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Nazi Germany

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Articles 1 - 30 of 65

Full-Text Articles in European History

The Mass Murder Of The European Jews And The Concept Of ‘Genocide’ In The Nuremberg Trials: Reassessing Raphaël Lemkin’S Impact, Alexa Stiller Apr 2019

The Mass Murder Of The European Jews And The Concept Of ‘Genocide’ In The Nuremberg Trials: Reassessing Raphaël Lemkin’S Impact, Alexa Stiller

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Nuremberg’s prosecutors prominently used Lemkin’s genocide concept. They also dealt in detail with the mass murder of Europe’s Jews. However, for them ‘genocide’ and the Holocaust were not congruent. They used different definitions of Lemkin’s concept and interpreted the relationship between the mass murder of the European Jews and the entire mass violence of the Nazis differently. Lemkin had little influence on the application of his concept in the Nuremberg trials between 1945 and 1949. The implementation of the 1948 United Nations Genocide Convention put an end to the broad use of the original concept from ...


Protests From The Pulpit: The Confessing Church And The Sermons Of World War Ii, William S. Skiles Jan 2017

Protests From The Pulpit: The Confessing Church And The Sermons Of World War Ii, William S. Skiles

Sermon Studies

This article examines sermons delivered by Confessing Church pastors in the Nazi dictatorship during World War II, and specifically explores the messages of opposition against the regime. The approach of most historians has focused on the history of the Christian institutions, its leaders, and its persecution by the Nazi regime, leaving the most elemental task of the pastor - that is, preaching - largely unexamined. To understand Confessing Church opposition during World War II, I have analyzed 255 sermons delivered in pulpits, published in pamphlets, and broadcast over the airwaves. Furthermore, I have examined sermons delivered "out in the open" in German ...


The Nazi Fiscal Cliff: Unsustainable Financial Practices Before World War Ii, Parker Abt Jan 2017

The Nazi Fiscal Cliff: Unsustainable Financial Practices Before World War Ii, Parker Abt

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

The Nazis inherited a weak economy, withered by the Great Depression and periods of hyperinflation, when they took power in 1933. Over the next six years, primarily through a military buildup, the Nazi economy grew like none other in the world. This paper traces the methods the Nazis used to finance this economic rebound. Through an analysis of secret government documents, Nuremburg witness statements, and the latest scholarly research, this paper posits that the methods used to finance the economy were unsustainable. Further, it finds that by September 1939, the economy was in a state of dangerous disarray.


The Watch Tower Bible And Tract Society: How Jehovah’S Witnesses Denounced And Resisted The Nazi Regime, Elena Sorchiotti Jan 2016

The Watch Tower Bible And Tract Society: How Jehovah’S Witnesses Denounced And Resisted The Nazi Regime, Elena Sorchiotti

Masters Theses

The present thesis aims to reveal the stance of the religious organization of Jehovah’s Witnesses, the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, towards the oppression and persecution of its members - examined in the accompanying website - perpetrated by the Nazi regime in Germany, from 1933 to 1944. Unlike the majority of Christian denominations, Jehovah’s Witnesses from all around the world took a firm stand against Hitler’s political agenda and against the actions carried out by the Nazi authorities. Through the use of diplomatic means, publication of articles, special campaigns, and letters addressed to government officials, the world headquarters ...


Home To The Reich: The Nazi Occupation Of Europe's Influence On Life Inside Germany, 1941-1945, Michael Patrick Mcconnell Aug 2015

Home To The Reich: The Nazi Occupation Of Europe's Influence On Life Inside Germany, 1941-1945, Michael Patrick Mcconnell

Doctoral Dissertations

Between September 1944 and March 1945 the Nazi regime deported over 250,000 German civilians living in western Germany. These clearances drew upon brutal techniques of population control perfected earlier in occupied Europe. Led by veterans of the anti-partisan war in Eastern Europe, the Rhineland’s security personnel forcibly removed civilians from areas threatened by the Allied advance and appropriated their personal property, such as food and livestock, for the war effort. During the deportations, security officers forced men and teenage boys into militia units sent to the front, and executed suspected criminals, spies, and deserters. In theory and in ...


The Art Of Censorship, Mark Sieber Mar 2015

The Art Of Censorship, Mark Sieber

Geifman Prize in Holocaust Studies

This work seeks to show a similarity between censorship of Art in Nazi Germany and the censorship of John Adam’s The Death of Klinghoffer. By analyzing historical facts surrounding Nazi policy and comparing them against criticisms of Klinghoffer, a connection is found. Censoring a work of art, regardless of its message, is detrimental not only to the art itself, but also to the culture, voice, and ideas it represents.


“Our Weapon Is The Wooden Spoon:” Motherhood, Racism, And War: The Diverse Roles Of Women In Nazi Germany, Cortney Nelson Dec 2014

“Our Weapon Is The Wooden Spoon:” Motherhood, Racism, And War: The Diverse Roles Of Women In Nazi Germany, Cortney Nelson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The historiography of women in Nazi Germany attests to the various roles of women in the Third Reich. Although politically invisible, women were deeply involved in the Nazi regime, whether they supported the Party or not. During Nazi racial schemes, men formed and executed Nazi racial programs, but women participated in Nazi racism as students, nurses, and violent perpetrators. Early studies of German women during World War II focused on the lack of Nazi mobilization of women into the wartime labor force, but many women already held positions in the labor force before the war. Nazi mistreatment of lower-class working ...


Theology, Politics, And Antimodernism In Nazi Germany: Problematizing Theological Rhetoric And Political Theology, Brent A. R. Hege Apr 2014

Theology, Politics, And Antimodernism In Nazi Germany: Problematizing Theological Rhetoric And Political Theology, Brent A. R. Hege

Brent A. R. Hege

A review essay of: Hitler’s Theology: A Study in Political Religion. By Rainer Bucher. Translated by Rebecca Pohl. Edited and with an introduction by Michael Hoelzl. London: Continuum, 2011. xx+140 pp. $120.00 Cloth, $34.95 Paper Theological Tractates. By Erik Peterson. Edited, translated, and with an introduction by Michael J. Hollerich. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011. xxx + 256 pp. $75.00 Cloth, $24.95 Paper


'An Explosive Of Quite Unimaginable Force': Did Werner Heisenberg Obstruct German Atomic Bomb Research?, Aaron G. Noll Mar 2014

'An Explosive Of Quite Unimaginable Force': Did Werner Heisenberg Obstruct German Atomic Bomb Research?, Aaron G. Noll

Graduate History Conference, UMass Boston

Why was Nazi Germany unable to acquire an atomic bomb during World War II? An answer to this question necessarily involves an analysis of the wartime conduct of Werner Heisenberg. As the undisputed leader of German nuclear research, Heisenberg was integral to the successful production of a bomb. Heisenberg claimed after the war that the Nazis lacked the economic resources for this project. Moreover, Nazi military strategy ruled out such a sustained long-term commitment in armaments development. Heisenberg explained that he personally felt fortunate that these circumstances prevented Hitler from having a bomb. He argued that he merely “pretended” to ...


[Book Review Of] Freikirchen Und Juden Im „Dritten Reich“: Instrumentalisierte Heilsgeschichte, Antisemitische Vorurteile Und Verdrängte Schuld, Edited By Daniel Heinz, Denis Kaiser Jan 2014

[Book Review Of] Freikirchen Und Juden Im „Dritten Reich“: Instrumentalisierte Heilsgeschichte, Antisemitische Vorurteile Und Verdrängte Schuld, Edited By Daniel Heinz, Denis Kaiser

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


[Book Review Of] Freikirchen Und Juden Im „Dritten Reich“: Instrumentalisierte Heilsgeschichte, Antisemitische Vorurteile Und Verdrängte Schuld, Edited By Daniel Heinz, Denis Kaiser Jan 2014

[Book Review Of] Freikirchen Und Juden Im „Dritten Reich“: Instrumentalisierte Heilsgeschichte, Antisemitische Vorurteile Und Verdrängte Schuld, Edited By Daniel Heinz, Denis Kaiser

Denis Kaiser

No abstract provided.


A Problem Of Perception An Analysis Of The Formation, Reception, And Implementation Of National Socialist Ideology In Germany, 1919 To 1939, Derrick Angermeier May 2013

A Problem Of Perception An Analysis Of The Formation, Reception, And Implementation Of National Socialist Ideology In Germany, 1919 To 1939, Derrick Angermeier

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis seeks to dispel the notion that Nazi ideology was merely an afterthought to numerous actions taken by the Nazis. The first chapter discusses how Nazism’s earliest adherents internalized notions from World War I into an ideology that would motivate the early Nazi Movement to launch the Beer Hall Putsch. The second chapter focuses on the Nazi Party’s electoral tactics and how those actions correlated with entrenched Nazi ideological notions of recognition and community. Finally, the third chapter will seek to demonstrate that the numerous repressive measures implemented by the Third Reich were part of a general ...


Theology, Politics, And Antimodernism In Nazi Germany: Problematizing Theological Rhetoric And Political Theology, Brent A. R. Hege Mar 2013

Theology, Politics, And Antimodernism In Nazi Germany: Problematizing Theological Rhetoric And Political Theology, Brent A. R. Hege

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

A review essay of:

Hitler’s Theology: A Study in Political Religion. By Rainer Bucher. Translated by Rebecca Pohl. Edited and with an introduction by Michael Hoelzl. London: Continuum, 2011. xx+140 pp. $120.00 Cloth, $34.95 Paper

Theological Tractates. By Erik Peterson. Edited, translated, and with an introduction by Michael J. Hollerich. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011. xxx + 256 pp. $75.00 Cloth, $24.95 Paper


Framed In Death: The Historical Memory Of Galeazzo Ciano, Paige Y. Durgin Apr 2012

Framed In Death: The Historical Memory Of Galeazzo Ciano, Paige Y. Durgin

Senior Theses and Projects

My thesis examines the Italian Foreign Minister, Galeazzo Ciano. Using his extensive diaries, which he kept from 1936 to 1942, as the basis of my research, I explore the political weaknesses and failures of fascist Italy that contributed to her collapse.

Mussolini maintained that Italy and Germany shared a common destiny united by the wrongdoings each suffered at the end of World War One. In reality, the Axis alliance was mired in competition and distrust. Although Ciano initially supported the partnership, after a series of events- Hitler’s dismissal of the 1938 Munich Pact, the signing of the Pact of ...


Letter From Heinrich Harmjanz To Wolfram Sievers, February 10, 1944, Heinrich Harmjanz Feb 1944

Letter From Heinrich Harmjanz To Wolfram Sievers, February 10, 1944, Heinrich Harmjanz

Atlas of German Folklore

Heinrich Harmjanz writes to Wolfram Sievers in 1944 to thank him for his holiday wishes and for thinking of him. Now in the military, he discusses former colleagues, whether or not to continue the Ahnenerbe folk studies journal, the protection of the Atlas of German Folklore materials during the war, and complexities of publishing.


Report From Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Ss-Sturmbannführer Noot Of The Sd, October 30, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Report From Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Ss-Sturmbannführer Noot Of The Sd, October 30, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Schwalm summarizes a meeting with SS-Sturmbannführer Noot in which Noot promised that relevant SD documents would be made available to Schwalm in the areas of Germanic culture and scientific research. The situation in Norway was discussed, including political tension following the death of Minister Lunde. Skepticism was noted concerning the success of German research endeavors in Norway, partly attributed to political uncertainty and partly to "weary" Norwegian blood. It was noted however that the work was important and should be attempted nonetheless as even a negative result was significant for making decisions about the reconstruction of Europe.


Report From Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Ss-Obersturmführer Dr. Vollberg, October 25, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Report From Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Ss-Obersturmführer Dr. Vollberg, October 25, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Hans Schwalm reports on a meeting with SS-Obersturmführer Dr. Vollberg of the SD on October 23, 1942. The meeting focuses on the anti-German sentiment of the Norwegian science community. It is noted that the University of Oslo had been rejecting members of Nasjonal Samling and German patience was wearing thin. They additionally discussed individual scientists with anti-German sentiments, including Anton Wilhelm Brøgger, Sigurd Grieg, Carl Marstrander, and Johannes Bøe. Of particular concern was the appointment of Johannes Bøe to a prestigious position without consulting the German occupiers. Schwalm asked to be informed on such topics. They additionally discussed Eberhard Günther ...


Report By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Sd Literature Advisor Ss-Hauptsturmführer Falk, October 21, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Report By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Sd Literature Advisor Ss-Hauptsturmführer Falk, October 21, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

In this document, Hans Schwalm describes a meeting with SS-Hauptsturmführer Falk, literature advisor of the SD. Falk was unable to recommend individuals to collaborate on Ahnenerbe work, but recommended Schwalm reach out to Fin Halvorsen and SS-Obersturmführer Bischof. He described struggling efforts by Gudmud Schnittler to publish a Norwegian lexikon, attributing the failure to anti-German sentiment and refusal to collaborate. He also warns against the circle of people led by Gulbrund Lunde, as they were focused on Norse identity ("norrön") in opposition to a pan-Germanic concept of identity, including efforts to purge German influences from the Norwegian language.


Report By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Alfred Huhnhäuser, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Report By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Alfred Huhnhäuser, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

This report by Hans Schwalm on a meeting with Alfred Huhnhäuser discusses possibilities for creating a centralized research institute in Norway. Huhnhäuser was disappointed that his plan would receive no support as long as it included the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Society as the main tie to Germany. He and Schwalm discuss other options. Schwalm reports on the situation of the Ahnenerbe in pursuing such a project, indicating that they are 2 1/2 years behind Huhnhäuser, who has achieved great respect and built solid connections. He indicates that it would be better to work with Huhnhäuser than pursue such a project separately. The ...


Confidential Statement From Hans Schwalm To Hans-Ernst Schneider And Wolfram Sievers On Objections To The Book "Norwegian History" By Martin Gerlach, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Confidential Statement From Hans Schwalm To Hans-Ernst Schneider And Wolfram Sievers On Objections To The Book "Norwegian History" By Martin Gerlach, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

In this confidential note, Schwalm discusses a book by German professor Martin Gerlach titled "Norwegian History". Ministerial Councilor Huhnhäuser had several objections to the book's content, with which Schwalm agrees upon a cursory review of the manuscript. The objections relate to the author's Christian perspective and lack of focus on pre-Christian pan-Germanic cultural heritage. It is noted that the book fills a missing gap, that of the German perspective on Norwegian history, and would therefore sell well and be considered the official position of German authorities, due to the regime's reputation for censorship. The letter concludes with ...


Report From Schwalm On A Meeting With Ivar Sæter, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Report From Schwalm On A Meeting With Ivar Sæter, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Schwalm describes a meeting with Ivar Saeter of the National Teacher's Federation of Norway. He provides a summary of Saeter's military background and his lack of interest in and connection to the Teacher's association. In the meeting, Saeter described the types of people found in the NS (conquerors, sychophants, those aiming to restore an independent Norway and those who wish to collaborate with Germans) and the overall Norwegian situation. It is stated that the concept of Lebensraum means that Norway must be part of a greater Germain Reich and Norwegians should think of themselves as Germanic but ...


Letter From Hans Schwalm Regarding His Work In Norway To Schneider And Wolfram Sievers, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Letter From Hans Schwalm Regarding His Work In Norway To Schneider And Wolfram Sievers, October 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Schwalm writes to Schneider and Sievers regarding the difficulties of his work in Norway, focusing on lack of proper offices and his planned stay in Posen, which he is hoping will be cancelled to prevent an interruption of the work in Norway. Schwalm indicates the work is not progressing well and any interruption would mean having to start all over again.


Statement By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Ss-Obersturmführer Dr. Ritz Of The Sd, October 15, 1942, Hans Schwalm Oct 1942

Statement By Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Ss-Obersturmführer Dr. Ritz Of The Sd, October 15, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Hans Schwalm describes a meeting with SS-Obersturmführer Dr. Ritz regarding plans of Alfred Huhnhäuser for a broad-reaching research facility in Norway. The note describes the challenges involved in such a plan, including the involvement of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and negative sentiment among Norwegian intellectuals due to the imposition of martial law in Trondheim. It is stated that contact may take long to establish and that a trip to Posen for Schwalm would break off work entirely.


Letter From Rudolf Brandt Of Heinrich Himmler's Personal Staff To Ss-Gruppenführer Berger Of The Ss Main Office, September 28,1942, Rudolf Brandt Sep 1942

Letter From Rudolf Brandt Of Heinrich Himmler's Personal Staff To Ss-Gruppenführer Berger Of The Ss Main Office, September 28,1942, Rudolf Brandt

Norwegian Projects

A letter from Rudolf Brandt of the Reichsführer-SS Personal Staff, in which he states that the recipient, SS-Gruppenführer Berger of the SS Main Office, has been unjust to SS-Obersturmbannführer Dr. Richert. He states the Reichsführer SS is supportive of proposals to form a research institute in Norway in cooperation with the Ahnenerbe.


Note From Gottlob Berger To Wolfram Sievers With Forwarded Letter To Heinrich Himmler, September 22, 1942, Gottlob Berger Sep 1942

Note From Gottlob Berger To Wolfram Sievers With Forwarded Letter To Heinrich Himmler, September 22, 1942, Gottlob Berger

Norwegian Projects

This document includes a note from Gottlob Berger to Wolfram Sievers accompanying a copy of a letter to Heinrich Himmler. In the note to Sievers, Berger comments on the rival plans of Hans Schwalm and Gustav Richert for a centralized research institution in Norway, stating that it could not be allowed to have two separate organizations. The letter to Himmler includes comments on the struggles of the Ahnenerbe in creating its reputation and the importance of establishing the Ahnenerbe as the authorititive scientific research institution, as well as doubts regarding the authenticity of Richert. It concludes with a push for ...


Statement From Hans Schwalm, September 18, 1942., Hans Schwalm Sep 1942

Statement From Hans Schwalm, September 18, 1942., Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Statement from Dr. Schwalm on a meeting with Dr. Huhnhäuser in which it was determined that Huhnhäuser would be informed of the results of upcoming meetings and his program would be on hold until that point.


Note By Schwalm On A Meeting With Hans Jacobsen, September 18,1942, Hans Schwalm Sep 1942

Note By Schwalm On A Meeting With Hans Jacobsen, September 18,1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

Schwalm describes a meeting with Hans Jacobsen, Fylkesmann of Østfold and founder of the journal Ragnarok. In the meeting, Schwalm inquired about individuals from the Ragnarok circle who might be useful in the cultural and racial research projects he wished to conduct in Norway. Most individuals mentioned were not suitable for various reasons, often anti-NS and anti-German sentiment due to events and behavior related to the occupation of Norway. Jacobsen himself was willing to contribute but did not show interest in leadership of a committee. They agreed to continue to meet as circumstances allowed.


Report From Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Alfred Huhnhäuser And Forwarded Copy Of Huhnhäuser's Proposal For A Norwegian Research Association, September 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm, Alfred Huhnhäuser Sep 1942

Report From Hans Schwalm On A Meeting With Alfred Huhnhäuser And Forwarded Copy Of Huhnhäuser's Proposal For A Norwegian Research Association, September 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm, Alfred Huhnhäuser

Norwegian Projects

Schwalm reports on a meeting with Dr. Huhnhäuser concerning the Reichskommissariat Science and Education Department, the establishment of a centralized research association in Norway, literature propaganda and future collaboration. He discusses the incorporation of Huhnhäuser into the SS to facilitate future work as well as Huhnhäuser's work to promote German literature, particularly to counteract the literature distributed by German emigrants. The primary focus is on the possibility of creating a centralized research institute through close German-Norwegian collaboration. Schwalm notes that Huhnhäuser's plans fit with the Ahnenerbe goals. The attached paper by Huhnhäuser describes the current situation and the ...


Report By Schwalm On The History Of Competing Efforts To Establish A Centralized Research Association In Norway, September 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm Sep 1942

Report By Schwalm On The History Of Competing Efforts To Establish A Centralized Research Association In Norway, September 17, 1942, Hans Schwalm

Norwegian Projects

This document offers a description of competing efforts to establish a centralized research association in Norway. The primary interests of many stakeholders were racial biology and ethnology, though Huhnhäuser was shown to want an organization encompassing all fields of research. The note concludes with future plans for coordination between the R.u.S. and the Ahnenerbe as well as a note of warning against a plan to create an R.u.S. office within the NS as it would strip the work of German control.


Note By Wolfram Sievers On A Meeting With Gottlob Berger, August 17, 1942, Wolfram Sievers Aug 1942

Note By Wolfram Sievers On A Meeting With Gottlob Berger, August 17, 1942, Wolfram Sievers

Norwegian Projects

Wolfram Sievers reports on a meeting with Berger, who requests an Ahnenerbe science advisor for SS-Sturmbannführer Neumann, soon to be dispatched to Oslo. Sievers noted that he could not spare anyone else, but Hans Schwalm, already in Oslo, could assist. Berger also recommended that Sievers get a decree from Himmler stating that the Ahnenerbe was responsible for all legitimate scientific research in the SS and implied that this was important, but was unable to explain why.