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Full-Text Articles in European History

The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning May 2019

The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

An examination of Tolkien’s conception of history, the crisis of unpreparedness preceding the Second World War, and a relating of the story of Churchill’s warnings and eventual ascension to the position of Prime Minister. This study will compare the historical perspective of Tolkien, as represented in his fictional works, with the turmoil that transpired during the early days of WWII. Mostly, it will demonstrate how Tolkien’s view of history manifested itself within the context of the very perilous realities leading up to WWII. Nonetheless, a larger portrait of the nation of Great Britain, Winston Churchill, and their ...


“Kinder, Küche, Und Kirche”: Women’S Work In The Third Reich, Margarete Crelling Mar 2018

“Kinder, Küche, Und Kirche”: Women’S Work In The Third Reich, Margarete Crelling

History Undergraduate Theses

Under dictator Adolph Hitler, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state. When World War II was declared on September 1, 1939, it was clear that the world would never be the same. The Nazi Party controlled nearly every aspect of German society with an iron fist, including religion, education, culture, and the role of women and family. Today, conversations and research about the Nazi regime during World War II often focus on the horrors of the Holocaust and its male perpetrators—Adolf Hitler, his officers, and troops. The important role women played in Germany during World War II is often ...


Justice For The Jewish Refugee: The Development Of British Refugee Policy, 1930-1945, Kelly Lovell Jan 2018

Justice For The Jewish Refugee: The Development Of British Refugee Policy, 1930-1945, Kelly Lovell

Senior Honors Theses

Europe in the 1930s and early 1940s saw a large shift in population as different groups of people attempted to leave their homes to escape persecution. The dictators in Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union persecuted against people based on their religion, ability and sexual orientation. The German government, for example, encouraged the Jewish population of the country to emigrate in the early 1930s in an attempt to “purify” their country. Catholics and other political opponents of Hitler also left Germany to avoid persecution or punishment. Many of these refugees traveled to Britain, initially, to escape the harsh, Nazi rule ...


From The Rhineland To Czechoslovakia: How The Policies Of Appeasement In The British Government Led To The Second World War, Tyler Berger Jan 2018

From The Rhineland To Czechoslovakia: How The Policies Of Appeasement In The British Government Led To The Second World War, Tyler Berger

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis's goal is to better explain how the appeasement policies of the British government between 1936 and 1939 brought about the Second World War. This thesis looks at the British government's response to the remilitarization of the Rhineland by Germany in 1936, the Anschluss, the Munich Conference, and the German invasion of Czechoslovakia.


British Appeasement 1936-1939: The Debate Between Parliament And The Public, Kylie D. Johnson Jan 2017

British Appeasement 1936-1939: The Debate Between Parliament And The Public, Kylie D. Johnson

Calvert Undergraduate Research Awards

While it is now clear that appeasement of Nazi Germany and Adolf Hitler did not prevent another war, there is a historical debate on whether British appeasement policies were shameful, a set of well-intentioned blunders, an attempt at keeping peace internationally, or a strategy to keep domestic resources focused on Britain. Within the debate between historians, lies a debate between the British public and Parliament, and even within Parliament itself. An important factor in the British decision to implement appeasement policy in the 1930s often underemphasized in the literature is the governmental prioritizing of domestic issues and national security over ...


Warlord: The Political And Military Ambitions Of Nazi Germany, William R. Underhill Dec 2016

Warlord: The Political And Military Ambitions Of Nazi Germany, William R. Underhill

Senior Theses

There are so many important stories to consider when thinking about World War II. It is easy to think about the popular aspects of the war: the causes, the major figures, the battles, and, of course, the lasting consequences. Yet there are other, lesser known storylines to consider, ones that have taken a backseat to the more popular narratives of the time. It is commonly understood that Nazi Germany was evil and that they had nothing but ill intentions for the rest of Europe and the world. However, it is vital to understand that Germany’s pre-war intentions are notably ...


Battle For The People: Ideological Conflict Between Soviet Partisans, The German Military, And Ukrainian Nationalists In Nazi-Occupied Ukraine, David L. Heim Apr 2016

Battle For The People: Ideological Conflict Between Soviet Partisans, The German Military, And Ukrainian Nationalists In Nazi-Occupied Ukraine, David L. Heim

Student Publications

Soviet historiography discusses the People’s War during the Second World War, the idea that all of the Soviet people rallied to the cause and fought off the Nazi invaders, but this is far from the truth. Within the western borderlands of the Soviet Union multiple conflicting groups fought for control of and support from the people. This was especially true in Ukraine where the German Army, Soviet Partisans and Ukrainian nationalists all fought ‘for the people’ and for their own ideologies. This paper is an attempt to discuss the ideological conflict between the Nazis, the Soviets, and the Ukrainian ...


De 'Niños De La Guerra' A Jóvenes Soviéticos: Educación, Aculturación Y Paternalismo, 1939-1945, Karl D. Qualls Jan 2016

De 'Niños De La Guerra' A Jóvenes Soviéticos: Educación, Aculturación Y Paternalismo, 1939-1945, Karl D. Qualls

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

En este artículo se aborda la huida de la guerra civil protagonizada por casi tres mil niños entre 1937 y 1938, analizando cómo se emanciparon de las escuelas fundadas para ellos en la Unión Soviética y se incorporaron a la educación superior o a la mano de obra. Los estudios españoles previamente publicados recogen numerosos testimonios orales, pero no explotan los cuantiosos archivos de Moscú. Este trabajo, en cambio, emplea tanto fuentes rusas como testimonios orales españoles para mostrar de qué manera estas escuelas soviéticas fracasaron en la preparación de los estudiantes de cara a la vida adulta e independiente ...


Encounters With Eisenhower: Personal Reminiscences Collected To Mark The 125th Anniversary Of The Birth Of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Michael J. Birkner, Devin Mckinney Jan 2015

Encounters With Eisenhower: Personal Reminiscences Collected To Mark The 125th Anniversary Of The Birth Of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Michael J. Birkner, Devin Mckinney

Gettysburg College Faculty Books

The general who orchestrated the greatest amphibian invasion in history, and led Allied forces in the great crusade to crush Adolf Hitler’s armies, subsequently became a popular two-term president of the United States. In the annals of American success stories, it’s hard to beat the life that Dwight D. Eisenhower made.

Yet this heroic figure was also a “natural man,” as one of the contributors to this volume of personal reminiscences suggests. Lady Dill was referring to Eisenhower’s humanity and lack of pretense. Unlike other leading figures of his day—including a certain five-star general who orchestrated ...


The Sound Of The Silence: Music In World War Ii Concentration Camps, Jacob A. Tudor Apr 2014

The Sound Of The Silence: Music In World War Ii Concentration Camps, Jacob A. Tudor

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Music was a constant and crucial component of everyday life in World War II concentration camps. In the concentration camps, there were many genres of music performed and written by victims of German brutality. The Germans used the power of music in the concentration camps as a way to degrade and torture the victims. On the other hand, World War II concentration camp victims used music as a response of the perception to the reality of daily life. It was also used as a coping mechanism and a way to provide the strength to survive on a day-to-day basis. Furthermore ...


Ms-157: Donald Brett Collection Of Eisenhower Memorabilia, Katy Rettig Apr 2014

Ms-157: Donald Brett Collection Of Eisenhower Memorabilia, Katy Rettig

All Finding Aids

The collection consists of items relevant to all aspects of Dwight D. Eisenhower’s life and career. Most prevalent are Ike’s years as president with numerous artifacts from his 1952 and 1956 presidential campaigns as well as commemorative pieces. These artifacts include a significant collection of campaign buttons, jewelry, and postcards along with other miscellaneous campaign artifacts. There is also a series of photographs mostly relating to his Army career in World War II with others from his two terms as president. Of particular interest are the 1915 and 1945 Howitzers, the United States Military Academy at West Point ...


'An Explosive Of Quite Unimaginable Force': Did Werner Heisenberg Obstruct German Atomic Bomb Research?, Aaron G. Noll Mar 2014

'An Explosive Of Quite Unimaginable Force': Did Werner Heisenberg Obstruct German Atomic Bomb Research?, Aaron G. Noll

Graduate History Conference, UMass Boston

Why was Nazi Germany unable to acquire an atomic bomb during World War II? An answer to this question necessarily involves an analysis of the wartime conduct of Werner Heisenberg. As the undisputed leader of German nuclear research, Heisenberg was integral to the successful production of a bomb. Heisenberg claimed after the war that the Nazis lacked the economic resources for this project. Moreover, Nazi military strategy ruled out such a sustained long-term commitment in armaments development. Heisenberg explained that he personally felt fortunate that these circumstances prevented Hitler from having a bomb. He argued that he merely “pretended” to ...


"Il Signor Mengele Di Bolzano": L'Alto Adige Come Via Di Fuga Dei Criminali Nazisti (1945-1951), Gerald Steinacher Jan 2013

"Il Signor Mengele Di Bolzano": L'Alto Adige Come Via Di Fuga Dei Criminali Nazisti (1945-1951), Gerald Steinacher

Faculty Publications, Department of History

Il tecnico altoatesino Richard Klement, il meccanico bolzanino Helmut Gregor: apparentemente semplici cittadini emigrati in Argentina dopo le devastazioni della seconda guerra mondiale. Ma questi nomi ne celano altri ben più noti: Adolf Eichmann e Josef Mengele. Sono solo due delle migliaia di nazisti che dopo la sconfitta, attraverso l'Alto Adige e il porto di Genova, riuscirono a raggiungere terre più sicure come Spagna, Sudamerica, Medio Oriente. Eichmann e Mengele si erano avvalsi per la loro fuga oltreoceano nel 1950 di documenti rilasciati loro in Alto Adige dopo aver assunto una nuova identità. Perché il prototipo del "burocrate dello ...


The Battle For The Mind Of Europe: The Ideological Warfare Of Orwell, Stalin And Mussolini, Tim Zellinger Dec 2012

The Battle For The Mind Of Europe: The Ideological Warfare Of Orwell, Stalin And Mussolini, Tim Zellinger

History

No abstract provided.


African Agency In The Rally Of French Equatorial Africa, August-November 1940, Mark Reeves May 2012

African Agency In The Rally Of French Equatorial Africa, August-November 1940, Mark Reeves

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

From August to November 1940, the territories of French Equatorial Africa rallied to Charles de Gaulle’s self-proclaimed Free French government in London, rather than the Vichy government set up after the German defeat of France in June. While this episode concerns European actions in European-ruled colonies, African actors pervade the story, especially as soldiers. Africans constituted the indirect audience of all the rallies by living in the territories whose policies were affected. Africans served as actors in the role of soldiers. As soldiers, African actors exhibited agency both in actions taken during operations and by their presence in the ...


Gaetano Salvemini: An Anti-Fascist In Cambridge, Michael Diclemente Mar 2012

Gaetano Salvemini: An Anti-Fascist In Cambridge, Michael Diclemente

Graduate History Conference, UMass Boston

Gaetano Salvemini was one of the earliest political exiles during Fascism. Before his exile Salvemini had the reputation as a well-respected historian and political activist. He taught history at the University of Florence among other universities. Salvemini was known for his intelligence, detailed research and analysis, as well as his unflinching ideals. After his exile Salvemini spent some time in England and France. During this time he traveled to the United States for a lecture tour. He returned to Europe but soon after returned to the U.S. He settled in Cambridge, MA to teach at Harvard University. Salvemini’s ...


Promoting Unity Through Propaganda: How The British Government Utilized Posters During The Second World War, Elizabeth Tate Goins Dec 2011

Promoting Unity Through Propaganda: How The British Government Utilized Posters During The Second World War, Elizabeth Tate Goins

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Comprised of four separate countries, the United Kingdom is a state unlike any other. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland all have distinct identities, which has been a cause for discord throughout British history. However, during the Second World War the Ministry of Information, under the guidance of the Conservative government and Prime Minister Winston Churchill, launched a poster-based propaganda campaign aimed towards unifying the UK under a common national self-identity. By emphasizing shared qualities such as resilience, pragmatism, humor, patriotism and even the concept of unity itself, the Ministry of Information fostered a sense of national self-identity with the ...


The Experience Of The 756th Tank Battalion In World War Two: A Microcosm, Scott Millenbach Feb 2010

The Experience Of The 756th Tank Battalion In World War Two: A Microcosm, Scott Millenbach

Senior Theses

December 7, 1941, "a day which will live in infamy," was the moment that the United States was plunged into the largest conflict that the world had ever seen. The sovereignty of the United States was being threatened at two ends of the globe by tyrannical leaders on the continent of Europe and the islands of the Pacific. In the years to come, the U.S. would have to fight to stop the spread of Emperor Hirohito's army in the Pacific and Hitler's Nazi Wermacht in Europe. It would take all the resources our mighty country could muster ...


" ... Verlangt Das Gesunde Volksempfinden Die Schwerste Strafe ...": Das Sondergericht Für Die Operationszone Alpenvorland 1943-1945. Ein Vorbericht, Gerald Steinacher Jan 2002

" ... Verlangt Das Gesunde Volksempfinden Die Schwerste Strafe ...": Das Sondergericht Für Die Operationszone Alpenvorland 1943-1945. Ein Vorbericht, Gerald Steinacher

Faculty Publications, Department of History

Seit Kriegsende 1945 gelten die Akten des Amtes "Oberster Kommissar für die Operationszone Alpenvorland" Franz Hofer als verschollen.2 Die Quellen- und Wissenslage zur Geschichte der Operationszone Alpenvorland ist dementsprechend dürftig. Das trifft besonders auf das Sondergericht für die Operationszone Alpenvorland zu. Im Rahmen der Bestandsaufnahme im Archiv des Landesgerichts (Tribunal) in Bozen im Oktober 2001 konnte nun auch ein kleiner Bestand Akten des Sondergerichts geborgen werden. Es handelt sich dabei um eine Mappe mit insgesamt 20 Akten der Jahre 1944- 1945.3 Neben diesen meist vollständigen Akten (Ermittlungsergebnisse, Anklage, Verhandlung, Urteil, Gnadenanträge, Gefängnisunterlagen, Sterberegistermitteilung, sogar ein Abschiedsbrief usw.) kann ...


10. Notes On The Postwar Political Scene, Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold L. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart Jan 1958

10. Notes On The Postwar Political Scene, Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold L. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart

Section XVIII: The Western World in the Twentieth Century: The Historical Setting

The legacy of World War II was a heavy load for statesmen to bear. The collapse of Germany, Italy, Japan, and their lesser allies left a power vacuum, temporarily filled by the armies of occupation. Military losses were half again as high as in World War I. Even greater was the different in civilian losses. For every civilian who died a war death in 1914-1918, at least a score (a total of some 20,000,000) perished in 1939-1945. Material losses in housing and productive capacity were staggering. [excerpt]


8. Road To World War Ii (1931-1939), Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold L. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart Jan 1958

8. Road To World War Ii (1931-1939), Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold L. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart

Section XVIII: The Western World in the Twentieth Century: The Historical Setting

In the history of international relations, the 1920's are characterized by tidying up after the "war to make the world safe for democracy;" the 1930's, by preparations for World War II. In general, the causes of the renewal of global war are the same as those listed earlier for World War I, with several major additions. [excerpt]


5. The Democracies Between The Wars (1919-1939), Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold L. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart Jan 1958

5. The Democracies Between The Wars (1919-1939), Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold L. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart

Section XVIII: The Western World in the Twentieth Century: The Historical Setting

At first glance, the events of World War I seemed to be a triumphant vindication of the spirit of 1848. It was the leading democratic great powers - Britain, France, and the United States - who had emerged the victors. In the political reconstruction of Europe, republics had replaces many monarchies. West of Russia, new and apparently democratic constitutions were established in Germany, Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia. Yet the sad truth was that by the outbreak of World War II in 1939 the majority of the once democratic states of central and eastern Europe had been ...


The Nazi Youth Organization, Elizabeth Spencer May 1943

The Nazi Youth Organization, Elizabeth Spencer

Selected Historical Documents

From the introduction:

For a student of Group Work in the United States to write a thesis on the youth organization in Nazi Germany may seem, on first thought, to be a rather far-fetched and imprac­tical study. However, given the present world crisis, and given the significance of the Nazi youth organization in this crisis, and given the to-be-presumed Allied victory with its implications of re-eduction and re-construction---a study of the Nazi youth seems bien apropos. For it may be postulated that only in proportion as the Nazi youth organization is understood---in its antecedents, its development, and in being-- ...


Report On The Cultural Situation Of Brittany, Olier Mordrel Mar 1941

Report On The Cultural Situation Of Brittany, Olier Mordrel

Breton Nationalism

Breton nationalist Olier Mordrel, visiting Nazi Germany, describes the history of Brittany, French influence and power, and the Breton nationalism movement. He emphasizes connections between Brittany and Germany and outlines a plan for a successful nationalist movement.


Proposals And Statements On The Work Of Olier Mordrel In Germany, Olier Mordrel Feb 1941

Proposals And Statements On The Work Of Olier Mordrel In Germany, Olier Mordrel

Breton Nationalism

Written after Olier Mordrel left France to stay in Germany, this document offers a summary of Olier Mordrel's history and credentials with a focus on his work as a Breton nationalist leader and publisher of the journal "Stur". Opportunities for collaboration are listed, along with practical issues related to Mordrel's stay in Germany and reports to be completed by Mordrel. The document concludes with a political note stating that Mordrel should be free to return to Britanny if he felt the situation required it and a reprimand stating that his removal from Brittany had negative effects on German-Breton ...