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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in European History

Minority Religions In The Sasanian Empire: Suppression, Integration And Relations With Rome, Lee E. Patterson Dec 2016

Minority Religions In The Sasanian Empire: Suppression, Integration And Relations With Rome, Lee E. Patterson

Lee E. Patterson

Gauging the importance of religion to the exercise of political will in
the Sasanian world requires enormous care. It is all too easy to take
the Great Kings at their word as they championed the doctrines of
Zoroastrianism in their political pronouncements, especially as some
of them also persecuted Christianity. Whether or not such sentiments
were genuine, a closer analysis of the evidence suggests a more pragmatic
royal use of religion. The political realities on the ground
were more often the deciding factor in how the kings related to the
religious sectors of Sasanian society. This state of affairs sometimes ...


Religion And Conflict: The Case Of Northern Ireland, Padraig O'Malley May 2015

Religion And Conflict: The Case Of Northern Ireland, Padraig O'Malley

Padraig O'Malley

Now that the peace process, however fragile and tenuous, has stayed the course, despite some serious obstacles and setbacks, and talks between the British government and Sinn Fein are taking place, it is a time to reflect on the nature of the divisions that have scarred our lives and psyches. One of the most under-researched and least understood aspects of the conflict is the role religious differences play - or do not play. 1 While it is a common practice to label the two communities as "Catholics" and "Protestants," and to keep the tally-roll of the dead according to religious affiliation ...


Religion And Nationalism: Four Approaches, Rogers Brubaker Dec 2011

Religion And Nationalism: Four Approaches, Rogers Brubaker

Rogers Brubaker

Building on recent literature, this paper discusses four ways of studying the relation between religion and nationalism. The first is to treat religion and nationalism, along with ethnicity and race, as analogous phenomena. The second is to specify ways in which religion helps explain things about nationalism - its origin, its power, or its distinctive character in particular cases. The third is to treat religion as part of nationalism, and to specify modes of interpenetration and intertwining. The fourth is to posit a distinctively religious form of nationalism. The paper concludes by reconsidering the much-criticized understanding of nationalism as a distinctively ...


Whither Secular Bear: The Russian Orthodox Church’S Strengthening Influence On Russia's Domestic And Foreign Policy, Robert Blitt Dec 2010

Whither Secular Bear: The Russian Orthodox Church’S Strengthening Influence On Russia's Domestic And Foreign Policy, Robert Blitt

Robert C. Blitt

As 2012 presidential elections in Russia draw near, evidence points to a collapse in that country’s constitutional obligation of secularism and state-church separation. Although early signs of this phenomenon can be traced back to the Yeltsin era, the Putin and Medvedev presidencies have dealt a fatal blow to secular state policy manifested both at home and abroad, as well as to Russia’s constitutional human rights principles including nondiscrimination and equality of religious beliefs. The first part of this article argues that leadership changes in the Russian government and the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) have triggered an unprecedented deepening ...


Defamation Of Religion: Rumors Of Its Death Are Greatly Exaggerated, Robert Blitt Dec 2010

Defamation Of Religion: Rumors Of Its Death Are Greatly Exaggerated, Robert Blitt

Robert C. Blitt

This Article explores the recent decisions by the United Nations (“UN”) Human Rights Council and General Assembly to adopt consensus resolutions aimed at “combating intolerance, negative stereotyping and stigmatization of, and discrimination, incitement to violence and violence against, persons based on religion or belief.” These resolutions represent an effort to move past a decade’s worth of contentious roll call votes in favor of prohibiting defamation of religion within the international human rights framework. Although labeled “historic” resolutions, this Article argues that the UN’s new compromise approach endorsed in 2011 — motivated in part by the desire to end years ...


Kirk In Danger: Presbyterian Political Divinity In Two Eras, Michael Graham Jun 2008

Kirk In Danger: Presbyterian Political Divinity In Two Eras, Michael Graham

Michael F. Graham

Recent decades have witnessed the fragmentation of Reformation studies, with high-level research confined within specific geographical, confessional or chronological boundaries. By bringing together scholars working on a wide variety of topics, this volume counteracts this centrifugal trend and provides a broad perspective on the impact of the European reformation. The essays present new research from historians of politics, of the church and of belief. Their geographical scope ranges from Scotland and England via France and Germany to Transylvania and their chronological span from the 1520s to the 1690s Considering the impact of the Reformation on political culture and examining the ...


Christianity And Craft Guilds In Late Medieval England: A Rational Choice Analysis, Gary Richardson Apr 2005

Christianity And Craft Guilds In Late Medieval England: A Rational Choice Analysis, Gary Richardson

Gary Richardson

In late-medieval England, craft guilds simultaneously pursued piety and profit. Why did guilds pursue those seemingly unrelated goals? What were the consequences of that combination? Theories of organizational behavior answer those questions. Craft guilds combined spiritual and occupational endeavors because the former facilitated the success of the latter and vice versa. The reciprocal nature of this relationship linked the ability of guilds to attain spiritual and occupational goals. This link between religion and economics at the local level connected religious and economic trends in the wider world.


Social Discipline In Scotland, 1560-1610, Michael Graham Sep 2002

Social Discipline In Scotland, 1560-1610, Michael Graham

Michael F. Graham

This volume is an excellent introduction to Calvinist morals’ control in sixteenth-century Geneva, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Scotland. The Calvinists were typically seen as stricter than Lutherans, Catholics, or Anglicans—and in some ways as strict as groups associated with the Radical Reformation. The six case studies presented here are based largely on archival research. They explore the Calvinist endeavor to set high standards of behavior and to enforce them through the consistory.


Conflict And Sacred Space In Reformation-Era Scotland, Michael Graham Sep 2001

Conflict And Sacred Space In Reformation-Era Scotland, Michael Graham

Michael F. Graham

No abstract provided.


A King's Impossible Dream, Michael Graham Sep 1999

A King's Impossible Dream, Michael Graham

Michael F. Graham

No abstract provided.


Bury St. Edmunds: A Reassessment Of Town-Abbey Relations, Michael Graham Jul 1996

Bury St. Edmunds: A Reassessment Of Town-Abbey Relations, Michael Graham

Michael F. Graham

These essays explore various topics in European history ranging from a study of the medieval Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds to an essay on the issue of the restoration of the Kaiser prior to Hitler's assumption of power. Enno Kraeh contributes a personal narrative of philosophical journey through the study of history. Three of the essays address literary and cultural themes dealing with German theatre politics, belle epoque opera, and Polish drama. The volume has strong representation on Austrian history, including essays on diplomacy, the Anschluss, and Austrian anti-Semitism.


The Uses Of Reform: 'Godly Discipline' And Popular Behavior In Scotland And Beyond, 1560-1610, Michael Graham May 1996

The Uses Of Reform: 'Godly Discipline' And Popular Behavior In Scotland And Beyond, 1560-1610, Michael Graham

Michael F. Graham

The "Uses of Reform" is a study of the Reformation as a movement for behavioral reform, concentrating on Scotland during the first fifty years (1560-1610) of its Reformation as a primary example. The opening chapters trace the development of "Godly Discipline" as part of the European-wide reform movement. Graham follows this general narrative with a study of the creation and implementation of a disciplinary system in Scotland. Finally, he compares disciplinary practices in the Scottish Church with those of the Huguenot communities of France. Looking closely at the proceedings of church courts which enforced regulations concerning behavior, Graham paints a ...


The Civil Sword And The Scottish Kirk, 1560–1600, Michael Graham Mar 1994

The Civil Sword And The Scottish Kirk, 1560–1600, Michael Graham

Michael F. Graham

This volume presents the evolution of Calvin’s ideas in the latter part of the sixteenth and early part of the seventeenth centuries along national lines. Calvin’s influence is traced in Switzerland, France, Scotland, the Rhinelands, Holland, and England. As John Leith points out in his “Foreword,” this book enables many American Protestants to understand their history, how they came to believe what they do, how scholastic theology of the nineteenth century is firmly rooted in later Calvinism.