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Full-Text Articles in European History

Judicializing History: Mass Crimes Trials And The Historian As Expert Witness In West Germany, Cambodia, And Bangladesh, Rebecca Gidley, Mathew Turner Dec 2018

Judicializing History: Mass Crimes Trials And The Historian As Expert Witness In West Germany, Cambodia, And Bangladesh, Rebecca Gidley, Mathew Turner

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Henry Rousso warned that the engagement of historians as expert witnesses in trials, particularly highly politicized proceedings of mass crimes, risks a judicialization of history. This article tests Rousso’s argument through analysis of three quite different case studies: the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial; the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia; and the International Crimes Tribunal in Bangladesh. It argues that Rousso’s objections misrepresent the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial, while failing to account for the engagement of historical expertise in mass atrocity trials beyond Europe. Paradoxically, Rousso’s criticisms are less suited to the European context that represents his purview ...


The Imperial Legacy: An Examination Of The Trends Of Empire And Genocide From German Southwest Africa To The General Government, Laura Guebert Apr 2018

The Imperial Legacy: An Examination Of The Trends Of Empire And Genocide From German Southwest Africa To The General Government, Laura Guebert

Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal

This project is an examination of correlations between imperial enterprises of the Second German Empire and the Nazi Reich through the lenses of global and imperial critiques. The three primary case studies are German Southwest Africa, the Ober Ost, and Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe, particularly the General Government. This research draws heavily on certain themes and theories developed by leading historians of modern German and Eastern European history, including Timothy Snyder, Ben Kiernan, Shelley Baranowski, Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius, and Christopher Browning. By understanding the shared trends of empire and genocide, it is my aim to bring the actions of the National ...


“Kinder, Küche, Und Kirche”: Women’S Work In The Third Reich, Margarete Crelling Mar 2018

“Kinder, Küche, Und Kirche”: Women’S Work In The Third Reich, Margarete Crelling

History Undergraduate Theses

Under dictator Adolph Hitler, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state. When World War II was declared on September 1, 1939, it was clear that the world would never be the same. The Nazi Party controlled nearly every aspect of German society with an iron fist, including religion, education, culture, and the role of women and family. Today, conversations and research about the Nazi regime during World War II often focus on the horrors of the Holocaust and its male perpetrators—Adolf Hitler, his officers, and troops. The important role women played in Germany during World War II is often ...


Schießbefehl And The Issues Of Retroactivity Within The East German Border Guard Trials, Keegan Mcmurry Jan 2018

Schießbefehl And The Issues Of Retroactivity Within The East German Border Guard Trials, Keegan Mcmurry

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

From 1961 to 1989, 327 people attempting to cross the border from East Germany to West Germany were killed while making the crossing. With the opening of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and German reunification a year later, German courts began to address whether the border guards, their officers, or political leadership of the former East Germany should be tried for these deaths. If East Germany no longer existed, could West German laws be applied to these cases? This project examines this issue by examining trials that were conducted in the 1990s and the legal sources that examine this ...


Warlord: The Political And Military Ambitions Of Nazi Germany, William R. Underhill Dec 2016

Warlord: The Political And Military Ambitions Of Nazi Germany, William R. Underhill

Senior Theses

There are so many important stories to consider when thinking about World War II. It is easy to think about the popular aspects of the war: the causes, the major figures, the battles, and, of course, the lasting consequences. Yet there are other, lesser known storylines to consider, ones that have taken a backseat to the more popular narratives of the time. It is commonly understood that Nazi Germany was evil and that they had nothing but ill intentions for the rest of Europe and the world. However, it is vital to understand that Germany’s pre-war intentions are notably ...


Ms – 196: “Meine Fahrten” Scrapbook, Jesse E. Siegel Jul 2016

Ms – 196: “Meine Fahrten” Scrapbook, Jesse E. Siegel

All Finding Aids

This scrapbook includes two sketches, 37 pages with originally 177 photographs (13 missing), three free photographs, and 3 magazine clippings. Below is a list of the places visited by Leiber in the course of the album and the images he included in the album, including their page numbers. Some of the images, particularly from pages 24-30, appear to be chronologically out of order.

Special Collections and College Archives Finding Aids are discovery tools used to describe and provide access to our holdings. Finding aids include historical and biographical information about each collection in addition to inventories of their content. More ...


Germany In Afghanistan: The German Domestic Dispute On Military Deployment Overseas, Nils Martin May 2016

Germany In Afghanistan: The German Domestic Dispute On Military Deployment Overseas, Nils Martin

Masters Theses

This thesis provides a study of the deployment of the German Bundeswehr to Afghanistan and highlights the clash between two conflicting visions of German foreign policy by explaining the different policies supported or opposed by an outspoken segment of the German public and German leaders since the Second World War in regards to the use of military force. While maintaining a focus on German military deployment to Afghanistan, this thesis consists of an analysis of German parliamentary debate, editorials, public opinion polls, speeches and other sources to determine arguments used by German government leaders to try and overcome strong anti-war ...


The Berlin Olympics: Sports, Anti-Semitism, And Propaganda In Nazi Germany, Nathan W. Cody Apr 2016

The Berlin Olympics: Sports, Anti-Semitism, And Propaganda In Nazi Germany, Nathan W. Cody

Student Publications

The Nazis utilized the Berlin Olympics of 1936 as anti-Semitic propaganda within their racial ideology. When the Nazis took power in 1933 they immediately sought to coordinate all aspects of German life, including sports. The process of coordination was designed to Aryanize sport by excluding non-Aryans and promoting sport as a means to prepare for military training. The 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin became the ideal platform for Hitler and the Nazis to display the physical superiority of the Aryan race. However, the exclusion of non-Aryans prompted a boycott debate that threatened Berlin’s position as host. A fierce debate ...


A Conquering Race: The Birth Of Social Darwinism In Pre-War Germany, Andrew T. Murphree Apr 2015

A Conquering Race: The Birth Of Social Darwinism In Pre-War Germany, Andrew T. Murphree

Andrew T Murphree

Popular opinion suggests that certain political and military leaders throughout history are the primary agents for change in civilization; however, such a conclusion represents a serious oversight regarding the powerful potential of emerging worldviews to dictate epochal moments throughout mankind. Certainly, dynamic figures rise to prominence to lead movements of conservatism, progression, and moderation, but the conduit of ideas serves as the essential catalytic force that ignites and sustains these patterns. The Great War of the twentieth century was a complex global conflict of immense proportions, unlike anything the world had ever known. Historians perhaps express the greatest perplexity in ...


Heroes Of Berlin Wall Struggle, William D. Bowman Nov 2014

Heroes Of Berlin Wall Struggle, William D. Bowman

History Faculty Publications

When the Berlin Wall fell 25 years ago, on Nov. 9, 1989, symbolically signaling the end of the Cold War, it was no surprise that many credited President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev for bringing it down.

But the true heroes behind the fall of the Berlin Wall are those Eastern Europeans whose protests and political pressure started chipping away at the wall years before. East German citizens from a variety of political backgrounds and occupations risked their freedom in protests against communist policies and one-party rule in what they called the "peaceful revolution." [excerpt]


An Inquiry Into The Harshness Of German Colonialism In Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, Jessica Rohr May 2014

An Inquiry Into The Harshness Of German Colonialism In Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, Jessica Rohr

Theses, Dissertations & Honors Papers

This thesis investigates German colonialism in the 19th and 20th centuries. It discusses the pressure and competition Germany experienced as neighboring countries also aggressively expanded and as Europe underwent massive and rapid industrial growth. It also analyzes the harshness Germany employed in colonizing foreign lands and the reasons for such measures, such as perceived racial and social superiority and economic need.


“Wir Streiken!”: Music And Political Activism In Cold War Germany, John Tyler Patty May 2014

“Wir Streiken!”: Music And Political Activism In Cold War Germany, John Tyler Patty

Masters Theses

Using print media such as band biographies, books, and journals that address youth, popular culture, and music in the German context, this thesis analyzes how music and musicians influenced political protest movements in West Germany during the Cold War and how, in turn, protest movements fostered the career of musicians. The relationship between music and social change in Germany throughout the Cold War is complicated and contains many aspects. This thesis focuses mainly on the effect American and British music had on divided Germany and examines how these influences helped shape the cultural climate in which political protests emerged. It ...


Rhetoric, Rights, And Pragmatism In The Germanies: Enlightenment Reform In Eighteenth-Century Prussia And Bavaria, Benjamin T. Harris Jan 2014

Rhetoric, Rights, And Pragmatism In The Germanies: Enlightenment Reform In Eighteenth-Century Prussia And Bavaria, Benjamin T. Harris

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

This project highlights the nature of Enlightenment reform in 18th-century Germany, particularly in the Kingdom of Prussia and the Electorate of Bavaria under Frederick II and Maximilian III Joseph. Both of these rulers launch similar reforms under the guise of enlightened absolutism and enlightenment rhetoric with very different results, each catering to the specific needs of their respective principalities. Reform is offered along the lines of compulsory education, codification, humanitarian legal reform, and religious toleration, all in the spirit of the Enlightenment. However, when the extent and details of these reforms are examined, it can be demonstrated that ...


Drugi Potop: The Fall Of The Second Polish Republic, Wesley Kent Jan 2013

Drugi Potop: The Fall Of The Second Polish Republic, Wesley Kent

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis seeks to examine the factors that resulted in the fall of the Second Polish Republic and track its downward trajectory. Examining the Second Republic, from its creation in 1918 to its loss of recognition in 1945, reveals that its demise began long before German tanks violated Poland’s frontiers on 1 September, 1939. Commencing with the competing ideas of what a Polish state would be and continuing through the political and foreign policy developments of the inter-war years, a pattern begins to emerge -that of the Poles’ search for their place in modern Europe. The lead up to ...


Why Did The Trains Stop? The Two Year Cessation Of Jewish Deportations From Slovakia, Anitra Van Prooyen May 2012

Why Did The Trains Stop? The Two Year Cessation Of Jewish Deportations From Slovakia, Anitra Van Prooyen

Papers & Publications: Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Research

In 1942, the bloodiest year of the Holocaust, Nazi Germany sent almost three million people to the death camps of the East in its effort to exterminate all the Jews of Europe. Yet amidst this carnage—when deportations from other countries were accelerating—Slovakia resisted German pressure and halted all Jewish deportations for two years. What accounts for this anomaly, one of the Holocaust's greatest mysteries? Historians have yet to provide a satisfactory answer. Most have focused on the work of individual organizations and groups working in isolation. But my research indicates that none of these groups relying on ...


The Long March Of The German 68ers: Their Protest, Their Exhibition, And Their Administration., Gracie M. Morton Dec 2007

The Long March Of The German 68ers: Their Protest, Their Exhibition, And Their Administration., Gracie M. Morton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The postwar children coming of age in the late 1960s in West Germany mounted a widesweeping socio-political protest against what they saw as the strangling silence of their parents, the Nazi generation. These protesters, referred to as the 68ers for their pivotal year, continued their struggle in following decades, incorporating an important and controversial exhibition, and finally culminating in their own administration thirty years from their defining moment. Using such diverse kinds of information as parliamentary debates, interviews, and contemporary criticism, this thesis explores the impact of the 68ers' initial protest and the influence they ultimately had on their nation ...


Totalitarian Science And Technology, Paul R. Josephson Jan 2005

Totalitarian Science And Technology, Paul R. Josephson

Faculty Books

In Totalitarian Science and Technology Paul Josephson considers how physicists, biologists, and engineers have fared in totalitarian regimes. Adolph Hitler and Joseph Stalin relied on scientists and engineers to build the infrastructure of their states. The military power of their regimes was largely based on the discovery of physicists and biologists. They sought to use biology to transform nature, including their citizens, with murderous effect in Nazi Germany. They expected scientists to devote themselves entirely to the goals of the state, and were intolerant of deviation from state-sponsored programs and ideology. As a result, physicists, biologists, and engineers suffered from ...


German Reparations To The Herero Nation: An Assertion Of Herero Nationhood In The Path Of Namibian Development, Sidney L. Harring Jan 2002

German Reparations To The Herero Nation: An Assertion Of Herero Nationhood In The Path Of Namibian Development, Sidney L. Harring

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


Review Of The Healing Wound: Experiences And Reflections, Germany, 1938-2000, Michael F. Russo Oct 2001

Review Of The Healing Wound: Experiences And Reflections, Germany, 1938-2000, Michael F. Russo

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


(Review) Wolfgang Burgdorf, Reichskonstitution Und Nation, Marc R. Forster Jun 2000

(Review) Wolfgang Burgdorf, Reichskonstitution Und Nation, Marc R. Forster

History Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


(Review) Communities And Conflict In Early Modern Colmar, 1575-1730, Marc R. Forster Jul 1996

(Review) Communities And Conflict In Early Modern Colmar, 1575-1730, Marc R. Forster

History Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Elite And Popular Foundations Of German Catholicism In The Age Of Confessionalism: The Reichskirche., Marc R. Forster Sep 1993

The Elite And Popular Foundations Of German Catholicism In The Age Of Confessionalism: The Reichskirche., Marc R. Forster

History Faculty Publications

The political, institutional, and religious particularism of the German church reinforced the loyalty of the population, to local religious traditions. This gave German Catholicism a local emphasis and hindered the imposition of reformed Catholicism, which sought to homogenize, centralize, and internationalize the church. While early modern German Catholicism was certainly conservative, it was not rigidly traditional. Religious change occurred in these centuries and it came out of the interaction between the local population, local institutions like the chapters and monasteries, the parish clergy, and reforming churchmen.[70] The role of chapters and monasteries was not insignificant in this process.
Canons ...


American Diplomats And The Franco-Prussian War: Perceptions From Paris And Berlin, M. Patricia Dougherty Jan 1980

American Diplomats And The Franco-Prussian War: Perceptions From Paris And Berlin, M. Patricia Dougherty

Faculty Authored Books and Book Contributions

In July 1870, war between Prussia and France erupted over the candida ture of a German prince to the Spanish throne, with far-reaching con sequences for the balance of power in Europe. Six weeks later, the German army decisively defeated the French at Sedan and captured the French emperor. Napoleon III. Although this victory precipitated the collapse of the Second French Empire, it did not end the war. Only after a four-month siege of Paris did the French surrender to the Germans on January 28, 1871. Between this date and the signing of the peace treaty at Frankfurt on May ...


Report On The Cultural Situation Of Brittany, Olier Mordrel Mar 1941

Report On The Cultural Situation Of Brittany, Olier Mordrel

Breton Nationalism

Breton nationalist Olier Mordrel, visiting Nazi Germany, describes the history of Brittany, French influence and power, and the Breton nationalism movement. He emphasizes connections between Brittany and Germany and outlines a plan for a successful nationalist movement.


Ua37/23 Whas Broadcast No. 21, Whas, Western Kentucky University, Earl Moore Feb 1936

Ua37/23 Whas Broadcast No. 21, Whas, Western Kentucky University, Earl Moore

WKU Archives Records

Script for weekly WKU broadcast on WHAS radio. This show included Earl Moore, Franz Strahm, Frances Richards, Paul Huddleston and June Purdom.


Letter From Francis Mairs Huntington-Wilson To Johann Heinrich Von Bernstorff, May 15, 1909, Francis Mairs Huntington-Wilson May 1909

Letter From Francis Mairs Huntington-Wilson To Johann Heinrich Von Bernstorff, May 15, 1909, Francis Mairs Huntington-Wilson

Other Correspondence

The document is a carbon copy of a typed letter from the Assistant Secretary of State to Count Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff informing the Count that Philander Knox is out of town.