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2019

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Articles 1 - 30 of 131

Full-Text Articles in European History

The Nineteenth Century British Workhouse: Mission Not Accomplished, Brenda Derin Dec 2019

The Nineteenth Century British Workhouse: Mission Not Accomplished, Brenda Derin

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

How to correct poverty in a society is extremely complex. In the nineteenth century, the British struggled to house, feed and care for the unemployed and destitute men, women and children created by the Industrial Revolution. Many in the upper classes considered poverty a moral failure, yet they had little impetus to end it. Poverty, as defined by an inability to provide for one’s needs due to a variety of factors, was seen as necessary, for without it there would be no motivation for the lower classes to work and provide a luxurious life for the wealthy.

Although some ...


Book Review: Unlikely Heroes: The Place Of Holocaust Rescuers In Research And Teaching, Stephanie Fagin-Jones Jun 2019

Book Review: Unlikely Heroes: The Place Of Holocaust Rescuers In Research And Teaching, Stephanie Fagin-Jones

Heroism Science

Representing the first in a new series, Contemporary Holocaust Studies, from the University of Nebraska Press, this valuable book is the result of a collection of papers presented at the Sommerhauser Symposium on Holocaust Education in April 2017 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. This biennial symposia, generously supported by third-generation survivor siblings Peter Sommerhauser and Eileen Sommerhauser-Putter, along with The University of Nebraska, focuses on the integration of research and teaching of Holocaust scholarship. The editors thus seek to address an urgent need to bring past and present academic knowledge on the subject of Holocaust rescue into the classroom in ...


Crisis In The European Union: The Politics Of Integration, Engagement, And Dissent, 2008-2016, Edward I.C. Reminiskey Jun 2019

Crisis In The European Union: The Politics Of Integration, Engagement, And Dissent, 2008-2016, Edward I.C. Reminiskey

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This thesis is a comprehensive interpretation of European political history in the periodization from 2008 to 2016. The history begins with an exploration of the intellectual and political origins of the post-World War II project of European integration and the development of, and opposition to, the early institutions that eventually formed the contemporary assemblage of the European Union. Following a traditionally structured history, this work is styled as a ‘history of the present’ that specifies the role of the European Union in precipitating and attempting to overcome the financial and monetary crises, foreign policy quandaries on its Eastern periphery, an ...


Envisioning New Switzerland: A Founding Document For The Swiss Colonists At Vevay, Indiana, Ellen Stepleton Jun 2019

Envisioning New Switzerland: A Founding Document For The Swiss Colonists At Vevay, Indiana, Ellen Stepleton

Zea E-Books

During one of the most tumultuous decades in the history of Switzerland, a small group of Vaudois republicans chose to secure their children’s familial, cultural and spiritual patrimony by relocating to the New World. In April 1800, at Le Chenit in the Vallée de Joux, five families framed a compact intended to organize a communal settlement in the Northwest Territory. Recently discovered, their pact is presented here in its original French and in English translation, along with an accompanying letter; additionally, another letter and an English translation of the compact as prepared by Jean Jaques Dufour in 1801 is ...


Charles De Gaulle: A Life Of Consequence, Jack Van Der Slik Jun 2019

Charles De Gaulle: A Life Of Consequence, Jack Van Der Slik

Pro Rege

No abstract provided.


Cuckoldry And The “Gone For A Soldier” Narrative: Infidelity And Performance Among Eighteenth-Century English Plebeians, Elias Hubbard May 2019

Cuckoldry And The “Gone For A Soldier” Narrative: Infidelity And Performance Among Eighteenth-Century English Plebeians, Elias Hubbard

Lawrence University Honors Projects

This project addresses existing historical arguments about the role of performance in eighteenth-century English plebeian infidelity cases, identifying some of the cultural scripts available to married men and women from popular texts in order to better understand cases of infidelity in contemporary plebeian marriages. The thesis seeks to clarify the effect of infidelity on a plebeian individual’s social standing and relationships, and to draw conclusions about the nature of plebeian infidelity, marriage, and gender in England through the long eighteenth century.

While examining contemporary public texts of cuckoldry, I address how homosocial behavior appears in narratives of cuckoldry, how ...


The Iconography Of The Honey Bee In Western Art, Maura Wilson May 2019

The Iconography Of The Honey Bee In Western Art, Maura Wilson

Master of Arts in Humanities

This master’s thesis studies the ways in which the honey bee is used as a symbol in Western art, specifically between the 1st century AD and the 17th century. Artists have had a close relationship with honey bees since they first drew scenes of life on cave walls; since then, honey bees have been a recurring image featured in artworks spanning centuries, cultures, and religions. During the Renaissance in Europe, the honey bee was adapted from a symbol associated with fertility and polytheistic cult rituals to become a symbol of eloquence in Christianity. The community-based, diligent nature ...


"No Room For Denial"?: Historical Memory And The 1995 Genocide At Srebrenica, Julia Masur May 2019

"No Room For Denial"?: Historical Memory And The 1995 Genocide At Srebrenica, Julia Masur

History Theses

The title of this research project comes from a documentary by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) called “Srebrenica Genocide: No Room for Denial”, that commemorated the 20th anniversary of the genocide of Bosniak Muslims.The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) has called the 1995 massacre in Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, “the single worst atrocity committed in the former Yugoslavia during the wars of the 1990s and the worst massacre that occurred in Europe since the months after World War II.”[1] Based on evidence from exhumations of mass graves, demographics studies, interception ...


Between Two Worlds: Memory And The French-Algerian (Pied-Noir) Experience, Darian Martinez May 2019

Between Two Worlds: Memory And The French-Algerian (Pied-Noir) Experience, Darian Martinez

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

This paper expands our understanding of colonialism by analyzing the experiences of two French colonists in Algeria and how they were affected by colonialism, Algerian culture, and Independence in 1962. France occupied Algeria for 132 years, so that by Independence, there were more than one million people of French descent in the country. After Algeria claimed its independence, these French citizens, who called themselves “Pieds-Noirs” (black feet), were forced to repatriate to France, a country many had never seen.

This research compared and analyzed two autobiographies, Ma mère l’Algérie by Jean Pélégri and Hier est proche d’aujourd’hui ...


Noble Savage, Noble Scotsman: The Act Of Union As A Dubious Model For British Colonialism, Kelton Holsen May 2019

Noble Savage, Noble Scotsman: The Act Of Union As A Dubious Model For British Colonialism, Kelton Holsen

Augsburg Honors Review

It has become almost a cliché that during the period of intense colonialism by the great powers of Europe 'the sun never set on the British empire'. The reason that this cliché persists is that the idea behind it is true: according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, "[b]y the end of the 19th century, the British Empire comprised nearly one-quarter of the world’s land surface and more than one-quarter of its total population" (Britannica). This vast conquest was not done on a whim: it had deep roots in ideas of cultural and economic superiority and, more to the point ...


In Pursuit Of Healing And Memories: Cross-Border Ukrainian Pilgrimage To A Polish Shrine, Iuliia Buyskykh May 2019

In Pursuit Of Healing And Memories: Cross-Border Ukrainian Pilgrimage To A Polish Shrine, Iuliia Buyskykh

Journal of Global Catholicism

I present an analysis of Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic and Orthodox pilgrimages to Kalwaria Pacławska in south-east Poland near the Polish-Ukrainian border. Before World War II, there were two pilgrimage sites in Kalwaria Pacławska, one Roman Catholic and the other Greek Catholic. Today, Ukrainian pilgrimage is quite a diverse phenomenon, consisting of people of both Ukrainian and Polish origin, and the three Christian denominations. The approach to pilgrimage as a palimpsest can broaden the research perspective of mobile religiosities and reconsider the interactions between religious motivations, sacred sites, memories, experiences, and storytelling through space and time. In my research case ...


"This Is A Glimpse Of Paradise": Encountering Lourdes Through Serial And Multisited Pilgrimage, Michael Agnew May 2019

"This Is A Glimpse Of Paradise": Encountering Lourdes Through Serial And Multisited Pilgrimage, Michael Agnew

Journal of Global Catholicism

Based on fieldwork conducted with pilgrims traveling from England to the Marian apparition shrine of Lourdes, this article will focus on the experience of serial pilgrims, those who have made the journey to Lourdes repeatedly for several years. Serial pilgrimages to Lourdes are often a family affair, spanning multiple generations, and become compulsive for those who undertake them. Yet the stories of several Lourdes pilgrims reveal that they do not feel this compulsive need to go to Lourdes alone. Many frequently navigate the European circuit of Marian pilgrimage shrines, including Walsingham in England, Knock in Ireland, Fatima in Portugal, and ...


Ptolemaic Elephants In Iii Maccabees And The Social Stratification Of The Kingdom Of Kush, Leslie Dean Sam Jr. May 2019

Ptolemaic Elephants In Iii Maccabees And The Social Stratification Of The Kingdom Of Kush, Leslie Dean Sam Jr.

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation

Trade helped to catapult early societies from hunter gatherers – living in small communities of friends and family – to living in sprawling urban environments of ideas and exchange. Socialization and the exchange of ideas – and war—molded our modern times into what it is now. Ancient Nubia found itself in a conundrum that would test their resolve. Ptolemaic-ran Egypt was at their border, forcing themselves in as conquerors, unapologetic towards the millennia old culture that contributed much to their society. With a truce made between the Greeks and Meroe, trade was inevitably was enacted between the two power houses, helping to ...


Ptolemaic Elephants In Iii Maccabees And The Social Stratification Of The Kingdom Of Kush, Leslie Sam May 2019

Ptolemaic Elephants In Iii Maccabees And The Social Stratification Of The Kingdom Of Kush, Leslie Sam

Leslie Sam

Trade helped to catapult early societies from hunter gatherers – living in small communities of friends and family – to living in sprawling urban environments of ideas and exchange. Socialization and the exchange of ideas – and war—molded our modern times into what it is now. Ancient Nubia found itself in a conundrum that would test their resolve. Ptolemaic-ran Egypt was at their border, forcing themselves in as conquerors, unapologetic towards the millennia old culture that contributed much to their society. With a truce made between the Greeks and Meroe, trade was inevitably was enacted between the two power houses, helping to ...


The Curious History Of Jeppsons Malört: From The Repeal Of Prohibition To Cult-Status In Chicago, Illinois, Andrew Pothier May 2019

The Curious History Of Jeppsons Malört: From The Repeal Of Prohibition To Cult-Status In Chicago, Illinois, Andrew Pothier

The Exposition

This research project explores the curious ascension of Jeppson Malört, a brand of bäsk brännvin - Swedish style wormwood liquor - produced by the Carl Jeppson Company of Chicago, Illinois. This research considers Jeppsons From its earliest production and marketing, by Carl Jeppson, a Swedish immigrant to the United States during Prohibition as a legal medicinal beverage during prohibition, and later to its present-day cult-beverage status in Chicago. It is, however, Malörts relative regional-centric acclaim that raises the essential question of this research. First, how is it that Malört became a cultural staple - a Chicagoans right-of-passage beverage, so to speak - yet remain ...


The United States Print Media And Its War On Psychedelic Research In The 1960s, Jessica M. Bracco May 2019

The United States Print Media And Its War On Psychedelic Research In The 1960s, Jessica M. Bracco

The Exposition

The social climate of the 1960s denied the possible usefulness of psychedelics as drugs that could be considered therapeutic. The government attacked the research of psychedelics by demanding a stricter proof of efficacy, with the 1962 Kefauver Harris Amendments to FDA regulations, in order to conduct research on these drugs. Also, the government moved to classify these drugs as "Dangerous Drugs" making it a felony to manufacture, sell, possess, or consume these class of drugs. Furthermore, propaganda was spread to the American people, via the print media, claiming the proclivity of the drug for recreational use and the dangers this ...


Analysis Considering The Significance Of The Use Of Naval Blockades During The Napoleonic Wars, John J. Janora May 2019

Analysis Considering The Significance Of The Use Of Naval Blockades During The Napoleonic Wars, John J. Janora

The Exposition

During the course of the 18th and 19th centuries the British Navy took an age old method of manipulating and dominating an enemy, the naval blockade, and perfected it. The blockade was going to be used by a generation of admirals, captains, and crews in a way that would cause pain, financially, physically and psychologically, on a large swath of the western world, much of it specifically centered on ensuring that Napoleon and his aggressively expansionist France would pay too dear a price if they tried to move off of the European mainland. The British Navy and their continued use ...


The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning May 2019

The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

An examination of Tolkien’s conception of history, the crisis of unpreparedness preceding the Second World War, and a relating of the story of Churchill’s warnings and eventual ascension to the position of Prime Minister. This study will compare the historical perspective of Tolkien, as represented in his fictional works, with the turmoil that transpired during the early days of WWII. Mostly, it will demonstrate how Tolkien’s view of history manifested itself within the context of the very perilous realities leading up to WWII. Nonetheless, a larger portrait of the nation of Great Britain, Winston Churchill, and their ...


Vile Blood: Hereditary Degeneracy In Victorian England, Dalton Lee Brock May 2019

Vile Blood: Hereditary Degeneracy In Victorian England, Dalton Lee Brock

Theses and Dissertations from 2019

During the late 1800s, the people of England grew anxious about hereditary degeneracy. That anxiety was rooted in the medical literature of the Victorian period. Nature predetermined individuals to be either healthy or unhealthy. Unhealthy individuals were marked by degenerative mental or physical characteristics such as epilepsy. Medical professionals, including Henry Maudsley, emphasized reversion and its hereditary nature as a threat to individuals and society. All based their works and arguments on Charles Darwin’s idea of inheritance. Darwin, in turn, had adopted and modified Lamarckian inheritance to make up for the absence of an inheritance principle in his theory ...


1st Place Research Paper: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn May 2019

1st Place Research Paper: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn

Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize

"A case study of the Czechoslovak New Wave and New Hollywood compares the functioning of cinematic movements under Communist and Capitalist societies. The period of the 1960s-70s in which these movements take place is emblematic of the shift from modernist to postmodernist structuring of society, which will be analyzed through the framework of Frederic Jameson, Alain Badiou, and Jean Baudrillard."


Turning Herbage Into Money: The Economic Inducement And Scientific Legacy Of 18th And 19th Century Livestock Improvement In England, Ann M. Ramsey May 2019

Turning Herbage Into Money: The Economic Inducement And Scientific Legacy Of 18th And 19th Century Livestock Improvement In England, Ann M. Ramsey

Young Historians Conference

This paper traces the development and legacy of livestock improvement by selective breeding in 18th and 19th century England, focusing on the contributions and economic motivations of Robert Bakewell (1725-1795). Bakewell notably impacted the English livestock industry by popularizing selective inbreeding techniques, amplifying preferred characteristics like proportions of edible meat to develop his own breeds of sheep and cattle. His efforts, seemingly motivated by economic hopes alone, influenced the work of Central European sheep breeders. They applied more scientific language to selective breeding, adding to an accumulating body of knowledge that would establish the context for Gregor Mendel and Charles ...


Liberté, Égalité, Santé: The Evolution Of Medicine In Revolution-Era France, Jasmine Yu May 2019

Liberté, Égalité, Santé: The Evolution Of Medicine In Revolution-Era France, Jasmine Yu

Young Historians Conference

Modern practice of medicine is reliably grounded in thorough observation and experimental study before application in a clinical setting. Yet before the universality of verifiable scientific justification, theoretical—and generally fallacious—models for the workings of the human body predominated, including the philosophy of the four elemental humors introduced by Hippocrates and Galen. In France, the decline of humorism’s supremacy did not occur until the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the same time period during which the long-standing convention of absolute monarchy was violently eradicated by the French Revolution. How, if at all, was the ending of humoral ...


Aristocracy And Agriculture: How Vergil’S "Georgics" Inspired A Wave Of Agrarianism And Imperialism, Isabel M. Lickey May 2019

Aristocracy And Agriculture: How Vergil’S "Georgics" Inspired A Wave Of Agrarianism And Imperialism, Isabel M. Lickey

Young Historians Conference

Georgics, written by Vergil in 29 B.C., though on its surface about labor and agricultural, uncovered deeper thought about the politics of its time period. When a prominent English poet, John Dryden, translated the Georgics in 1697, it had a profound effect upon English society. It soared to popularity, and introduced the field of agrarian science to the upper class, while at the same time inspiring a wave of similar agricultural poems. At the same, time, the ideas extolled in the Georgics about the necessity of labour to make land purposeful helped justify British colonization of America. Though Georgics ...


The Knights Templar: The Course Of God And Gold, Aaron Wozniak May 2019

The Knights Templar: The Course Of God And Gold, Aaron Wozniak

Young Historians Conference

The creation and expansion of the Knights Templar exemplifies the power of religious organizations during the time of the Crusades. However, it is the dissolution of the Templars that makes the order’s existence stand out among other knight orders. While the legal accounts of King Philip IV condemn the Templars for heresy, modern scholars and the political context suggest the possibility of exploiting the order for its significant financial holdings. This paper follows the history of the Templar order, from its creation to its demise, to evaluate how the Templars drifted far enough from their initial mission to provide ...


Robespierre: A Self-Destructed Revolutionary, Sophie M. Johnson May 2019

Robespierre: A Self-Destructed Revolutionary, Sophie M. Johnson

Young Historians Conference

The French Revolution’s infamously radical Reign of Terror rallied revolutionaries and quelled dissenters, all under the justification that the “republic of virtue” mandated protection. The Terror’s enigmatic Jacobin figurehead, Maximilien Robespierre, undeniably embodied the Enlightenment, egalitarian thought that provoked the revolution in 1789. Nonetheless, his resolute view of virtue and tyrannical tendencies debased a 1792 republic already overcome by factionalism and unnecessary bloodshed. His extreme rhetoric and public unpopularity only further blackened his image, raising the question of his legitimacy to his colleagues and fellow Jacobins. This paper asserts that while Robespierre acted in the name of the ...


“I Should Like To Say A Word Or Two About Your Empire”: Victor Hugo Le Grand, Napoléon Iii Le Petit, And The Historiographical Battlefield Of The French Second Empire, Madeleine Adriance May 2019

“I Should Like To Say A Word Or Two About Your Empire”: Victor Hugo Le Grand, Napoléon Iii Le Petit, And The Historiographical Battlefield Of The French Second Empire, Madeleine Adriance

Young Historians Conference

The lapping of waves, the soft calls of seabirds, and the cool breeze buffeting patches of wildflowers are sounds typically uncommon to the battlefield. Yet it was indeed a vicious war the famous author Victor Hugo waged from his exile on Guernsey Island against Napoléon III, the lesser-known nephew of the infamous Napoléon Bonaparte and emperor of the Second Empire. Throughout Napoléon’s reign and after, Hugo argued through his writings that the emperor was the antithesis of republican virtues. What would be Napoléon’s counterattack? Despite making largely successful efforts to influence his image with the working class, Napoléon ...


Film Review: The Impure: An Abolitionist Documentary Film Of The 19th Century Traffic In Jewish Women, Caroline Norma May 2019

Film Review: The Impure: An Abolitionist Documentary Film Of The 19th Century Traffic In Jewish Women, Caroline Norma

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


"We Germans Fear God, And Nothing Else In The World!" Military Policy In Wilhelmine Germany, 1890-1914, Cavender Sutton May 2019

"We Germans Fear God, And Nothing Else In The World!" Military Policy In Wilhelmine Germany, 1890-1914, Cavender Sutton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Throughout the Second Reich’s short life, military affairs were synonymous with those of the state. Indeed, it was the zeal and blood of Prussian soldiers that allowed the creation of a unified German empire. After solidifying itself as a major power, things grew more complicated as the Reich found itself increasingly surrounded by hostile rivals. To the west, French humiliation over their catastrophic defeat in 1870-71 continued to fester while, in the east, Russian sympathies for the new empire waned. The finalization of a Franco-Russian alliance in 1894 meant Germany faced formidable adversaries along her eastern and western borders ...


Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson May 2019

Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Using the lives of impaired individuals catalogued in the Íslendingasögur as a narrative framework, this study examines medieval Scandinavian social views regarding impairment from the ninth to the thirteenth century. Beginning with the myths and legends of the eddic poetry and prose of Iceland, it investigates impairment in Norse pre-Christian belief; demonstrating how myth and memory informed medieval conceptualizations of the body. This thesis counters scholarly assumptions that the impaired were universally marginalized across medieval Europe. It argues that bodily difference, in the Norse world, was only viewed as a limitation when it prevented an individual from fulfilling roles that ...


Population Movement And State Building: A Case Study Of Migratory Policies In Italy, Julia Pagnamenta May 2019

Population Movement And State Building: A Case Study Of Migratory Policies In Italy, Julia Pagnamenta

Student Theses

The current study examines Italian laws and policies around migratory movements since Italy first became a modern nation state in 1861 up until April 2019, when the research was concluded. This paper is a case study of Italian migratory policies. It first looks at the way Italy’s early efforts at nation building coincided with the mass emigration of its citizens, informing its policies on emigration and colonial expansion. The study then analyzes the way in which Italy developed a policy response to the growing immigrant and refugee population in the late 1980s following geo-political transformations in Europe. The evolution ...