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Full-Text Articles in European History

[Mis-]Managing Fisheries On The West Coast Of Ireland In The Nineteenth Century, John B. Roney Jan 2019

[Mis-]Managing Fisheries On The West Coast Of Ireland In The Nineteenth Century, John B. Roney

History Faculty Publications

This study focuses on the cultural heritage of artisan coastal fishing in the west of Ireland in the 19th century. The town and port of Dingle, County Kerry, offers an important case study on the progress of local development and changing British policies. While there was clearly an abundance of fish, the poverty and the lack of capital for improvements in ports, vessels, gear, education, and transportation, left the fishing industry underdeveloped until well after the 1890s. In addition, a growing rift developed between the traditional farmer-fishermen and the new middle-class capitalist companies. After several royal commissions examined the fishing ...


A Transformative Tragedy, Cassandra Karn Jan 2018

A Transformative Tragedy, Cassandra Karn

Mary Wollstonecraft Writing Award

This short essay examines the Irish potato famine's impact on the lives of Irish women, both those who stayed in Ireland and those who immigrated to the United States.


Whiteness Isn't An Accident: How My Irish Family Became White, Sarah Duncan Jan 2018

Whiteness Isn't An Accident: How My Irish Family Became White, Sarah Duncan

Social Justice Research Center Grant Awards

During her ten day trip to Ireland and Northern Ireland, scholar and creative writer Sarah Duncan examined, through exploring her own Irish family history, the connections between Irish migration and the construction of whiteness in what's known as the United States.


Tracing Their Journey: A New Beginning For Irish Immigrants In 1850 Cleveland, Kathleen M. Edwards Jan 2018

Tracing Their Journey: A New Beginning For Irish Immigrants In 1850 Cleveland, Kathleen M. Edwards

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


Changes In Tudor Religion And Politics And Their Impact On The Modernization Of Ireland, Margaret A. Benson Jan 2017

Changes In Tudor Religion And Politics And Their Impact On The Modernization Of Ireland, Margaret A. Benson

Senior Honors Theses

The Tudor dynasty in 16th Century England brought forth many changes. Under King Henry VIII, reforms in religion and politics set forth a series of events that both changed and modernized the English Empire. Henry VIII’s reformation—which had purely political motives—was the first religious reform led by a monarch and he implemented laws that left his people with no choice but to follow suit in his break from Rome. Under the reign of his son, Edward VI, exiled heretics were welcomed into England and encouraged to share their ideas which would contribute to the solidification of a ...


The Happy Secret: Alexandra Of Denmark And Ireland, 1863-1925, Shawn J. Mccarthy Jan 2017

The Happy Secret: Alexandra Of Denmark And Ireland, 1863-1925, Shawn J. Mccarthy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

For many years the notion of Princess Alexandra of Denmark’s political sympathy with Ireland has persisted among her biographers, while historians have been much more reserved in their endorsement and aware that the historical basis for Alexandra’s image as a supporter of Ireland is very tenuous. Nevertheless, Alexandra’s supposed feelings toward Ireland have never been discussed in-depth and have rather been taken for granted as having been useful to her husband for a time. The origin of this affinity has never been fully explained, short of suppositions concerning her political sensibilities and similarities between Denmark and Ireland ...


Overstating And Misjudging The Prospects Of Civil War: The Ulster Volunteer Force And The Irish Volunteers In The Home Rule Crisis, 1912-1914, Julia Birgen Jan 2017

Overstating And Misjudging The Prospects Of Civil War: The Ulster Volunteer Force And The Irish Volunteers In The Home Rule Crisis, 1912-1914, Julia Birgen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 1914, as Europe marched towards war, the British government focused on internal issues in Ireland. The Government of Ireland Act 1914 passed the House of Commons and would have allowed for a limited power parliament in Dublin to control Irish issues. Militia’s formed in Ireland in reaction to the bill. The Irish Volunteers, in favor of the bill, swore to uphold the law, while the Ulster Volunteer Force vowed to stop the law at any cost. The British government feared both of these paramilitaries. This thesis explores the threat posed by these militias and their effects on Britain ...


Immigrant And Irish Identities In Hand In The Fire And Hamilton's Writing Between 2003 And 2014, Dervila Cooke Dec 2016

Immigrant And Irish Identities In Hand In The Fire And Hamilton's Writing Between 2003 And 2014, Dervila Cooke

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

In her article "Immigrant and Irish Identities in Hand in the Fire and Hamilton's Writing between 2003 and 2014" Dervila Cooke discusses the intertwining of Irish and immigrant identities. Cooke examines the connection between openness to memory and embracing migrant identities in Hamilton's writing both in the 2010 novel and as a whole. The empathetic and inclusive character of Helen in Hand in the Fire is analyzed in contrast to characters who have repressed memory including the Serbian Vid. Helen's ties to elsewhere, her openness to new influence, and her willingness to engage with traumatic elements of ...


Thematic Bibliography To New Work On Immigration And Identity In Contemporary France, Québec, And Ireland, Dervila Cooke Dec 2016

Thematic Bibliography To New Work On Immigration And Identity In Contemporary France, Québec, And Ireland, Dervila Cooke

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

No abstract provided.


Introduction To New Work On Immigration And Identity In Contemporary France, Québec, And Ireland, Dervila Cooke Dec 2016

Introduction To New Work On Immigration And Identity In Contemporary France, Québec, And Ireland, Dervila Cooke

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

No abstract provided for the introduction.


The Power Of A Secret: Secret Societies And The Easter Rising, Sierra M. Harlan May 2016

The Power Of A Secret: Secret Societies And The Easter Rising, Sierra M. Harlan

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

The Irish Republican Brotherhood (I.R.B.) and the Irish Volunteer Force (I.V.F.) altered Irish Nationalist tactics from Parliamentary supported Home Rule to a republican movement for Irish Independence. The actions of these secret societies between 1900 and 1916, during the Irish Revolutionary period,[1] are the reason that Ireland gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1922. The change from political negotiations by the ineffective Irish Parliamentary Party to the republican movement would never have happened without the Easter Rising of 1916. The centennial anniversary of this Easter Rising makes The Power of a Secret: Ireland’s ...


"Torn From Their Mother's Breasts": The Battle For Impoverished Souls In Ireland, 1853-1885, Kristin V. Brig Apr 2016

"Torn From Their Mother's Breasts": The Battle For Impoverished Souls In Ireland, 1853-1885, Kristin V. Brig

Madison Historical Review

A world history analysis, this paper examines the struggle between Protestant governmental and Catholic private philanthropy in mid-nineteenth-century Ireland, exploring how each side waged a war of political and religious misunderstanding in an effort to gain control over the Catholic Irish poor. Ireland’s philanthropic scene in this period became a battleground on which the British government fought for political control and Catholics for religious control; however, neither group understood what the other fought for, waging a war of cross-purposes. Through an examination of this battle for control, this paper depicts the emergence of modern Irish welfare from the famine ...


The Irish Theology: Formation Of Celtic Christianity In Ireland (5th To 9th Century), Emma M. Foster Jan 2016

The Irish Theology: Formation Of Celtic Christianity In Ireland (5th To 9th Century), Emma M. Foster

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

The conversion process of Ireland resulted in a culture that reflected both its pagan, Celtic roots and the new Christian ontology. From the fifth to ninth century, Ireland’s learned elite began to be converted to Christianity and created the early monastic settlements that shaped how Christianity was introduced. The interactions between the early Irish monastic founders and the pre-Christian Irish influenced the ways in which early monasteries were established and why Christianity was introduced the way it was. By establishing the Christian faith on the basis of Irish learning, the early church worked with the learned men to establish ...


British Intelligence Operations During The Anglo-Irish War, Elliott N. Reid Jan 2016

British Intelligence Operations During The Anglo-Irish War, Elliott N. Reid

All Master's Theses

This study examines the performance of the British authorities’ intelligence operations against those of the Irish Republican Army during the years 1919-1921. It is a reassessment of previous perceptions on the British as well as an examination of the British administration and its policies that adversely affected the success of their campaign against Irish nationalists. Upon its conclusion, this study will show that British law enforcement and the military were in fact more successful in combating Irish nationalists than previously believed.


The Bosnian Muslims And The Irish Perspective, Gabriel C. Kelly Jul 2015

The Bosnian Muslims And The Irish Perspective, Gabriel C. Kelly

Student Publications

The conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina can be understood in multiple ways, however, the focus of this paper is to examine the perspective of Ireland on the Bosnian Muslims at different levels of society--ranging from the population to international level--from June 01, 1992 to January 31, 1996. Through an analysis of letters to the editor in "The Irish Times," parliamentary debate transcripts, and the Barbara Sloan European Union Document Collection located at the University of Pittsburgh's Hillman Library, I have been able to reveal how complex perspectives within a state on a particular issue can be, and how they can vary ...


Henry Viii And The Irish Political Nation: An Assessment Of Tudor Imperial Kingship In 16th Century Ireland, Emily Schwartz Jun 2015

Henry Viii And The Irish Political Nation: An Assessment Of Tudor Imperial Kingship In 16th Century Ireland, Emily Schwartz

Honors Theses

Ireland in the 16th century was by far the most self-governed domain under the authority of King Henry VIII. Within Ireland there were two distinct groups of people, the Gaelic Irish and the Anglo-Irish, whose cultural differences divided the island into two distinct political nations. The majority of Ireland was dominated by Gaelic Irish lordships. Gaelic Irish lords recognized the English king as their overlord, but followed Gaelic customs and laws within their lordships. The small sphere of English influence in Ireland was reduced even more by the political hegemony of the Anglo-Irish magnates. The most powerful magnate, the 9th ...


Zoomorphic Penannular Brooches In 6th And 7th Century Ireland, Esther G. Ward May 2015

Zoomorphic Penannular Brooches In 6th And 7th Century Ireland, Esther G. Ward

Esther G. Ward

In this thesis the author examines the evolution, manufacture, and societal significance of zoomorphic penannular brooches, a type of metal dress fastener used in early medieval Ireland that is often decorated. The brooches examined are dated to the 6th and 7th centuries, during which the Irish underwent a process of religious conversion from Celtic paganism to Christianity, and social rank was paramount. It is in this social context that the brooches are examined. Despite the significance of this time of social change, brooches from this period tend to be overlooked by scholarship in favor of the more ornate metalwork of ...


The Irish Ordnance Survey's Six Inches To One Mile Map Of Ireland: Anglicization And Otherness, Reese C. Hentges Mar 2015

The Irish Ordnance Survey's Six Inches To One Mile Map Of Ireland: Anglicization And Otherness, Reese C. Hentges

History Undergraduate Theses

By examining the power maps and language have over a nation this research reveals a correlation between the creation of the 1846 Six Inches to One Mile Maps of Ireland and the decline of the Gaelic language at the expense of the English language. By examining Irish Ordnance Survey maps, Ordnance Survey Memoirs of Ireland, and other documents from the Irish Ordnance Survey while the Six Inches to One Mile Maps of Ireland this thesis demonstrates that the Six Inches to One Mile Maps of Ireland was a tool of imperialism used by Great Britain to culturally assimilate Ireland by ...


Perceptions Of Identity In Post-Famine Irish Return Migrants, Brittany Walsh Dec 2014

Perceptions Of Identity In Post-Famine Irish Return Migrants, Brittany Walsh

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The Irish census records from 1841 and 1851 demonstrated a nearly 20% drop in population over the course of the Great Famine, accounting for both death and emigration during that period. Among this drop was the community of nearly 1.5 million emigrants who left during the decade, a number accounting for half of the citizens leaving Ireland in the nineteenth century. While most of this community were permanent migrants, an estimated 10% of those who emigrated to the United States returned to Ireland during the second half of the century. This research will analyze the construction of Irish emigrant ...


Irish And German Immigrants Of The Nineteenth Century: Hardships, Improvements, And Success, Amanda A. Tagore Jun 2014

Irish And German Immigrants Of The Nineteenth Century: Hardships, Improvements, And Success, Amanda A. Tagore

Honors College Theses

This paper examines the economic and social reasons that are attributed to the high emigration rate in Ireland and in Germany during the nineteenth century, and how the lives of these groups turned out in the United States. As a result of economic deterioration and social inequality, pessimism became prevalent in Ireland from the 1840s onward and in Germany from the 1830s onward. Because the United States was perceived as an optimistic avenue for advancement, thousands of Irish and Germans emigrated their homelands and fled to America in search of a better life. During the first few decades upon their ...


Kathleen Clarke: Connecting The Competing Definitions Of Women's Identity In Irish Nationalism, Kathleen Reilly May 2014

Kathleen Clarke: Connecting The Competing Definitions Of Women's Identity In Irish Nationalism, Kathleen Reilly

Honors Theses

The modern nationalist movement (1916-1936) presented a contradiction for Irish women. On the one hand, they were being called to perform their responsibilities as citizens by extending their patriotism outside the home and taking a more active role in the fate of their country. On the other, Irish nationalism relied heavily on tradition; women were generally seen as the keepers of that tradition. Nationalist women struggled to respond to the competing responsibilities of their traditional domestic role and the emerging roles as citizens in a new nation.

This paper examines Kathleen Clarke as a case study in how nationalist Irishwomen ...


The Call Of The Sidhe: Poetic And Mythological Influences In Ireland's Struggle For Freedom, Anna Wakeling Jan 2014

The Call Of The Sidhe: Poetic And Mythological Influences In Ireland's Struggle For Freedom, Anna Wakeling

Honors Theses

The mythology of Ireland is millennia old, birthing a poetic tradition that has endured with the nation. This presentation explores how important Ireland's mythological heritage has been to its people, sustaining their fighting spirit during foreign invasions, political instability, and conflicts with England. The work if William Butler Yeats, in particular, embodies the struggles between the Protestant Ascendancy and the native Irish; Christianity and paganism; the Gaelic poetic tradition and newer English literature; and the push for peaceful independence negotiation versus the radical revolutionary movements inspired by ancient heroes. His life and poetry serve as a lens that brings ...


Thomas Moore’S Image Of Ireland: Real Or Commercialized, John B. Roney Nov 2013

Thomas Moore’S Image Of Ireland: Real Or Commercialized, John B. Roney

History Faculty Publications

Thomas Moore was Irish, with his father’s pedigree from the Kerry Gaeltacht, and since it mattered a great deal to most Irish of the time, he was Catholic. However, after his studies at Trinity College, he sought a life in England, married a Protestant woman and had his children baptized and raised Protestant. He became a very popular poet, singer and entertainer, and friend to many English aristocrats, including Lord Byron and Prime Minister Lord John Russell. Yet, at the same time Moore ardently defended Irish independence and Catholic freedoms. Underneath his romantic poetry lay a sometimes scathing critique ...


Historical Society And County Record Publications From The United Kingdom: A Finding Guide, Rebecca A. Stuhr, Sarah Wipperman Oct 2013

Historical Society And County Record Publications From The United Kingdom: A Finding Guide, Rebecca A. Stuhr, Sarah Wipperman

Sarah Wipperman

The attached excel sheet is intended to be used as a finding aid for county records series and the publications of various historical societies in the United Kingdom. This document was created to support the work of Professor Margo Todd, her students, and the University of Pennsylvania’s Department of History. The information provided in this document is based on series holdings in the University of Pennsylvania libraries, primarily Van Pelt‐Dietrich, as well as those held in storage at LIBRA. It is designed to give a quick reference to these holdings, where they are located, and which geographic region ...


Historical Society And County Record Publications From The United Kingdom: A Finding Guide, Rebecca A. Stuhr, Sarah Wipperman Aug 2013

Historical Society And County Record Publications From The United Kingdom: A Finding Guide, Rebecca A. Stuhr, Sarah Wipperman

Scholarship at Penn Libraries

The attached excel sheet is intended to be used as a finding aid for county records series and the publications of various historical societies in the United Kingdom. This document was created to support the work of Professor Margo Todd, her students, and the University of Pennsylvania’s Department of History. The information provided in this document is based on series holdings in the University of Pennsylvania libraries, primarily Van Pelt‐Dietrich, as well as those held in storage at LIBRA. It is designed to give a quick reference to these holdings, where they are located, and which geographic region ...


Irish Travellers And The Transformative Nature Of Media Representation, Aisling Kearns Jun 2013

Irish Travellers And The Transformative Nature Of Media Representation, Aisling Kearns

Honors Theses

The Travellers, a nomadic group of people indigenous to Ireland, have long been marginalized in Irish society as a result of discrimination. The Travellers themselves have had a history of working to keep themselves separate from the settled Irish, essentially maintaining their own ethnic identity. Traveller culture has undergone a number of changes since the 1960s, a period of increasing urbanization and economic transformation in Ireland. With the changes in both Traveller culture and Irish society as a whole, there has been a corresponding shift to a more positive relationship between the media (newspapers, documentaries, and commercial films and television ...


Daniel O’Connell’S Struggle To Harness Religion And Nationalism In The Pursuit Of Universal Civil Rights And Home Rule In Ireland, Colin Daunt Dec 2012

Daniel O’Connell’S Struggle To Harness Religion And Nationalism In The Pursuit Of Universal Civil Rights And Home Rule In Ireland, Colin Daunt

History Theses

In this paper I examined the religious shift in Irish national identity, from Protestant to Catholic, in the early 19th century. This shift was led by Daniel O’Connell, who led the Irish home rule movement up until his death in 1847. O’Connell had to maintain a delicate balance in his push for independence; he wanted a legislatively independent and unified Ireland for both Catholics and Protestants. But he could never attain the balance he desired because the Protestants were always wary of the O’Connell’s Catholicism. Their wariness was due to O’Connell’s early focus ...


Zoomorphic Penannular Brooches In 6th And 7th Century Ireland, Esther G. Ward Dec 2012

Zoomorphic Penannular Brooches In 6th And 7th Century Ireland, Esther G. Ward

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Creative Activity, School of Art, Art History and Design

In this thesis the author examines the evolution, manufacture, and societal significance of zoomorphic penannular brooches, a type of metal dress fastener used in early medieval Ireland that is often decorated. The brooches examined are dated to the 6th and 7th centuries, during which the Irish underwent a process of religious conversion from Celtic paganism to Christianity, and social rank was paramount. It is in this social context that the brooches are examined. Despite the significance of this time of social change, brooches from this period tend to be overlooked by scholarship in favor of the more ornate ...


The Emigrant Of An Gorta Mór: The Emigration Experience Of Cornelius Delaney During Ireland's Great Famine Of 1845-1850, Sarah Nelson Apr 2012

The Emigrant Of An Gorta Mór: The Emigration Experience Of Cornelius Delaney During Ireland's Great Famine Of 1845-1850, Sarah Nelson

Antonian Scholars Honors Program

‘The Emigrant of An Gorta Mόr,’ describes the emigration experience of my ancestor, Cornelius Delaney, during Ireland’s Great Famine of 1845-1850. The Great Famine, known in Gaelic as ‘An Gorta Mόr’ (the Great Hunger), began in 1845, when the fungus Phytophthora infestans infected the potato crop in Ireland. During the years of the Famine, Ireland lost nearly half of its population to starvation, disease and emigration. In the format of an annotated, historical fiction piece, ‘The Emigrant of An Gorta Mόr,’ presents the experience of Cornelius and the Delaney family during the Famine in Ireland and Cornelius’s experience ...


Historical Accuracy And The Ira Over 70 Years Of Cinema, Eric Scott Elliott Jan 2012

Historical Accuracy And The Ira Over 70 Years Of Cinema, Eric Scott Elliott

CGU Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to examine how the Irish Republican Army has been represented in theatrical cinema since the 1930s. The goal is to demonstrate the necessity for historical accuracy in movies produced for public entertainment, which often neglect historical facts and circumstances in portraying an organization as controversial and complex as the IRA. This has been done by examining five movies produced for wide-distribution and comparing each to the detailed historical record. Upon analysis of these movies, it becomes clear that the films which are the most historically relevant are also the most powerful cinematic productions, both ...