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Articles 1 - 30 of 870

Full-Text Articles in Islamic World and Near East History

Palestinian-Jews And Israel’S Dual Identity Crisis, Rafael Perez Oct 2019

Palestinian-Jews And Israel’S Dual Identity Crisis, Rafael Perez

History in the Making

This paper looks to explore the complex combination of those who are both Arab in culture and Jewish by faith. This complex dual identity is generally known as Mizrahim or Arab Jews. Within the general Arab-Israeli dispute, this identity complicates the conflict by challenging the normative understanding of nationalism. Moreover, this paper examines the history of the Mizrahim through the Palestinian-Jewish experience in pre-establishment Israel and further examines the social changes that affected Mizrahim within the Israeli State after the 1948 War. Various primary source documents, essays, personal accounts, peer-reviewed journals, and surveys are used to understand the identity and ...


Film Review: 1948 Creation And Catastrophe, Melissa Sanford Oct 2019

Film Review: 1948 Creation And Catastrophe, Melissa Sanford

History in the Making

No abstract provided.


From Female Moneylenders To Church Shares: The Coptic Village Of Jeme, Marmar Zakher Oct 2019

From Female Moneylenders To Church Shares: The Coptic Village Of Jeme, Marmar Zakher

History in the Making

No abstract provided.


Continuity At Luxor Temple, Matthew Unruh Oct 2019

Continuity At Luxor Temple, Matthew Unruh

History in the Making

No abstract provided.


Israel, Allegra Glaviano Oct 2019

Israel, Allegra Glaviano

History in the Making

Describes the author's travel experiences in Israel.


Unconditional Surrender: The Rise Of President Erdogan And The End Of Kemalist Turkey, Amelia Sullivan Oct 2019

Unconditional Surrender: The Rise Of President Erdogan And The End Of Kemalist Turkey, Amelia Sullivan

History in the Making

In October 1923, Mustafa Kemal, or Ataturk, became leader of Turkey. Over the next decade and a half, Kemal used his considerable political power to reform the nation. He modernized infrastructure, reorganized government, and led an aggressive campaign to westernize and secularize Turkish society. By the time Kemal passed in 1938, Turkey rose from the ashes of the Ottoman Empire and reestablished itself as a democracy. Almost eighty years later, Ataturk’s legacy is in jeopardy. In 2017, the Turkey held a constitutional referendum to radically restructure the nation’s government and place an unprecedented degree of power in the ...


Q2s Faculty Learning Community, History Department (Murray, Hist 142), Jeremy Murray Sep 2019

Q2s Faculty Learning Community, History Department (Murray, Hist 142), Jeremy Murray

Q2S Enhancing Pedagogy

Syllabus with writing intensive elements in a large lecture course.


Politics On The Periphery: Oscar Ewing And A Special Relationship With Israel, Sarah Weaver Sep 2019

Politics On The Periphery: Oscar Ewing And A Special Relationship With Israel, Sarah Weaver

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

This essay explores the role of Oscar Ewing, an Indiana native and a graduate of Indiana University (IU), in the story of the U.S. relationship with Israel, forming even prior to Israeli statehood in 1948. The essay will show that Oscar Ewing strategically utilized his political influence and role as U.S. federal security administrator—not diplomat or member of the State Department—to impact U.S. policy toward Israel. Although Ewing is a relatively unknown name in the history of the Truman administration and Israel, his influence and contribution to the early development of the well-known special relationship ...


Images Of Kingship: Statebuilding, Patronage, And Architecture In The Capitals Of The Mughal And Ottoman Empires, Meenakshi Krishnan Jun 2019

Images Of Kingship: Statebuilding, Patronage, And Architecture In The Capitals Of The Mughal And Ottoman Empires, Meenakshi Krishnan

Augsburg Honors Review

The Ottoman and the Mughal Empires, though widely recognized for their political prowess, military expansion, and systems of religious tolerance, are also renowned for their architectural contributions. Structures like the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul and Red Fort in Delhi immediately capture the grandeur and magnificence of the empires of the Ottomans and Mughals, simultaneously serving as symbols of their artistic patronage and testaments to their splendor. Beyond establishing the empires' greatness, however, architecture was often directly tied to a specific agenda, reflecting poiitical goals, religious doctrines, and particular ideologies. A closer analysis of three cities in each of these empires ...


Love, Sex, And Marriage In Ibn Battuta's Travels, Rachel Singer Jun 2019

Love, Sex, And Marriage In Ibn Battuta's Travels, Rachel Singer

MAD-RUSH Undergraduate Research Conference

Abu ‘Abdallah ibn Battuta was a Muslim legal scholar who traveled nearly 73,000 miles in the mid-fourteenth century and wrote a popular rihla, or travel diary, of his experiences. The rihla was a public and impersonal genre that traditionally contained little, if any, biographical material about its author. However, Ibn Battuta’s rihla includes detailed narratives about its author’s marriages, concubines, and sexual exploits. Although discussion of these themes is virtually unseen in other contemporary rihlas, few historians have discussed why Ibn Battuta breaks tradition to include this material.

This paper argues that Ibn Battuta describes his marital ...


‘Where Do We Go From Here?’: Discourse In Louisiana Surrounding The Foundation Of The State Of Israel, May 1948, Devan Gelle May 2019

‘Where Do We Go From Here?’: Discourse In Louisiana Surrounding The Foundation Of The State Of Israel, May 1948, Devan Gelle

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

A study of ten Louisiana newspapers during May 15-31,1948 revealed a period in which articles varied in their coverage of the Arab-Israeli conflict and wider international relations. Discourse about Arabs and Israelis which became evident in newspapers in later years had emerged but was not fully developed. This coverage revealed a silence about the Holocaust and a subtext about the United Nations.


A Longview On Iran: Echoes From The Ancient Middle East, Jason M. Schlude May 2019

A Longview On Iran: Echoes From The Ancient Middle East, Jason M. Schlude

Languages and Cultures Faculty Publications

With its Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps blacklisted, Iran responded in kind, classifying United States Central Command as a terrorist organization. In the midst of a buildup of U.S. military in the Gulf, President Rouhani indicated Iran’s willingness to return to its previous program to develop nuclear arms. Where will this lead? Ancient history provides an illuminating—if unsettling—perspective.


A War Of Frustration: Saddam Hussein’S Use Of Nerve Gas On Civilians At Halabja (1988) And The American Response, Christopher Huber May 2019

A War Of Frustration: Saddam Hussein’S Use Of Nerve Gas On Civilians At Halabja (1988) And The American Response, Christopher Huber

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

The large-scale use of chemical weapons in conflict dates to World War I, but international regulations kept its use in check until Saddam Hussein’s decision to implement it throughout the Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s. The consistent use of poison gas and repeated lack of international intervention allowed Saddam to murder thousands of Kurdish citizens in Halabja on March 16, 1988. This paper admits Saddam Hussein committed heinous acts of human rights violations and war crimes, but argues he was forced to make these horrific decisions by an unyielding adversary in the Ayatollah Khomeini, abandoned by an ineffective United ...


Conceptions Of Modern Egyptian Childhood During The Period Of The “Liberal Experiment” In Egypt, 1922–1952: A Comparative Study Of Taha Hussein’S, “An Egyptian Childhood,” And Sayyid Qutb’S, “A Child From The Village”, Nora Elgabalawy May 2019

Conceptions Of Modern Egyptian Childhood During The Period Of The “Liberal Experiment” In Egypt, 1922–1952: A Comparative Study Of Taha Hussein’S, “An Egyptian Childhood,” And Sayyid Qutb’S, “A Child From The Village”, Nora Elgabalawy

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Counter to French social historian Philippe Aries’ argument, the concept of an Egyptian childhood has its own traceable history, separate from the modern Western European concept of childhood. As shown, with the presence of language on childhood, in a number of pre-modern Arabic/Islamic literature, notions of childhood had a rich history outside of modern Western Europe. But, depictions of an Egyptian childhood in modern Egyptian literature, specifically two childhood autobiographies/memoirs, Taha Hussein’s An Egyptian Childhood and Sayyid Qutb’s A Child from the Village, do not emerge seamlessly from these early pre-modern depictions of childhood. Both Hussein ...


Death Of The Caliphate: Reconfiguring Ali Abd Al-Raziq’S Ideas And Legacy, Arooj Alam May 2019

Death Of The Caliphate: Reconfiguring Ali Abd Al-Raziq’S Ideas And Legacy, Arooj Alam

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The demise of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1924 generated vigorous debates throughout the Muslim world regarding the political future of the Ummah. While several prominent Muslim thinkers contributed to this “Caliphate debate,” none left as contested a legacy as the Egyptian intellectual, ‘Ali ‘Abd al-Raziq(1888-1966). In his scholarly publication, Islam and Foundations of Governance,Abd al-Raziq argued against the revival and resurrection of the Caliphate by redefining it as coercive, monarchal, and as the antithesis of the community first established by Prophet Muhammad. While Abd al-Raziq’s book attracted tremendous criticisms in 1925, numerous scholars today have commended and ...


Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers Apr 2019

Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

This paper gives an overview of how the conflict in Syria has evolved from a revolution into a sectarian civil war. Power is maintained by the ruling Assad family through promotion of the Alawite minority within the government and military. Methods of persecution on the Sunni majority by the Assad government are discussed as well as a policy of strategic expulsion of the Sunni enclave to Idlib, a city on the outskirts of Syria (bordering Turkey).


Shifting Sands And Shifting Powers: The Effect Of The Dissolving Of The Iranian Nuclear Deal On The Power Dynamics Of The Middle East, Mccabe Webb Apr 2019

Shifting Sands And Shifting Powers: The Effect Of The Dissolving Of The Iranian Nuclear Deal On The Power Dynamics Of The Middle East, Mccabe Webb

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This presentation argues that the United States Government’s dissolving of the Iranian Nuclear Deal (JCPOA) will lead to a shift in the balance of powers in the Middle East, in particular a rise in the power and influence of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, The United Arab E and Israel. The research predominantly comes from the Iranian Nuclear Deal and an evaluation of information regarding the possible consequences that will be seen in the post-JCPOA Middle East. Conclusions will be drawn from comparing and contrasting the power dynamics that were present before and during the implementation of the deal ...


Wisdom (Hikmah) As Perceived By Iranian Muslim Scholars: Reflections On Ibn Sina, Ghazali, And Suhrawardi, Leyla H. Tajer, Amir H. Zekrgoo Apr 2019

Wisdom (Hikmah) As Perceived By Iranian Muslim Scholars: Reflections On Ibn Sina, Ghazali, And Suhrawardi, Leyla H. Tajer, Amir H. Zekrgoo

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

The evolution of the concept of spiritual/religious wisdom (ḥikamt) by the Iranian Muslim philosophers from the 10th to 12th century, may be studied under three main trends namely Mashā’i (Peripatetic), Kalām (theology), and Ishrāq (Illumination). Despite the correlation among these trends each of them grew independently. Among the three, the Hikmat-i Ishrāq (Illumination Wisdom) which is also known as Ḥikamt-i Dhawqi (Intuitive Wisdom) of Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (1153-1191) found a special place as it tended to bring together the philosophical and theological aspects of wisdom. This survey would address the development of ikmat (wisdom) among ...


The Shaping Of Islamic Culture, Briella Hargrove Apr 2019

The Shaping Of Islamic Culture, Briella Hargrove

Spring Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry

the discussion of the Ridda Wars is one which needs more light shined upon it. These wars are not often mentioned, however, they are a series of wars that most historians know occurred. Those who focus on Islamic studies often debate about whether these series of wars was a religious or political movement, I say they are both. Abu Bakr gained several enemies which lead to the series of wars that make up the Ridda Wars or Wars of Apostacy. How did these wars shape Islamic culture? The Wars of Apostacy began the line of the Caliphs and people being ...


The Endurance Of Tell Qarqur: Settlement Resilience In Northwestern Syria During The Late Bronze And Iron Ages (Ca. 1200 – 700 Bc), Eric Robert Jensen Mar 2019

The Endurance Of Tell Qarqur: Settlement Resilience In Northwestern Syria During The Late Bronze And Iron Ages (Ca. 1200 – 700 Bc), Eric Robert Jensen

Eric Roberts, MD

This dissertation analyzes the material culture, paleobotanical, and faunal remains excavated at the site of Tell Qarqur, Syria, recovered from occupational levels dating from the end of the Late Bronze Age to the Iron II period (from approximately 1200 to 700 BC). Based on archaeological evidence and ancient textual sources, many ancient Near Eastern kingdoms and polities endured social and political turmoil during the late 13th and early 12th centuries BC. Most likely caused by an unknown hostile group or groups, the destruction of monumental scale architecture and the disruption to the people of Qarqur’s agricultural and animal husbandry ...


Shipped But Not Sold: Material Culture And The Social Protocols Of Trade During Yemen’S Age Of Coffee, Perspectives On The Global Past Series. Honolulu: University Of Hawai’I Press, 2017., Nancy Um Mar 2019

Shipped But Not Sold: Material Culture And The Social Protocols Of Trade During Yemen’S Age Of Coffee, Perspectives On The Global Past Series. Honolulu: University Of Hawai’I Press, 2017., Nancy Um

Nancy Um

No abstract provided.


"Port Biography: Mocha," Encyclopedia Of Maritime History . Ed. John Hattendorf. 4 Vols. (New York:Oxford University Press, 2007), 2:580-81., Nancy Um Mar 2019

"Port Biography: Mocha," Encyclopedia Of Maritime History . Ed. John Hattendorf. 4 Vols. (New York:Oxford University Press, 2007), 2:580-81., Nancy Um

Nancy Um

No abstract provided.


The Endurance Of Tell Qarqur: Settlement Resilience In Northwestern Syria During The Late Bronze And Iron Ages (Ca. 1200 – 700 Bc), Eric Robert Jensen Mar 2019

The Endurance Of Tell Qarqur: Settlement Resilience In Northwestern Syria During The Late Bronze And Iron Ages (Ca. 1200 – 700 Bc), Eric Robert Jensen

Aurora Heart Failure / Transplant Faculty

This dissertation analyzes the material culture, paleobotanical, and faunal remains excavated at the site of Tell Qarqur, Syria, recovered from occupational levels dating from the end of the Late Bronze Age to the Iron II period (from approximately 1200 to 700 BC). Based on archaeological evidence and ancient textual sources, many ancient Near Eastern kingdoms and polities endured social and political turmoil during the late 13th and early 12th centuries BC. Most likely caused by an unknown hostile group or groups, the destruction of monumental scale architecture and the disruption to the people of Qarqur’s agricultural and animal husbandry ...


Ms-236: Bernard Peace Wwi Photograph Album, Kelly A. Murphy Feb 2019

Ms-236: Bernard Peace Wwi Photograph Album, Kelly A. Murphy

All Finding Aids

The album contains 200 photographs that depict everyday life and people in Baghdad and northeast India, including entire pages dedicated to “Arabs” and pictures of men and women in bazaars and drawing water. Other photographs are of notable events, including the “Dedication of British [Army] Cemetery” or the arrival of the “First Aeroplane from England to India.” There are also pictures of various landmarks, such as mosques, religious pilgrimage sites, historic cities and palaces, and natural wonders, from Iraq, India, and France. Included on the front cover is two photos pasted together to create a panorama of the “Signing of ...


The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter Jan 2019

The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter

Manuscript Studies

The Historia de los Reyes Moros de Granada, written by the chronicler Hernando de Baeza in the first half of the XVI century, in Spain, is a valuable text that provides a very different perspective from other late medieval Spanish official chronicles. This article provides an account of the discovery of a previously unknown manuscript of this chronicle which, unlike the two others already known, is complete and includes the ending, which narrates the negotiations between the Catholic Kings of Spain and the last Nasrid sultan Boabdil for the Islamic surrender of Granada. The article describes this previously unknown manuscript ...


The Overlooked Embargo: The 1967 Oil Embargo, The Arab Cold War, And The Creation Of Oapec, Aaron Shaum Jan 2019

The Overlooked Embargo: The 1967 Oil Embargo, The Arab Cold War, And The Creation Of Oapec, Aaron Shaum

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Abstract: This paper will examine the role of the 1967 oil embargo in the historiography of the 1967 Six Day War, its aftermath, the Arab Cold War, and post-war inter-Arab politics. It argues that, for a multitude of reasons, the 1967 oil embargo is a significant part of that history that has been overlooked in the historiography.


The Muslim Brotherhood: Exploring Divergent Views In Saudi Arabia And Qatar, Andrew Lipp Jan 2019

The Muslim Brotherhood: Exploring Divergent Views In Saudi Arabia And Qatar, Andrew Lipp

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis upset the traditional alliances of the Middle East. Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Egypt severed ties with Qatar, accusing Qatar of sponsoring terrorist organizations and compromising the Gulf Cooperation Council by strengthening relations with Iran. This article highlights the role of the Muslim Brotherhood within both Saudi Arabia and Qatar to demonstrate why the Islamist organization was an important piece in the initiation of the ongoing diplomatic crisis. Using two historical case studies, this paper reveals two divergent views of the MB in Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The Saudi royal family views ...


The Saudi Arabian Bride Shopping Experience, Wijdan Tawfiq Jan 2019

The Saudi Arabian Bride Shopping Experience, Wijdan Tawfiq

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In Saudi Arabia, a wedding is a significant occasion requiring extensive preparation. However, researchers have not yet explored how bride-to-be consumption patterns might be shaped in a tradition-oriented culture like Saudi Arabia. Prior literature illustrates that planning a wedding in Western societies is a personal, deeply emotional experience in which tradition and cultural values are strongly emphasized (Carter & Duncan, 2017; Nelson & Deshpande, 2004; McEnally, 2002; Thomas & Peters, 2011). The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of Saudi brides-to-be as they prepared for the wedding process – including the multiple social events planned around their weddings as well as their new lives after ...


Understanding Iran: Attempts At Unravelling The Structures That Determine Iranian State Behaviour, Simran Gupta Jan 2019

Understanding Iran: Attempts At Unravelling The Structures That Determine Iranian State Behaviour, Simran Gupta

Senior Projects Spring 2019

The goal of this paper is to determine if Iran is a rational actor and to determine the basis of its rationality. If Iran is categorized as an unpredictable and unreliable state, more coercive and isolation based foreign policy decisions would make the most sense. However, if an effort is made to understand the state’s rationality there can be more effective policies that would be more likely to produce the behavior policymakers desire without causing more instability in the international community.


Thawra, Olivia Snow Smith Jan 2019

Thawra, Olivia Snow Smith

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Languages and Literature of Bard College.