces that combine the tropes of love, religion, and the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). In a thorough analysis of these works, readers find that not only were these prominent authors drawing from Sufi ideals to venerate the Prophet, but also outputting significant propositions and arguments that helped maintain the preservation of Islamic values, and rebuild Muslim culture in a South Asian subcontinent that had been in a state of colonization for centuries. The continued practice of both ritualistic and literary veneration of the Prophet became a key factor in this preservation and rejuvenation ...


The Piety Movement In An American Suburb: The Experiences Of Women Of The Islamic Circle Of North America On Staten Island, Aisha Raheel Jun 2020

The Piety Movement In An American Suburb: The Experiences Of Women Of The Islamic Circle Of North America On Staten Island, Aisha Raheel

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The participation of women in fundamentalist movements has always posed a problem for feminist analysis because it disrupts the belief that all women see themselves as victims who share a common interest in ending this oppression. More broadly, portrayals of fundamentalists as people who are uniquely opposed to modern life are simplistic and dehumanizing. They are particularly problematic for Muslims because often, all Muslims whether they are fundamentalists are not, are portrayed as adhering to the same uncompromising, fanatical, and violent form of faith.

The Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA) was founded in 1971 to provide its members with ...


Moroccan Identity In The 1980s: The Theory And Policy Implications Of Studying Moroccan Identity, Heather Rodenberg May 2020

Moroccan Identity In The 1980s: The Theory And Policy Implications Of Studying Moroccan Identity, Heather Rodenberg

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Constructivism in International Relations’ theory grapples with broader themes affecting how country’s make decisions and relate to each other. In this theory one of the largest categories also happens to be among the least understood: a nation’s identity. Hopf and Allan, in Making Identity Count, created a framework for studying a country’s identity as objectively as possible through both quantitative and qualitative research. They have yet to apply their methodology to less understood regions of the world, from an American perspective. This paper adapts their framework to study Moroccan identity in the years 1979 through 1990. To ...


Non-Muslim Integration Into The Early Islamic Caliphate Through The Use Of Surrender Agreements, Rachel Hutchings May 2020

Non-Muslim Integration Into The Early Islamic Caliphate Through The Use Of Surrender Agreements, Rachel Hutchings

History Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this honors thesis, I discuss the role of surrender agreements in the early Islamic caliphate and their evolution through the ninth century. Seen as a window into the developing relations between Muslims and non-Muslims, surrender agreements shed considerable light on the evolving conceptualization of non-Muslims’ place in dar al-Islam from the point of view of Islamic legal tradition and political theory. By defining the relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims in a framework that was agreed on by all parties and one that preserved the basic rights of non-Muslims, these agreements were remarkably effective in facilitating the incorporation of non-Muslims ...


A New Synthesis: Saudi Salafism And The Contested Ideologies Of Muhammad Surur, Ahmad Kindawi Apr 2020

A New Synthesis: Saudi Salafism And The Contested Ideologies Of Muhammad Surur, Ahmad Kindawi

Theses and Dissertations

The thesis examines the life and thought of Muhammad Surer Zayn al-Abidin, the Syrian ideologue and founder of an influential Islamist trend within the Sahwa (Awakening) movement in Saudi Arabia. In the highly politicalized Saudi Islamist scene of the early 1970s, Surur came up with a unique synthesis: an amalgam of the political awareness of the Muslim Brotherhood in seeking political reform and the implementation of an Islamic order and the religious thought of Wahhabis. Under the influence of Surer's ideas, a new group appeared, al-Sureriyya, which had a significant impact on Saudi Islamic activism, becoming the main group ...


Obituaries, Subjectivities, And Perceptions Of Ariel Sharon, Sean Switzer Apr 2020

Obituaries, Subjectivities, And Perceptions Of Ariel Sharon, Sean Switzer

History in the Making

No abstract provided.


Iranian Receptivity To Cia Propaganda In 1953, Alex Ponce Apr 2020

Iranian Receptivity To Cia Propaganda In 1953, Alex Ponce

History in the Making

In 1953, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), together with the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), organized a coup to overthrow the democratically elected PrimeMinister Mohammad Mossadeq (1882-1967). While much has been written about the coup, little attention has been given to the U.S. propaganda that preceded the operation. From 1950 to 1953, the U.S. launched a series of propaganda campaigns in Iran. Drawing from U.S.-Iranian correspondences, memoirs, journal articles, and secondary sources, this paper seeks to shed light on the U.S. and CIA perceptions of Iranian receptivity to propaganda from 1950 to 1953. What did ...


The Case For Early Arabia And Arabic Language: A Reply To The New Arabia Theory By Ahmad Al-Jallad, Saad D. Abulhab Apr 2020

The Case For Early Arabia And Arabic Language: A Reply To The New Arabia Theory By Ahmad Al-Jallad, Saad D. Abulhab

Publications and Research

A reply to an article published on May 23rd, 2018, in The New Yorker magazine by Elias Muhanna, titled A New History of Arabia, Written in Stone, introducing a new theory by Ahmad al-Jallad, a Harvard trained scholar of ancient Near East languages and scripts, asserting that the Arabic language (and presumably the Arabs) was originated in the south Levant desert and migrated southward. This theory would reverse the established conclusions set forth by the esteemed work of numerous Islamic Arab linguists and historians, over more than a thousand years, who believed the Arabs and the Arabic language originated in ...


The Permanent Liminality Of Pakistan's Northern Areas- The Case Of Gilgit-Baltistan, Hamna Tariq Apr 2020

The Permanent Liminality Of Pakistan's Northern Areas- The Case Of Gilgit-Baltistan, Hamna Tariq

Senior Theses and Projects

Since Pakistan’s inception, Gilgit-Baltistan, a sprawling region in Northern Pakistan, has not been granted provincial status due to its colonial association with the disputed region of Kashmir. Gilgit-Baltistan refutes its forceful integration with Kashmir, an unfortunate remnant of British divide-and-rule strategy, and demands provincial recognition and constitutional rights. Pakistan unfairly claims that it awaits the UN-sanctioned plebiscite in Kashmir to determine the region’s status. However, the likelihood of a plebiscite is little to none, since the Indian government officially annexed Indian-held Kashmir in August 2019, breaching the UN resolution on the plebiscite. A region that has been at ...


Israeli Occupation Of Palestine: The Effects Of Space Monopolization, Philisha Abrahim Apr 2020

Israeli Occupation Of Palestine: The Effects Of Space Monopolization, Philisha Abrahim

Senior Theses and Projects

The Israeli occupation of Palestine is a century long feat resulting in the totalitarian control of Palestine’s development, natural resources, and spatial representation. The heavily contested land between the Jordan River and Mediterranean Sea has resulted in the dispossession, destruction, and degradation of Palestine’s infrastructure, political power, and national identity. The British established Israel Zionist State has closely worked with foreign allies to construct and maintain its power.


No Riddle But Time: Historical Consciousness In Two Islamicate Films, David Sander Mar 2020

No Riddle But Time: Historical Consciousness In Two Islamicate Films, David Sander

Journal of Religion & Film

This article explores ways in which film expresses “internal history” in the context of Muslim cultures. As such, it enquires how film can work as both Islamic art and historical contemplation. The films discussed here, Nacer Khemir’s Wanderers in the Desert and Muhammad Rasoulof’s Iron Island, inhabit and explore the borderline between imagination and reality. The films in question offer an imaginal interspace between “modern” and “traditional” worlds. As such they open up critical perspectives on the meaning of history. What follows is a discussion of how each film offers a window onto differing perceptions of time, and ...


‘Poised On The Higher Horizon’: Seeing God In The Sahara, Ariela Marcus-Sells Feb 2020

‘Poised On The Higher Horizon’: Seeing God In The Sahara, Ariela Marcus-Sells

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This article presents an Arabic transcription and complete English translation of an untitled text – labelled “Khalwa” in the manuscript catalogue - attributed to Sīdī al-Mukhtār al-Kuntī, a Saharan scholar and Sufi teacher of the late-eighteenth century. In the accompanying commentary, I demonstrate how this text draws together two passages in the Qur’ān: the ambiguous visionary encounters of 53:1-18 and Moses’s request to see God in 7:142-143 to argue that, unlike Moses, Muḥammad received a direct vision of God. I further argue that, for Sīdi al-Mukhtār al-Kuntī, the question of seeing God was linked to his concern over ...


William Everett Ferguson Papers, 1941-2014, William Everett Ferguson Feb 2020

William Everett Ferguson Papers, 1941-2014, William Everett Ferguson

Center for Restoration Studies Archives, Manuscripts and Personal Papers Finding Aids

Finding aid for the William Everett Ferguson Papers, 1941-2014.


Who Are The #Genizascribes: 2019-2020 Community Survey Report, Emily Esten Feb 2020

Who Are The #Genizascribes: 2019-2020 Community Survey Report, Emily Esten

Scribes of the Cairo Geniza

This blog post (originally posted on Medium) reviews a survey issued to the Scribes of the Cairo Geniza user community.

The survey was open from Tuesday, December 12, 2019 through Monday, January 13, 2020, and available only through direct email via Zooniverse. Thus, only volunteers who had registered with Zooniverse, participated in the project at least once, and have not opted out of receiving project-related emails were eligible to participate. We received 205 survey responses (5% of email recipients, 2% of all participants). All responses listed below are in aggregate, in descending/alphabetical order.


Yalda, A Night For Forgiveness, John C. Lyden Jan 2020

Yalda, A Night For Forgiveness, John C. Lyden

Journal of Religion & Film

This is a film review of Yalda, A Night for Forgiveness (2019) directed by Massoud Bakhshi.


Dataset: Scribes Of The Cairo Geniza, Sorting Phase, August 2017 - February 2019, Emily Esten Jan 2020

Dataset: Scribes Of The Cairo Geniza, Sorting Phase, August 2017 - February 2019, Emily Esten

Scribes of the Cairo Geniza

This Scribes of the Cairo Geniza dataset comprise images of Geniza fragments from Judaica manuscript collections at Penn Libraries, the Genizah Research Unit at Cambridge University Libraries, and the Library of the Jewish Theological Seminary. The dataset comprises records of 40,111 fragments, sorted between August 2017 and February 2019. Images of fragments were uploaded to the Zooniverse.org citizen science website where they were classified by scholars and volunteer humanists. Classification involved identifying script type and formality, and landmarking pre-defined features on the fragments.


Acts Of Meaning, Resource Diagrams, And Essential Learning Behaviors: The Design Evolution Of Lost & Found, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber Jan 2020

Acts Of Meaning, Resource Diagrams, And Essential Learning Behaviors: The Design Evolution Of Lost & Found, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber

Articles

Lost & Found is a tabletop-to-mobile game series designed for teaching medieval religious legal systems. The long-term goals of the project are to change the discourse around religious laws, such as foregrounding the prosocial aspects of religious law such as collaboration, cooperation, and communal sustainability. This design case focuses on the evolution of the design of the mechanics and core systems in the first two tabletop games in the series, informed by over three and a half years’ worth of design notes, playable prototypes, outside design consultations, internal design reviews, playtests, and interviews.


Lost In Translation, Presumption, And Interpretation: Adam, Noah, And The Ancient Mesopotamian Mythology Of The Creation And The Flood, Saad D. Abulhab Jan 2020

Lost In Translation, Presumption, And Interpretation: Adam, Noah, And The Ancient Mesopotamian Mythology Of The Creation And The Flood, Saad D. Abulhab

Publications and Research

The common, biblical believes in an initial, single human creation, and a subsequent survival of a punishing, catastrophic flood were among the key forming pillars of the Near East monotheist religions. The other key pillar was, arguably, the belief in the existence of a one, supreme god and creator. However, neither the two stories of human creation and catastrophic flood, nor the belief in one supreme god, were originally introduced by these monotheist religions. Key inscriptions from ancient Mesopotamia have clearly indicated that various versions of these beliefs were commonplace for thousands of years before. Despite the differences in details ...


Rational Creatures: Examining The Cat-Dog Divide In The Medieval World, Emily Price Jan 2020

Rational Creatures: Examining The Cat-Dog Divide In The Medieval World, Emily Price

Capstone Showcase

The spiritual chasm of status that exists between man and beast is daily put to the test by the very beasts kept in our homes. Human beings have a long history of keeping animals for one reason or another, but it has only been recently that the concept of animals purely maintained for companionship has taken center stage. The Middle Ages in particular served as a transformative moment in the history of the “pet,” where not only was the role of the animal within man’s existence re-examined, but so, too, were the specific animals preferred by different cultures more ...


Traders And Troublemakers: Sovereignty In Southern Morocco At The End Of The 19th Century, Joseph Campbell Hilleary Jan 2020

Traders And Troublemakers: Sovereignty In Southern Morocco At The End Of The 19th Century, Joseph Campbell Hilleary

Honors Projects

This thesis explores changes in and challenges to Moroccan political authority in the region of the Sous during the late nineteenth century. It attempts to show how the phenomenon of British informal empire created a crisis over Moroccan sovereignty that caused the sultan to both materially and discursively change the way he wielded power in southern Morocco. It further connects these changes and the narrative contestation that accompanied them to the construction of the Bilad al-Siba/Bilad al-Makhzan dichotomy found in Western academic literature on Morocco starting in the colonial period. It begins with an examination of letters between Sultan ...


Severus Of Antioch And The Anti-Chalcedonian Movement, Benjamin Kimball Jan 2020

Severus Of Antioch And The Anti-Chalcedonian Movement, Benjamin Kimball

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

The Importance of Severus of Antioch in shaping the Anti-Chalcedonian Movement is hard to overstate, as his thought was vital in unifying the theology of the once disparate and divided Anti-Chalcedonians . His role extends even beyond the realm of theology and into politics where his activities played a major role in shaping the politics and policies of the last decade of the reign ofthe EmperorAnastasius. Even after his exile following the ascension of Justinian to power, Severus’s influence continued to be felt through the Anti-Chalcedonian movement, most especially in Syria. Where his legacy intellectual, culturalandpolitical was reshaped and redefined ...


The Soviet And American Wars In Afghanistan: Applying Clausewitzian Concepts To Modern Military Failure, Artur Kalandarov Jan 2020

The Soviet And American Wars In Afghanistan: Applying Clausewitzian Concepts To Modern Military Failure, Artur Kalandarov

Honors Projects

This paper evaluates the validity of three concepts from Carl von Clausewitz’s On War as they relate to contemporary military conflict. Utilizing the Soviet and American Wars in Afghanistan as case studies, the paper also offers a model for comparative conflict analysis by expanding upon Clausewitz’s culminating point concept. It argues that – despite limitations to Clausewitz’s theory of war – his concepts of culminating points in military operations, mass and concentration, and changing war aims provide useful insights into counterinsurgency military failures. Chapter One identifies the Soviet and American culminating points. Concluding that the concept of a culminating ...


Rational Creatures: Examining The Cat-Dog Divide In The Medieval World, Emily Price Jan 2020

Rational Creatures: Examining The Cat-Dog Divide In The Medieval World, Emily Price

Capstone Showcase

The spiritual chasm of status that exists between man and beast is daily put to the test by the very beasts kept in our homes. Human beings have a long history of keeping animals for one reason or another, but it has only been recently that the concept of animals purely maintained for companionship has taken center stage. The Middle Ages in particular served as a transformative moment in the history of the “pet,” where not only was the role of the animal within man’s existence re-examined, but so, too, were the specific animals preferred by different cultures more ...


Persistence Of Jewish-Muslim Reconciliatory Activism In The Face Of Threats And “Terrorism” (Real And Perceived) From All Sides, Micah B.D.C. Naziri Jan 2020

Persistence Of Jewish-Muslim Reconciliatory Activism In The Face Of Threats And “Terrorism” (Real And Perceived) From All Sides, Micah B.D.C. Naziri

Dissertations & Theses

This dissertation concerns how Jewish-Muslim and Israel-Palestine grassroots activism can persist in the face of threats to the safety, freedom, lives, or even simply the income and employment of those engaged in acts of sustained resistance. At the heart of the study are the experiences of participants in the Hashlamah Project, an inter-religious collaboration project, involving Jews and Muslims. Across chapters and even nations, chapters of this organization faced similar threats and found universally-applicable solutions emerging for confronting those threats and persisting in the face of them. This raised the question of whether revolutionaries and activists in general can persevere ...


Beyond Nationalism? Blank Spaces At The Documenta 1955 – The Legacy Of An Exhibition Between Old Europe And New World Order, Mirl Redmann Dec 2019

Beyond Nationalism? Blank Spaces At The Documenta 1955 – The Legacy Of An Exhibition Between Old Europe And New World Order, Mirl Redmann

Artl@s Bulletin

Was the first documenta really beyond nationalism? documenta 1955 has been widely regarded as conciliation for the fascist legacy of the exhibition “Degenerate Art” (1937), and as an attempt to reintegrate Germany into the international arts community. This article employs published and archival sources in order to understand if and how documenta was impacted by the legacy of nationalism in post-fascist Germany. A biographic sketch of Antonio Corpora (1909-2004) shows how the purportedly “universalist” selection criteria employed by documenta erased cultural specificity and solidified nationalist conceptions of center and periphery.


Time And Space In The Novels Of Palestinian Writer Sahar Khalifa, Sharon Sasson Dec 2019

Time And Space In The Novels Of Palestinian Writer Sahar Khalifa, Sharon Sasson

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This article seeks to examine the connections between time and space in the novels of the prominent Palestinian writer, Saḥar Khalīfa. In her writing, Khalīfa emphasizes the status of women in society. She describes Palestinian society, and links each of her works to the collective Palestinian struggle and the parallel female struggle. She draws inspiration from her personal identity, and contributes to the development of a cultural discussion and creation of a collective identity. Khalīfa’s works constitute a broad literary corpus, describing through time and space the events of Palestinian society in general and the status of Palestinian women ...


The Politics Of Pity Versus Piety: The Poetics And Politics Behind Different Feminist Accounts On The Muslim Woman, Wei Mei Wong Dec 2019

The Politics Of Pity Versus Piety: The Poetics And Politics Behind Different Feminist Accounts On The Muslim Woman, Wei Mei Wong

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This article analyzes two books that utilize the construct of “The Muslim Woman” as a symbol for public consumption across a global and conceptual scale: Saba Mahmood’s book, 'Politics of Piety', and Malala Yousafzai’s and Christina Lamb’s 'I am Malala'. The motivation behind the analysis is to situate the texts within debates on essentialism within accounts of Muslim women. While essentialism and the critique of it in such discussions are not a novelty, the books demonstrate a physical manifestation of essentialism and a reductionist reaction toward this brand of essentialism. Through analysis of the content, poetics, and ...