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Articles 1 - 30 of 33

Full-Text Articles in European History

Cartel Practices And Policies In The World War Ii Era, Caleb Yoken Jun 2019

Cartel Practices And Policies In The World War Ii Era, Caleb Yoken

Honors Theses

The goal of this thesis is to examine cartels in the World War II era: how and why they operated, why they existed, and any assistance they may or may not have received from their respective governments. This thesis, in particular, will focus on three countries, the United States, Germany, and Britain. Cartels are typically defined through the lens of monopolized business activity that can deal with anything from petroleum and steel to pharmaceuticals, and take actions to restrict output and raise prices to eliminate their competition. The research finds that cartels that operated in Europe during this era were ...


The Failure Of Soft Law To Provide An Equitable Framework For Restitution Of Nazi-Looted Art, Michael J. Birnkrant Jan 2019

The Failure Of Soft Law To Provide An Equitable Framework For Restitution Of Nazi-Looted Art, Michael J. Birnkrant

Washington University Global Studies Law Review

It is estimated that over 20% of the art in Europe was looted by the Nazi regime during World War II. Many pieces were taken by force from Jewish art dealers, and much of the property taken during this period of Nazi spoliation was never returned. Heirs of looted art are still filing claims for restitution in various courts, but the current global patchwork of statutes of limitations and the availability of the “good faith purchaser defense” in many jurisdictions can render proceedings confusing and unjust.

This note explores the current state of the law regarding repatriation of Nazi-looted art ...


“Kinder, Küche, Und Kirche”: Women’S Work In The Third Reich, Margarete Crelling Mar 2018

“Kinder, Küche, Und Kirche”: Women’S Work In The Third Reich, Margarete Crelling

History Undergraduate Theses

Under dictator Adolph Hitler, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state. When World War II was declared on September 1, 1939, it was clear that the world would never be the same. The Nazi Party controlled nearly every aspect of German society with an iron fist, including religion, education, culture, and the role of women and family. Today, conversations and research about the Nazi regime during World War II often focus on the horrors of the Holocaust and its male perpetrators—Adolf Hitler, his officers, and troops. The important role women played in Germany during World War II is often ...


Art Of The Weimar Republic And The Premonitions Of Fascism, Leshan Xiao Jan 2018

Art Of The Weimar Republic And The Premonitions Of Fascism, Leshan Xiao

CMC Senior Theses

Founded in 1918 following the carnage of World War One until the Nazi takeover of 1933, the Weimar Republic is widely renowned as a bastion of freedom and democracy that existed only briefly between the reigns of two authoritarian regimes. The Weimar period witnessed an unprecedented prosperity of art and culture, with tremendous advancements in the fields of literature, the visual arts, and film. However, the remnants of the old Empire persisted within the new Republic, and new fascist factions rose to prominence within German society. Artists that lived through the era, both liberal and conservative, observed and provided their ...


“O Freunde, Nicht Diese Töne!" First World War Beethoven Reception As Precedent For The Nazi "Cult Of Art", David B. Dennis Oct 2017

“O Freunde, Nicht Diese Töne!" First World War Beethoven Reception As Precedent For The Nazi "Cult Of Art", David B. Dennis

David B. Dennis

No abstract provided.


Their Meister's Voice: Nazi Reception Of Richard Wagner And His Works In The Völkischer Beobachter, David B. Dennis Sep 2017

Their Meister's Voice: Nazi Reception Of Richard Wagner And His Works In The Völkischer Beobachter, David B. Dennis

David B. Dennis

A detailed examination of Richard Wagner's reception in Nazi Germany.


Iain Boyd White And David Frisby, Eds. Metropolis Berlin: 1880-1940. Berkeley: University Of California Press, 2012., Tyler Carrington Jun 2017

Iain Boyd White And David Frisby, Eds. Metropolis Berlin: 1880-1940. Berkeley: University Of California Press, 2012., Tyler Carrington

Studies in 20th & 21st Century Literature

Review of Iain Boyd White and David Frisby, eds. Metropolis Berlin: 1880-1940. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.


Freed From Fascism: Berlin's Gallery Culture In The Aftermath Of World War Ii, Brooke Fessler May 2017

Freed From Fascism: Berlin's Gallery Culture In The Aftermath Of World War Ii, Brooke Fessler

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

In post-World War II Germany, the city of Berlin was left in ruin after six years of war. A nation ripped apart both physically and at its governmental core was finally freed from Nazi fascism in 1945, and the German people were finally able to reconstruct their culture. Born out of years of strict regulation of the German art world, a new type of art was put on display. Focusing specifically on gallery culture in Berlin in the post-war years, one can see how twelve years of classically influenced Nazi art gave way to a push towards the avant-garde. The ...


Guilt, Shame, And The Family Narrative: The Communicative Memory From Families Of Nazi Perpetrators And Its Impact On The Social Collective, Megan E. Heyer Apr 2017

Guilt, Shame, And The Family Narrative: The Communicative Memory From Families Of Nazi Perpetrators And Its Impact On The Social Collective, Megan E. Heyer

Student Publications

This work examines the generational relationships of the families of Nazi perpetrators and how the experiences of these Nazi perpetrators have been altered through the generations, and the impact of these alterations on one's understanding of the history of World War II.


Eisenhower And Montgomery: Strategy, Leadership, And Tension At The End Of World War Ii, Bradley J. Klustner Oct 2016

Eisenhower And Montgomery: Strategy, Leadership, And Tension At The End Of World War Ii, Bradley J. Klustner

Student Publications

In late 1944, two legendary generals stood at the helm of the Allied Expeditionary Force as it plunged into Nazi Germany in an effort to end the Second World War. While the relationship between the United States and Britain, and more specifically the relationship between Generals Dwight Eisenhower and Bernard Montgomery are portrayed as cooperative, smooth, and friendly, personal memoirs of the two men and their close confidants reveal that these myths could not be further from the truth. A debate between the two men, which began as one regarding military strategy, escalated into a full blown feud; this tension ...


The Cleveland Nazis: 1933 - 1945, Michael Cikraji Apr 2016

The Cleveland Nazis: 1933 - 1945, Michael Cikraji

MSL Academic Endeavors eBooks

During Cleveland’s Great Depression grew the first seeds of American Nazism. The city fostered an explicitly Nazi German-American Bund, a covert Silvershirt Legion detachment and prominent diplomatic agents from the Third Reich. Festooned with photos and meticulously documented, this book examines the timeless questions of American allegiance, the responsibilities of democratic governance, the security threats of “Un-American” activities, and the passions, motivations and dreams of American immigrants. In the most unlikely of places, here is a case-study true story of the fascinating, bewildering and terrifying rise of American Nazism.


The Berlin Olympics: Sports, Anti-Semitism, And Propaganda In Nazi Germany, Nathan W. Cody Apr 2016

The Berlin Olympics: Sports, Anti-Semitism, And Propaganda In Nazi Germany, Nathan W. Cody

Student Publications

The Nazis utilized the Berlin Olympics of 1936 as anti-Semitic propaganda within their racial ideology. When the Nazis took power in 1933 they immediately sought to coordinate all aspects of German life, including sports. The process of coordination was designed to Aryanize sport by excluding non-Aryans and promoting sport as a means to prepare for military training. The 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin became the ideal platform for Hitler and the Nazis to display the physical superiority of the Aryan race. However, the exclusion of non-Aryans prompted a boycott debate that threatened Berlin’s position as host. A fierce debate ...


History, Historical Fiction, And Historical Myth: 'The German Doctor' By Lucía Puenzo, Nathan W. Cody Apr 2016

History, Historical Fiction, And Historical Myth: 'The German Doctor' By Lucía Puenzo, Nathan W. Cody

Student Publications

The escape of thousands of war criminals to Argentina and throughout South America in the aftermath of World War II is a historical subject that has been clouded with mystery and conspiracy. Lucía Puenzo's film, The German Doctor, utilizes this historical enigma as a backdrop for historical fiction by imagining a family's encounter with Josef Mengele, the notorious SS doctor from Auschwitz who escaped to South America in 1949 under a false identity. While Puenzo sought to tell a story within a historical context, the film still has important historical commentaries. Ultimately, The German Doctor demonstrates the intersections ...


The Nuremberg Laws: Creating The Road To The T-4 Program, Jennifer V. Hight Jan 2016

The Nuremberg Laws: Creating The Road To The T-4 Program, Jennifer V. Hight

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

On September 15, 1935 the Nazi party announced a new series of laws codes that legally cemented the principles of Nazi ideology: The Nuremberg Laws. The Nuremberg Laws were composed of three parts. One, the “Reich Citizenship Law” revoked the status of Jews as legal citizens and created the framework the Nazis would use to persecute by defining what it meant to be German or Jewish; later the laws were expanded by the Nazis to label minorities as non-German citizens. The “Laws of the Protection of Hereditary Health” stated that anyone the Nazis deemed as carrying inheritable diseases would be ...


Their Meister's Voice: Nazi Reception Of Richard Wagner And His Works In The Völkischer Beobachter, David B. Dennis Jan 2016

Their Meister's Voice: Nazi Reception Of Richard Wagner And His Works In The Völkischer Beobachter, David B. Dennis

History: Faculty Publications and Other Works

A detailed examination of Richard Wagner's reception in Nazi Germany.


Euthanasie Und Menschenversuche Im Dritten Reich, Mit Einer Ethischen Analyse Der Menschenversuche, Max J. Roehmholdt Jun 2015

Euthanasie Und Menschenversuche Im Dritten Reich, Mit Einer Ethischen Analyse Der Menschenversuche, Max J. Roehmholdt

Honors Theses

The idea in Nazi-Germany of a “pure” Germany culminated in the systematic murder of millions of people, and within that, the crimes against humanity of euthanasia and human experimentation. The memories of child and adult euthanasia pervade society even today. This project looks at the development of Nazi-euthanasia and the memoirs and films about it, which leave lasting impressions by engraining in audience member’s minds the real facts about euthanasia and euthanasia institutions. The victims of euthanasia were often used in Nazi human experimentation, a product of the Nazi pursuit of scientific advancement. This project also examines these human ...


Wagner Contra Mundum: Wagner Versus The World, Caitlin A. Thom May 2015

Wagner Contra Mundum: Wagner Versus The World, Caitlin A. Thom

Geifman Prize in Holocaust Studies

An investigation of responses to Wagner in Nazi Germany and post-World War II Israel.


Ordinary Women: Female Perpetrators Of The Nazi Final Solution, Haley A. Wodenshek Apr 2015

Ordinary Women: Female Perpetrators Of The Nazi Final Solution, Haley A. Wodenshek

Senior Theses and Projects

This Thesis, by examining the roles of three Nazi women, Herta Oberheuser, Irma Grese, and Ilse Koch, as well as understanding the various women’s programs that helped to cultivate and further racism and violence against Jews and others “unworthy of life,” aims to paint a more complete picture of the true role played by Nazi women during the second world war, as well as argue that women were not only victims of the Nazi regime, nor were they solely bystanders. Rather, this thesis will demonstrate that women were not only complicit, but were also accomplices, aiding German men in ...


In Her Own Right: A Study Of Freya Von Moltke In The German Resistance 1940-1945, Sarah E. Hayes Apr 2014

In Her Own Right: A Study Of Freya Von Moltke In The German Resistance 1940-1945, Sarah E. Hayes

Student Publications

Freya von Moltke was a member of the Kreisau Circle resistance group in Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1944. This intellectual group planned for the future of Germany after the anticipated downfall of the Nazis and was led by Helmuth von Moltke, the husband of Freya, and Peter Yorck. Despite the significance of her resistance in comparison to the majority of the German population, the resistance story of Freya von Moltke is often overwhelmed by that of her husband. The examination of Freya von Moltke’s interviews, letters, and memoirs as well as a variety of secondary sources reveals that ...


Germany And History In Flux: The Generational Changes In Approaching Germany's Past, Louis T. Gentilucci Apr 2014

Germany And History In Flux: The Generational Changes In Approaching Germany's Past, Louis T. Gentilucci

Student Publications

Historical memory, how a people remember the past, is in a state of almost eternal flux. By following the development of historical memory in post-war Germany, historians can better understand the generational and contemporary impact on popular history. German history illustrates the importance of this concept, as German history has a great deal of 20th century historical baggage.


Automobiles Autarky And Authority: The Effects Of Nazi Centralized Economic Planning 1932-1942, Andrew Stinchfield Jun 2013

Automobiles Autarky And Authority: The Effects Of Nazi Centralized Economic Planning 1932-1942, Andrew Stinchfield

Honors Theses

This thesis examines the benefits and drawbacks of Nazi centralized economic planning. From an entirely political and economical standpoint, Hitler and the National Socialists’ highly regulated and restrictive policies were initially beneficial for Germany because they created a centralized economic vision and improved national morale. The liberal ideology of the Weimar Republic resulted in major class divisions within the nation, where laissez-faire economics left middle-citizens marginalized and at the mercy of profit-seeking big businesses. The Wall Street Crash of 1929 exposed the weaknesses of liberalism and resulted in a massive rise in political resentment. The regime accumulated power because their ...


Terror Unrealized: German Blunders, American Occupation Strategy, And The Failure Of The Nazi Werwolf Movement, Nicholas Jon Hurley May 2013

Terror Unrealized: German Blunders, American Occupation Strategy, And The Failure Of The Nazi Werwolf Movement, Nicholas Jon Hurley

Honors Scholar Theses

The Nazi Werwolf movement is an often overlooked and forgotten subject during historical examinations of the end of the Second World War, due in large part to the fact that it never fully developed or reached the scale envisioned by its creators. Originally devised to conduct commando-style partisan operations behind Allied lines, the organization's failure can be attributed to a number of factors, both German and American. This work examines the logistical and organizational problems that crippled the movement prior to the end of hostilities in Europe, as well as the American postwar counterinsurgency campaign that wiped out what ...


"Il Signor Mengele Di Bolzano": L'Alto Adige Come Via Di Fuga Dei Criminali Nazisti (1945-1951), Gerald Steinacher Jan 2013

"Il Signor Mengele Di Bolzano": L'Alto Adige Come Via Di Fuga Dei Criminali Nazisti (1945-1951), Gerald Steinacher

Faculty Publications, Department of History

Il tecnico altoatesino Richard Klement, il meccanico bolzanino Helmut Gregor: apparentemente semplici cittadini emigrati in Argentina dopo le devastazioni della seconda guerra mondiale. Ma questi nomi ne celano altri ben più noti: Adolf Eichmann e Josef Mengele. Sono solo due delle migliaia di nazisti che dopo la sconfitta, attraverso l'Alto Adige e il porto di Genova, riuscirono a raggiungere terre più sicure come Spagna, Sudamerica, Medio Oriente. Eichmann e Mengele si erano avvalsi per la loro fuga oltreoceano nel 1950 di documenti rilasciati loro in Alto Adige dopo aver assunto una nuova identità. Perché il prototipo del "burocrate dello ...


Rape As A Weapon Of War: The Demystification Of The German Wehrmacht During The Second World War, Alisse Baumgarten Jan 2013

Rape As A Weapon Of War: The Demystification Of The German Wehrmacht During The Second World War, Alisse Baumgarten

CMC Senior Theses

The German Armed Forces were originally thought to be completely innocent of all war crimes associated with unethical Nazi racial policies. This has been proven not to be the case. History has adjusted itself to show that Wehrmacht forces were guilty of virtually every war crime except for the sexual violation foreign women. Due to the long-standing assumption that Nazi racial ideology prevented the intermingling of the “Aryan” race with the “unworthy” Eastern European races, this myth was rarely questioned. Given the lack of hard evidence proving that civilian women were raped by invading Wehrmacht troops, a firm conclusion is ...


“O Freunde, Nicht Diese Töne!" First World War Beethoven Reception As Precedent For The Nazi "Cult Of Art", David B. Dennis Jan 2013

“O Freunde, Nicht Diese Töne!" First World War Beethoven Reception As Precedent For The Nazi "Cult Of Art", David B. Dennis

History: Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


Luther And Hitler: A Linear Connection Between Martin Luther And Adolf Hitler’S Anti-Semitism With A Nationalistic Foundation, Daphne M. Olsen May 2012

Luther And Hitler: A Linear Connection Between Martin Luther And Adolf Hitler’S Anti-Semitism With A Nationalistic Foundation, Daphne M. Olsen

Master of Liberal Studies Theses

Two of the most notoriously unshakable Anti-Semitics were the Protestant reformer Martin Luther and German Chancellor-turned dictator Adolf Hitler. But who exactly were Martin Luther and Adolf Hitler? Although four centuries apart, both Martin Luther and Adolf Hitler had a remarkable impact on both Germany and the world. Luther is renowned still today as the initiator and leader of the Protestant Reformation. Centuries later, Lutherans and Germans alike admire and honor him for his bold and daring actions against the Catholic Church in the 1500s. Hitler remains one of the most hated men in history. The similarities shared between Luther ...


A Marriage Of Convenience: The Pre-War Relationship Between Nazi Germany And The Soviet Union, Stephen Calkin Jun 2011

A Marriage Of Convenience: The Pre-War Relationship Between Nazi Germany And The Soviet Union, Stephen Calkin

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

No abstract provided.


Women In Nazi Propaganda, Jonathan Moch Jun 2011

Women In Nazi Propaganda, Jonathan Moch

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

No abstract provided.


The Effectiveness Of Nazi Propaganda During World War Ii, Michael J. Stout Jan 2011

The Effectiveness Of Nazi Propaganda During World War Ii, Michael J. Stout

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

This thesis examines Nazi propaganda’s overall effectiveness during Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in the 1930s through the end of World War II in 1945. Historians have had mixed opinions of the overall potency of the propaganda. The questions in consideration are why Nazi propaganda received so much support from the Nazi leadership if it didn’t work and whether or not it was a primary reason Germany continued to resist until the end of the war. Using the diaries of Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi Propaganda Minister, soldiers’ letters from the front lines, the propaganda itself, and a ...


Operation Jedburgh: Creation Of Operation Jedburgh And The Jedburgh Team’S Efforts During D-Day, Olivia Blessing Dec 2010

Operation Jedburgh: Creation Of Operation Jedburgh And The Jedburgh Team’S Efforts During D-Day, Olivia Blessing

Olivia L Blessing

Creation of Operation Jedburgh and the Jedburgh Team’s Efforts during D-Day The German invasion of France sparked a new type of war for Europe—one focused on covert operations and guerilla warfare. The French Resistance led the way in this new style of fighting, and the United States quickly offered its assistance to the partisan groups through the efforts of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The resulting cooperation effort, named Operation Jedburgh, and the teams involved, containing numerous OSS officers, played a very important role in the efforts to free France before, during, and after D-Day.