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Articles 1 - 30 of 135

Full-Text Articles in European History

The Failure Of Soft Law To Provide An Equitable Framework For Restitution Of Nazi-Looted Art, Michael J. Birnkrant Jan 2019

The Failure Of Soft Law To Provide An Equitable Framework For Restitution Of Nazi-Looted Art, Michael J. Birnkrant

Washington University Global Studies Law Review

It is estimated that over 20% of the art in Europe was looted by the Nazi regime during World War II. Many pieces were taken by force from Jewish art dealers, and much of the property taken during this period of Nazi spoliation was never returned. Heirs of looted art are still filing claims for restitution in various courts, but the current global patchwork of statutes of limitations and the availability of the “good faith purchaser defense” in many jurisdictions can render proceedings confusing and unjust.

This note explores the current state of the law regarding repatriation of Nazi-looted art ...


Judicializing History: Mass Crimes Trials And The Historian As Expert Witness In West Germany, Cambodia, And Bangladesh, Rebecca Gidley, Mathew Turner Dec 2018

Judicializing History: Mass Crimes Trials And The Historian As Expert Witness In West Germany, Cambodia, And Bangladesh, Rebecca Gidley, Mathew Turner

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Henry Rousso warned that the engagement of historians as expert witnesses in trials, particularly highly politicized proceedings of mass crimes, risks a judicialization of history. This article tests Rousso’s argument through analysis of three quite different case studies: the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial; the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia; and the International Crimes Tribunal in Bangladesh. It argues that Rousso’s objections misrepresent the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial, while failing to account for the engagement of historical expertise in mass atrocity trials beyond Europe. Paradoxically, Rousso’s criticisms are less suited to the European context that represents his purview ...


Moses Mendelssohn's Approach To Jewish Integration In Light Of His Reconciliation Of Traditional Judaism And Enlightenment Rationalism, Robert J. Clark Aug 2018

Moses Mendelssohn's Approach To Jewish Integration In Light Of His Reconciliation Of Traditional Judaism And Enlightenment Rationalism, Robert J. Clark

Robert Clark, Ph.D.

Prior to the eighteenth century, European Jews lived in separate communal structures at the discretion of their host countries.1 A very few found places of influence and wealth as "court Jews" and lived as aristocrats, but their acceptance in society was limited, subject to official approval, and came at a price.2 There had always been opportunities for Jews to integrate into European society, albeit not without complication, via assimilation and conversion.3 But the ability to enter the social order as Jews and find a place to belong without rejecting their heritage and religion proved elusive. The emergence ...


Jewish Germany: An Enduring Presence From The Fourth To The Twenty-First Century, John A. Drobnicki Aug 2018

Jewish Germany: An Enduring Presence From The Fourth To The Twenty-First Century, John A. Drobnicki

Publications and Research

Review of the book Jewish Germany: An enduring presence from the fourth to the twenty-first century.


Soap From Human Fat: The Case Of Professor Spanner, John A. Drobnicki Jul 2018

Soap From Human Fat: The Case Of Professor Spanner, John A. Drobnicki

Publications and Research

Review of the book Soap from Human Fat: The Case of Professor Spanner, by Monika Tomkiewicz and Piotr Semków (Gdynia: Wydawnictwo Róza Wiatrów, 2013).


Der Hungerwinter: Family, Famine, The Black Market, And Denazification In Allied-Occupied Germany (1945 - 1949), Tyler Stanley May 2018

Der Hungerwinter: Family, Famine, The Black Market, And Denazification In Allied-Occupied Germany (1945 - 1949), Tyler Stanley

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This paper analyzes numerous letters written among several members of a German family living under the Allied occupation. The Lingenhoel family were one of a great many Germans enduring hunger, famine, and denazification in the immediate postwar period. Using the Lingenhoel family as the lens of analysis, this paper ultimately assesses the Allies' efforts to alleviate the widespread hunger and the Germans' responsibility of collaborating with the former Nazi government.


The Imperial Legacy: An Examination Of The Trends Of Empire And Genocide From German Southwest Africa To The General Government, Laura Guebert Apr 2018

The Imperial Legacy: An Examination Of The Trends Of Empire And Genocide From German Southwest Africa To The General Government, Laura Guebert

Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal

This project is an examination of correlations between imperial enterprises of the Second German Empire and the Nazi Reich through the lenses of global and imperial critiques. The three primary case studies are German Southwest Africa, the Ober Ost, and Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe, particularly the General Government. This research draws heavily on certain themes and theories developed by leading historians of modern German and Eastern European history, including Timothy Snyder, Ben Kiernan, Shelley Baranowski, Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius, and Christopher Browning. By understanding the shared trends of empire and genocide, it is my aim to bring the actions of the National ...


German And American Transnational Spaces In Women's And Gender History, Shelley Rose Mar 2018

German And American Transnational Spaces In Women's And Gender History, Shelley Rose

History Faculty Publications

Books Reviewed:

Michaela Bank. Women of Two Countries: German-American Women, Women’s Rights, and Nativism, 1848–1890. New York: Berghahn Books, 2012. vi.+ 192 pp. ISBN 978-0-85745-512-3 (cl).

Karen Hagemann and Sonya Michel, eds. Gender and the Long Postwar: The United States and the Two Germanys, 1945–1989. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014. vii. +397 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-1413-3 (pb).

Lynne Tatlock. German Writing, American Reading: Women and the Import of Fiction, 1866, 1917. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 2012. ix.+ 347 pp.; ill. ISBN 978-0-8142-1194-6 (cl).


“Kinder, Küche, Und Kirche”: Women’S Work In The Third Reich, Margarete Crelling Mar 2018

“Kinder, Küche, Und Kirche”: Women’S Work In The Third Reich, Margarete Crelling

History Undergraduate Theses

Under dictator Adolph Hitler, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state. When World War II was declared on September 1, 1939, it was clear that the world would never be the same. The Nazi Party controlled nearly every aspect of German society with an iron fist, including religion, education, culture, and the role of women and family. Today, conversations and research about the Nazi regime during World War II often focus on the horrors of the Holocaust and its male perpetrators—Adolf Hitler, his officers, and troops. The important role women played in Germany during World War II is often ...


Ms-220: Homer W. Schweppe Papers, Abigail E. Metheny Mar 2018

Ms-220: Homer W. Schweppe Papers, Abigail E. Metheny

All Finding Aids

This collection is made up of a vast variety of materials pertaining to Homer William Schweppe’s experiences during World War II. Schweppe compiled various items during his initial military service in the United States, such as his Seattle Port Officer I.D. badge and his uniform patches. There are also items from his time at Camp Ritchie, including his glossary of “Nazi Deutsch” terms and a book on the Order of Battle of the German Army, to which he contributed. Schweppe also included items he collected while overseas, such as a German Map of the D-Day Invasion area, a ...


Jews: The Makers Of Early Modern Berlin, Conlan Vance Feb 2018

Jews: The Makers Of Early Modern Berlin, Conlan Vance

2018 Symposium

This paper will discuss how Jews fit into the economic policies of Brandenburg-Prussia in the later 16th century. From Frederick William’s decree in 1671 to allow fifty Jewish families to settle in Brandenburg-Prussia to these families and their descendants becoming immersed in the economy of Berlin through their use in courts but more so through their trading, specifically, the ways in which they traded and how they used these to free themselves from some of the constraints of German Christian society. Thusly, this will be shown by looking at Jews in Brandenburg-Prussia in the later 17th century, Jews ...


“Ewig ‘Schön’”: Politics And Poetics In The Work And Correspondence Of Sarah Kirsch And Helga Novak, Sophia J. Logan Jan 2018

“Ewig ‘Schön’”: Politics And Poetics In The Work And Correspondence Of Sarah Kirsch And Helga Novak, Sophia J. Logan

Senior Projects Fall 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Languages and Literature of Bard College.


Schießbefehl And The Issues Of Retroactivity Within The East German Border Guard Trials, Keegan Mcmurry Jan 2018

Schießbefehl And The Issues Of Retroactivity Within The East German Border Guard Trials, Keegan Mcmurry

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

From 1961 to 1989, 327 people attempting to cross the border from East Germany to West Germany were killed while making the crossing. With the opening of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and German reunification a year later, German courts began to address whether the border guards, their officers, or political leadership of the former East Germany should be tried for these deaths. If East Germany no longer existed, could West German laws be applied to these cases? This project examines this issue by examining trials that were conducted in the 1990s and the legal sources that examine this ...


Against The Stream, How Karl Barth Reframed Church-State Relations (Chapter 3 Of Keine Gewalt! No Violence!), Roger J. Newell Oct 2017

Against The Stream, How Karl Barth Reframed Church-State Relations (Chapter 3 Of Keine Gewalt! No Violence!), Roger J. Newell

Faculty Publications - College of Christian Studies

Excerpt: "Defenders of the Barmen Declaration's apolitical tone remind us that it was never intended to establish a program of political protest, that Karl Barth and the others were pastors not politicians; that the goal was to reassert the integrity of the gospel in the face of the attempted subversion by the German Christians. On the one hand, the soundness of this interpretation is self-evident. And yet it should surprise no one that an apolitical strategy would have little political impact on the German state. It is also true that Barth's views on church and state relations changed ...


Imagining A Greater Germany: Republican Nationalism And The Idea Of Anschluss., Matthew P. Berg Oct 2017

Imagining A Greater Germany: Republican Nationalism And The Idea Of Anschluss., Matthew P. Berg

2017 Faculty Bibliography

No abstract provided.


Freed From Fascism: Berlin's Gallery Culture In The Aftermath Of World War Ii, Brooke Fessler May 2017

Freed From Fascism: Berlin's Gallery Culture In The Aftermath Of World War Ii, Brooke Fessler

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

In post-World War II Germany, the city of Berlin was left in ruin after six years of war. A nation ripped apart both physically and at its governmental core was finally freed from Nazi fascism in 1945, and the German people were finally able to reconstruct their culture. Born out of years of strict regulation of the German art world, a new type of art was put on display. Focusing specifically on gallery culture in Berlin in the post-war years, one can see how twelve years of classically influenced Nazi art gave way to a push towards the avant-garde. The ...


Privileged Killers, Privileged Deaths: German Culture And Aviation In The First World War: 1909-1925, Robert William Rennie May 2017

Privileged Killers, Privileged Deaths: German Culture And Aviation In The First World War: 1909-1925, Robert William Rennie

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation examines aviation’s influence on German cultural and social history between 1908 and 1925. Before the First World War, aviation embodied one of many new features of a rapidly modernizing Germany. In response, Germans viewed flight as either a potentially transformative tool or a possible weapon of war. The outbreak of war in 1914 moved aviation away from its promised potential to its lived reality. In doing so, the airplane became a machine which compressed time and space, reordered the spatial arrangement of the battlefield, and transformed the human relationship with killing. Germany’s fliers initially served as ...


The Nuremberg Trials As A Form Of Transitional Justice, Nicholas A. Richey May 2017

The Nuremberg Trials As A Form Of Transitional Justice, Nicholas A. Richey

History

No abstract provided.


The Byline Of Europe: An Examination Of Foreign Correspondents' Reporting From 1930 To 1941, Kerry J. Garvey Mar 2017

The Byline Of Europe: An Examination Of Foreign Correspondents' Reporting From 1930 To 1941, Kerry J. Garvey

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis focuses on two of the largest foreign correspondents’ networks the one of the Chicago Tribune and New York Times- in prewar Europe and especially in Germany, thus providing a wider perspective on the foreign correspondents’ role in news reporting and, more importantly, how their reporting appeared in the published newspaper. It provides a new, broader perspective on how foreign news reporting portrayed European events to the American public. It describes the correspondents’ role in publishing articles over three time periods- 1930 to 1933, 1933-1939, and 1939 to 1941. Reporting and consequently the published paper depended on the correspondents ...


Juristische Und Epische Verfremdung. Fritz Bauers Kritik Am Frankfurter Auschwitz-Prozess (1963–1965) Und Peter Weiss’ Dramatische Prozessbearbeitung Die Ermittlung. Oratorium In 11 Gesängen (1965), Kerstin Steitz Jan 2017

Juristische Und Epische Verfremdung. Fritz Bauers Kritik Am Frankfurter Auschwitz-Prozess (1963–1965) Und Peter Weiss’ Dramatische Prozessbearbeitung Die Ermittlung. Oratorium In 11 Gesängen (1965), Kerstin Steitz

World Languages and Cultures Faculty Publications

Beginning with the influences of Schiller's humanist ideals on Hessian Attorney General Fritz Bauer's expectations of the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial as legal working through of the past, this article compares the Holocaust narrative created by the West German criminal trial to Peter Weiss's reworking of the transcripts Die Ermittlung. Oratorium in 11 Gesangen. The article aims to show that literature is able to convey and commemorate aspects of the Holocaust that German criminal law misrepresents and omits.


Memorializing Absence: The Ambiguous Place Of Holocaust Legacy In The Memorials, Countermemorials, And Museums Of Berlin, Avery Matthew Mencher Jan 2017

Memorializing Absence: The Ambiguous Place Of Holocaust Legacy In The Memorials, Countermemorials, And Museums Of Berlin, Avery Matthew Mencher

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


Hard Times; Hard Duties; Hard Hearts; The Volksgemeinschaft As An Indicator Of Identity Shift, Kaitlin Hampshire Jan 2017

Hard Times; Hard Duties; Hard Hearts; The Volksgemeinschaft As An Indicator Of Identity Shift, Kaitlin Hampshire

Masters Theses

How can one nation define an ideal community? The Reich’s Propaganda Ministry of Nazi Germany knew. No cultivation of community, or Volksgemeinschaft in the case of Nazi Germany, is complete without the use of propaganda. Nazi propaganda posters played several different roles in the formation of the community, such as maintaining the military, as well as labor forces not in the military, perpetuating anti-Soviet and anti-Jew feelings, creating the Führer myth, and gaining the support of Germany’s youth. All of the messages displayed in the posters identified the values of the members of the ‘National Community’ or Volksgemeinschaft ...


Review Of The Book Harmful And Undesirable: Book Censorship In Nazi Germany, John A. Drobnicki Jan 2017

Review Of The Book Harmful And Undesirable: Book Censorship In Nazi Germany, John A. Drobnicki

Publications and Research

Review of the book Harmful and undesirable: Book censorship in Nazi Germany.


The 1936 Nazi Olympic Games; The First Truly Modern Olympiad, Quinn Glosniak Jan 2017

The 1936 Nazi Olympic Games; The First Truly Modern Olympiad, Quinn Glosniak

CMC Senior Theses

Revived in 1896 by the Frenchman Pierre de Coubertin, the Olympic Games have come to represent the ultimate international celebration of sport, culture, and the human spirit. The grandiose festival of the current day evolved into its mature form throughout the course of the twentieth century. However, no Olympiad altered the Olympic Movement as radically as the Berlin Olympics of 1936. Through the examination of key secondary sources and primary sources like, International Olympic Committee (IOC) records, personal testimonies, and newspaper articles, this thesis examines how and why the 1936 Nazi Olympics fundamentally altered the Olympic Movement and forced the ...


Warlord: The Political And Military Ambitions Of Nazi Germany, William R. Underhill Dec 2016

Warlord: The Political And Military Ambitions Of Nazi Germany, William R. Underhill

Senior Theses

There are so many important stories to consider when thinking about World War II. It is easy to think about the popular aspects of the war: the causes, the major figures, the battles, and, of course, the lasting consequences. Yet there are other, lesser known storylines to consider, ones that have taken a backseat to the more popular narratives of the time. It is commonly understood that Nazi Germany was evil and that they had nothing but ill intentions for the rest of Europe and the world. However, it is vital to understand that Germany’s pre-war intentions are notably ...


Nazi Looted Art: View Of A Dutch Square Through Time, Rosita Saul, Bryleigh Sue Blaise Dec 2016

Nazi Looted Art: View Of A Dutch Square Through Time, Rosita Saul, Bryleigh Sue Blaise

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

After World War II, many Jewish families and their possessions were displaced or seized by German forces, only to resurface after the war. The case of the Kraus family and their painting, View of a Dutch Square, confiscated by the Nazis in 1941, raises particular questions about restitution laws. Our project traces the origin of the painting and displays how the restitution process fell apart when the Bavarian government, charged with the responsibility of returning stolen art to its rightful owners, failed to follow through on their commitment: even returning missing art pieces to the very Nazis who stole them ...


"The Path To Ruin: Inflexibility, Delusion, And Discord Between The Kaiser, Chancellor, And German High Command In The Great War", Nicholas Vecchio Dec 2016

"The Path To Ruin: Inflexibility, Delusion, And Discord Between The Kaiser, Chancellor, And German High Command In The Great War", Nicholas Vecchio

#History: A Journal of Student Research

This paper focuses on the political and military decisions of the German High Command during the First World War. After first examining the unresolved historiographic discourse over Germany’s fifth Imperial Chancellor, Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, it explores the backgrounds of Kaiser Wilhelm II, Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg, General Erich von Falkenhayn, and General Erich Ludendorff, and studies the argument within the High Command over whether Germany should focus her war efforts on the western or eastern fronts. Two central theses are argued: (1) Germany had numerous opportunities to end the war diplomatically with favorable terms once it was clear they would ...


A Collection Of Inventions : Radio, Reeducation, And The Postwar German Public Sphere., James Rooney Aug 2016

A Collection Of Inventions : Radio, Reeducation, And The Postwar German Public Sphere., James Rooney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Following the Germans’ unconditional surrender in May 1945, the Allied Powers introduced a formal occupation and reeducation process, directing Germany toward democratic self-governance. This study will consider the role of radio broadcasting in the occupation project. While many works have been completed on the political revival of postwar Germany, little scholarship has been conducted with emphasis on the impact of German broadcasting’s role on reshaping German culture. Examining radio programing from Hamburg’s Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk from 1945 to 1956, this thesis explores the creation of a democratically-informed German public sphere in the decade following the Second World War. The ...


The Penumbra Of Weimar Political Culture: Pacifism, Feminism, And Social Democracy, Shelley Rose Jul 2016

The Penumbra Of Weimar Political Culture: Pacifism, Feminism, And Social Democracy, Shelley Rose

Shelley Rose

This article offers a new reading of Germany’s complex political culture, exploring the contributions of pacifists, international feminists, and Social Democrats as proactive, yet marginalized, participants in Weimar-era politics. Through a series of historical events including the No-More-War protests, international education courses, pacifist reading sessions, and a transnational peace exhibit, the author demonstrates dynamic exchanges between party and informal politics on the political Left. This interaction, as well as expanding transnational networks and awareness, opened new political spaces for peace activism in the Weimar Republic, the effects of which still endure today.


The Penumbra Of Weimar Political Culture: Pacifism, Feminism, And Social Democracy, Shelley Rose Jul 2016

The Penumbra Of Weimar Political Culture: Pacifism, Feminism, And Social Democracy, Shelley Rose

Shelley Rose

This article offers a new reading of Germany’s complex political culture, exploring the contributions of pacifists, international feminists, and Social Democrats as proactive, yet marginalized, participants in Weimar-era politics. Through a series of historical events including the No-More-War protests, international education courses, pacifist reading sessions, and a transnational peace exhibit, the author demonstrates dynamic exchanges between party and informal politics on the political Left. This interaction, as well as expanding transnational networks and awareness, opened new political spaces for peace activism in the Weimar Republic, the effects of which still endure today.