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Articles 121 - 150 of 4456

Full-Text Articles in European History

A Jewish Agent In Eighteenth-Century Paris: Israël Bernard De Valabrègue, Ronald Schechter Apr 2019

A Jewish Agent In Eighteenth-Century Paris: Israël Bernard De Valabrègue, Ronald Schechter

Ronald Schechter

No abstract provided.


Mendoza The Jew: Boxing, Manliness And Nationalism, Ronald Schechter, Liz Clarke Apr 2019

Mendoza The Jew: Boxing, Manliness And Nationalism, Ronald Schechter, Liz Clarke

Ronald Schechter

Inspired by the resounding success of Abina and the Important Men (OUP, 2011), Mendoza the Jewcombines a graphic history with primary documentation and contextual information to explore issues of nationalism, identity, culture, and historical methodology through the life story of Daniel Mendoza. Mendoza was a poor Sephardic Jew from East London who became the boxing champion of Britain in 1789. As a Jew with limited means and a foreign-sounding name, Mendoza was an unlikely symbol of what many Britons considered to be their very own "national" sport. Whereas their adversaries across the Channel reputedly settled private quarrels by dueling ...


Crossing Boundaries: The Significance Of French Jewish History, Ronald Schechter Apr 2019

Crossing Boundaries: The Significance Of French Jewish History, Ronald Schechter

Ronald Schechter

No abstract provided.


The Nineteenth Century British Workhouse: Mission Not Accomplished, Brenda Derin Apr 2019

The Nineteenth Century British Workhouse: Mission Not Accomplished, Brenda Derin

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2019

ABSTRACT:

How to correct poverty in a society is extremely complex. In the nineteenth century, the British struggled to house, feed and care for the unemployed and destitute men, women and children created by the Industrial Revolution. Many in the upper classes considered poverty a moral failure, yet they had little impetus to end it. Poverty, as defined by an inability to provide for one’s needs due to a variety of factors, was seen as necessary, for without it there would be no motivation for the lower classes to work and provide a luxurious life for the wealthy.

Although ...


Economies Of Salvation In English Anchoritic Texts, 1100-1400, Joshua Edward Britt Apr 2019

Economies Of Salvation In English Anchoritic Texts, 1100-1400, Joshua Edward Britt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores the different ways medieval authors conceived of anchoritism and solitary life by focusing on three important phases of the movement which are represented by Wulfric of Haselbury, Christina of Markyate, and fourteenth-century mystics. It is grounded in the medieval English anchoritic literature that was produced by religious scholars between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries. Initially, lacking a tradition of their own and a language to articulate the anchoritic experience, medieval hagiographers borrowed the desert imagery from the story of the early fathers who lived in the Syrian and Egyptian deserts, which they viewed as a place of ...


An Analysis Of Whether Victorian England Shares Central Tenets Of Modern Rape Culture, Emily Murray Apr 2019

An Analysis Of Whether Victorian England Shares Central Tenets Of Modern Rape Culture, Emily Murray

Emily Murray

This work observes examples of sexual objectification and victim blaming from both the modern and Victorian eras to analyze whether Victorian England can possibly be described as a rape culture.


A Tale Of Two Bonnies: Comparing “Lost Cause” Narratives And Post-War Memory From The American Civil War And The 1745 Jacobite Rebellion Through Art, William Robert Tharp Apr 2019

A Tale Of Two Bonnies: Comparing “Lost Cause” Narratives And Post-War Memory From The American Civil War And The 1745 Jacobite Rebellion Through Art, William Robert Tharp

Student Scholar Showcase

In the cultures of Scotland after the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion and the American South after the Civil War, defeatist memories and art featured prominently in mythmaking and served as a focal point for many who wished to make political statements or critiques of current realities. In Scotland, romanticism revolving around “Bonnie Prince Charlie” and the Jacobites in 1745 lessened the burden of defeat for many. Contextualizing their loss within a broader historical framework, which stressed different features depending on the group’s purpose, some Scots utilized Jacobite memory as a potent political critique of Scotland’s place within Great Britain ...


Greek Music Theory Vs. The Bible, Kearsten M. Kostelnik Apr 2019

Greek Music Theory Vs. The Bible, Kearsten M. Kostelnik

The Research and Scholarship Symposium (2013-2019)

The great philosophers of Ancient Greece have been studied in depth and are known throughout society. Famous Greek philosophers and writers, such as Plato and Pythagoras, formulated theories on musical philosophy — it’s purpose, use, dangers, power, and importance in society. Greek philosophy of music heavily influenced early European society’s view and development of music, it only partially supports Biblical views and principles of music and worship. Pythagoras introduces the theory that music is more than just entertainment with his notion of Music of the Spheres but fails to align with the biblical view of stars and planets as ...


Competing Proposals For The Regeneration Of The Jews, Ronald Schechter Apr 2019

Competing Proposals For The Regeneration Of The Jews, Ronald Schechter

Ronald Schechter

No abstract provided.


Terror, Vengeance And Martyrdom In The French Revolution: The Case Of The Shades, Ronald Schechter Apr 2019

Terror, Vengeance And Martyrdom In The French Revolution: The Case Of The Shades, Ronald Schechter

Ronald Schechter

In recent years, terrorism has become closely associated with martyrdom in the minds of many terrorists and in the view of nations around the world. In Islam, martyrdom is mostly conceived as "bearing witness" to faith and God. Martyrdom is also central to the Christian tradition, not only in the form of Christ's Passion or saints faced with persecution and death, but in the duty to lead a good and charitable life. In both religions, the association of religious martyrdom with political terror has a long and difficult history. The essays of this volume illuminate this history--following, for example ...


The French Revolution: The Essential Readings, Ronald Schechter Apr 2019

The French Revolution: The Essential Readings, Ronald Schechter

Ronald Schechter

This book presents ten selections from the most important scholarship on the French Revolution over the past quarter century, introduced and contextualized for student readers.

Historians typically categorize the historiography of the French Revolution according to each author's approval or disapproval of the Revolution, political agenda (for example Marxist, liberal, conservative, or feminist), or methodology (for example social, political, or cultural history). This book demonstrates the inadequacy of these categories of analysis for a nuanced understanding of the Revolution and emphasizes the surprising connections between historians typically seen simply as opponents in a debate. In its thorough introduction, The ...


Gothic Thermidor: The Bals Des Victimes, The Fantastic, And The Production Of Historical Knowledge In Post-Terror France, Ronald Schechter Apr 2019

Gothic Thermidor: The Bals Des Victimes, The Fantastic, And The Production Of Historical Knowledge In Post-Terror France, Ronald Schechter

Ronald Schechter

No abstract provided.


Mary Stuart: Turbulence In Politics & Religion, Latayzia Harris, Kyle Thompson Apr 2019

Mary Stuart: Turbulence In Politics & Religion, Latayzia Harris, Kyle Thompson

Posters

Mary Stuart’s upbringing played a large part in her political and religious positions, as well as her position as a female ruler in a land dominated by the whims of men. Mary is often portrayed as a passionate woman whose life was dominated by her emotions. At 6 days old Mary inherited the throne to Scotland, a highly contested re­gion located directly above the ever-expanding realm of England. Mary spent much of her time in France, being raised as the Dauphiness to strengthen the ties of Catholic monarchs. Historians like John Guy and Antonia Frasier frame this as ...


Interpretations Of Bloody Mary's Use Of Religion And Politics, Morgan Myers, Kyle Thompson Apr 2019

Interpretations Of Bloody Mary's Use Of Religion And Politics, Morgan Myers, Kyle Thompson

Posters

This paper looks at the political style of Mary Tudor and examines how her upbringing and gender influenced her policies and ultimately whether she was an effective leader. Religion was paramount during her reign, and heavily affected Mary’s policies. Her actions resulted in the nickname, “Bloody Mary”; this paper discusses if this is a valid name for her and overall how the Protestant Reformation impacted her time as queen. I will examine the extent to which Mary was influenced by men in her life and how they and her gender impacted her reign. David Loades wrote, “The Reign of ...


Religion, Politics, And The "Virgin Queen", Ellen Long, Kyle Thompson Apr 2019

Religion, Politics, And The "Virgin Queen", Ellen Long, Kyle Thompson

Posters

This paper will analyze Elizabeth I’s political style and the effects on it by both religion and influential men in the “Virgin Queen’s” council. Her relationships with Mary Tudor and Mary, Queen of Scots, and their religion, affected her politics and how her Protestantism clashed with these two Catholic monarchs. Comparing Mary Tudor’s forceful assertion of Catholicism in her reign to Elizabeth’s approach to Protestant dissenters will demon­strate religion’s role in their politics. I will also analyze the aspect of religion on Elizabeth’s and Mary Stuart’s dual claims to the English throne ...


How Politics Can Shape Sports And The Athletes Who Perform: A Case Study Of Hungarian Gymnastics During The Cold War, Julia Adams, Corinne Cichowicz Apr 2019

How Politics Can Shape Sports And The Athletes Who Perform: A Case Study Of Hungarian Gymnastics During The Cold War, Julia Adams, Corinne Cichowicz

Cold War Lives

The purpose of the project is to juxtapose how politics and government structure shape the world of sports, as well as the progress of individual sports, with the isolation of athletes from the political realities of their respective nations. We assert that contemporary politics is directly reflected in the sports community through the way athletes interact and the ways other nations perceive athletes’ treatment. We argue that around the Hungarian Revolution, Eastern countries like Hungary attempted to perform their strength by giving privileges that allowed athletes to excel while western nations like the United States focused on fostering their savior ...


Nick Martin's Communism, Dylan Bagley, Matthew Kenwood Apr 2019

Nick Martin's Communism, Dylan Bagley, Matthew Kenwood

Cold War Lives

This project examines the life and career of Hungarian-born athlete Nick Martin. It explores the opportunities available to Martin via his success as an Olympic athlete.


Communism, Post-Communism, Sport, And Patriotism In 1980s-1990s Hungary, Sarah Johns, Morgana Olbrich Apr 2019

Communism, Post-Communism, Sport, And Patriotism In 1980s-1990s Hungary, Sarah Johns, Morgana Olbrich

Cold War Lives

We will argue that Communism left long lasting effects on the ways in which patriotism was perceived and executed through labor. Specifically we will look into the ways in which laborers, namely athletes, both intentionally and unintentionally used their work to gain privileges.


1st Place Contest Entry: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn Apr 2019

1st Place Contest Entry: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn

Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize

This is Maddie Gwinn's submission for the 2019 Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize, which won first place. It contains her essay on using library resources, a three-page sample of her research project on how the Czech New Wave and New Hollywood cinema are defined by their agency in preserving and prescribing cultural meaning across their societies while being bound to their economic systems, and her works cited list.

Maddie is a senior at Chapman University, majoring in Film Production. Her faculty mentor is Dr. Carmichael Peters.


Investigation Of Chlorine Gas, Phosgene Gas, And Mustard Gas: Development, Use, Effects, And Treatments With A Focus On World War I, Kyle Zaremba Apr 2019

Investigation Of Chlorine Gas, Phosgene Gas, And Mustard Gas: Development, Use, Effects, And Treatments With A Focus On World War I, Kyle Zaremba

Honors Projects

The German attack in Ypres on April 22, 1915 ushered in a new era of warfare. For the first time in military history, large amounts of weaponized gas were being deployed. The first attack utilized chlorine gas while subsequent attacks used phosgene gas, mustard gas, or a combination of them. Scientific and medical communities scrambled to combat the new threat, leading to great advancements in the understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment relating to chemical gas attacks. New ways to bypass chlorine gas, phosgene gas, and mustard gas effects were proposed and tested and already existing medical interventions proved useful ...


Raphaël Lemkin’S Derivation Of Genocide From His Analysis Of Nazi-Occupied Europe, Raffael Scheck Apr 2019

Raphaël Lemkin’S Derivation Of Genocide From His Analysis Of Nazi-Occupied Europe, Raffael Scheck

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The breadth and complexity of Lemkin’s definition of “genocide” results from several influences during the time he developed the concept. One of them is a belief that Nazi Germany was engineering a demographic revolution that would leave Germany predominant in Europe regardless of the outcome of the military conflict. This notion facilitated the assumption of a coherent cynical motivation behind disparate policies, laws, and decrees. Second, Lemkin’s daily work for the U.S. Government reinforced his focus on economic and legal matters and helps to explain why they occupy such a prominent place in his book Axis Rule ...


The Mass Murder Of The European Jews And The Concept Of ‘Genocide’ In The Nuremberg Trials: Reassessing Raphaël Lemkin’S Impact, Alexa Stiller Apr 2019

The Mass Murder Of The European Jews And The Concept Of ‘Genocide’ In The Nuremberg Trials: Reassessing Raphaël Lemkin’S Impact, Alexa Stiller

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Nuremberg’s prosecutors prominently used Lemkin’s genocide concept. They also dealt in detail with the mass murder of Europe’s Jews. However, for them ‘genocide’ and the Holocaust were not congruent. They used different definitions of Lemkin’s concept and interpreted the relationship between the mass murder of the European Jews and the entire mass violence of the Nazis differently. Lemkin had little influence on the application of his concept in the Nuremberg trials between 1945 and 1949. The implementation of the 1948 United Nations Genocide Convention put an end to the broad use of the original concept from ...


Book Review: Concentration Camps: A Short History, Mackenzie Lake Apr 2019

Book Review: Concentration Camps: A Short History, Mackenzie Lake

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Book Review of Concentration Camps: A Short History by Dan Stone


Ms-238: Prisoner Of War Letters From World Wars I And Ii, Kelly A. Murphy Apr 2019

Ms-238: Prisoner Of War Letters From World Wars I And Ii, Kelly A. Murphy

All Finding Aids

This collection consists of various correspondence between POWs and their families, including 86 letters, 174 postcards, and about eight package slips during both world wars. Most of this correspondence was authored by the prisoners and sent to their families from camps in Europe, although it contains some correspondence from camps in Asia and Africa. The collection also contains correspondence from prisoners in concentration camps, such as Auschwitz, and from interned civilians in France and Germany. Because these letters were the main way to contact family members, most of the POW correspondence contain thoughts of homesickness and loneliness along with updates ...


Ms- 241: Harry Dravo Parkin Wwi Memoir, Joy Zanghi Apr 2019

Ms- 241: Harry Dravo Parkin Wwi Memoir, Joy Zanghi

All Finding Aids

This small collection includes five bound volumes of a memoir written by Harry Dravo Parkin. The collection contains information regarding his experience in WWI as a wounded prisoner of war as well as everyday life as a major.

Special Collections and College Archives Finding Aids are discovery tools used to describe and provide access to our holdings. Finding aids include historical and biographical information about each collection in addition to inventories of their content. More information about our collections can be found on our website https://www.gettysburg.edu/special-collections/collections/.


Gewalt Und Gedächtnis: Gerhard Richters 18. Oktober 1977 Und Die Westdeutschen Massenmedien, Matthew Mcdevitt Apr 2019

Gewalt Und Gedächtnis: Gerhard Richters 18. Oktober 1977 Und Die Westdeutschen Massenmedien, Matthew Mcdevitt

Senior Theses and Projects

In 1988, Gerhard Richter completed 18. Oktober 1977, the controversial fifteen-painting cycle that details the history and memory of the Red Army Faction (RAF), the homegrown left-extremist group that terrorized the Federal Republic of Germany from 1970 until 1977, carrying out a campaign of bank robberies, bombings, and kidnappings in support of its armed struggle against contemporary capitalism and the perceived threat of reemergent fascism in postwar West Germany. Richter appropriates found media and police photographs to cast the RAF and the events of the “German Autumn,” the period of intense and escalating confrontations between the RAF and the West ...


Gewalt Und Gedächtnis: An Examination Of Gerhard Richter’S 18. Oktober 1977 In Relation To The West German Mass Media, Matthew Mcdevitt Apr 2019

Gewalt Und Gedächtnis: An Examination Of Gerhard Richter’S 18. Oktober 1977 In Relation To The West German Mass Media, Matthew Mcdevitt

Senior Theses and Projects

In 1988, Gerhard Richter completed 18. Oktober 1977, the controversial fifteen-painting cycle that details the history and memory of the Red Army Faction (RAF), the homegrown left-extremist group that terrorized the Federal Republic of Germany from 1970 until 1977, carrying out a campaign of bank robberies, bombings, and kidnappings in support of its armed struggle against contemporary capitalism and the perceived threat of reemergent fascism in postwar West Germany. Richter appropriates found media and police photographs to cast the RAF and the events of the “German Autumn,” the period of intense and escalating confrontations between the RAF and the West ...


Das Ss-Helferinnenkorps: Drei Phasen, Drei Frauen, Hayden Mueller Apr 2019

Das Ss-Helferinnenkorps: Drei Phasen, Drei Frauen, Hayden Mueller

Senior Theses and Projects

Since the end of World War II, scholarship on the Third Reich has focused predominantly on men. Recent developments in the field have brought women into view, but their roles, motivations, and contributions remain under-researched. The SS-Helferinnenkorps, created for the dual purpose of relieving male communications staff for service on the front and establishing a vetted group of women embodying Himmler’s weibliche Ideal, has remained largely overlooked, and the little serious scholarship available presents the organization as a separate unit. To fill gaps in the research as well as bring about an understanding of the SS-Helferinnenkorps in the context ...


Sympathy For The Devil - The Gothic As Social Commentary In Charles Dickens' Novels, Tiara Desire-Brisard Apr 2019

Sympathy For The Devil - The Gothic As Social Commentary In Charles Dickens' Novels, Tiara Desire-Brisard

Senior Theses and Projects

No abstract provided.


Englands Happie Queene: Female Rulers In Early English History, Emily Benes Apr 2019

Englands Happie Queene: Female Rulers In Early English History, Emily Benes

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This paper examines the historical records and later literature surrounding three early mythic and historical British queens: Albina, mythic founder of Albion; Cordelia, pre-Roman queen regnant in British legend; and Boudica, the British leader of a first-century CE rebellion against the Romans. My work focuses on who these queens were, what powers they were given, and the mythos around them. I examine when they appear in the historical record and when their stories are expanded upon, and how those stories were influenced by the political culture of England through the early seventeenth century. In particular, I examine English attitudes toward ...