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2018

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Articles 1 - 30 of 249

Full-Text Articles in European History

Universities In Imperial Austria, 1848–1918: A Social History Of A Multilingual Space, Jan University Surman Dec 2018

Universities In Imperial Austria, 1848–1918: A Social History Of A Multilingual Space, Jan University Surman

Purdue University Press Books

Combining history of science and a history of universities with the new imperial history, Universities in Imperial Austria 1848–1918: A Social History of a Multilingual Space by Jan Surman analyzes the practice of scholarly migration and its lasting influence on the intellectual output in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire.

The Habsburg Empire and its successor states were home to developments that shaped Central Europe's scholarship well into the twentieth century. Universities became centers of both state- and nation-building, as well as of confessional resistance, placing scholars if not in conflict, then certainly at odds with the ...


A War Won In The Skies: Air Superiority In The Second World War, Chandler Dugal Dec 2018

A War Won In The Skies: Air Superiority In The Second World War, Chandler Dugal

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This paper studies the impact that air superiority had on the outcome of the Second World War in both the European and Pacific theaters of war, and argues that it was the determining factor in the outcome of the conflict. The paper outlines both the tactical and strategic aspects of air-power along the respective 'fronts'. In addition, the relative quantitative and qualitative strength of the air forces of the belligerent nations are discussed, along with their aircraft production and technological capabilities.


Before Vietnam: Understanding The Initial Stages Of Us Involvement In Southeast Asia, 1945-1949, Jacob T. Mach Dec 2018

Before Vietnam: Understanding The Initial Stages Of Us Involvement In Southeast Asia, 1945-1949, Jacob T. Mach

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

The Vietnam War, widely considered the worst foreign policy debacle in American history, remains the most controversial event of the twentieth century. Much criticism for Vietnam involvement stems from two sources: 1) disapproval with how American leadership conducted the war, and 2) disagreement over the reason for the conflict in the first place. Few historians, if any, dispute the first criticism. The historical community remains divided, however, in terms of a definitive position on the basis or origin for the conflict. For a holistic approach to the origin of the Vietnam War, one must first elucidate the conception of American ...


It Could Never Last: Why British Sovereignty And Its Influence Since 1945 Resulted In Brexit, Jeffrey Brandt Dec 2018

It Could Never Last: Why British Sovereignty And Its Influence Since 1945 Resulted In Brexit, Jeffrey Brandt

Master's Theses

The EU Referendum of June 2016 marked a watershed moment for the United Kingdom, as it sought to once again reassert its sovereignty and retake its place in the world as an independent state, free from European Union infringement. The British are usually seen as the cussid ones in Europe, stubbornly holding on to their principles and traditions of sovereignty. But why is that? Carefully tracing UK history, particularly from the end of the Second World War to the present day, it becomes understandable why the result of the 2016 referendum should not be quite a surprise. Studying events in ...


The Dark And Middle Ages, Edward Jayne Dec 2018

The Dark And Middle Ages, Edward Jayne

English Faculty Publications

For the most part only Plato's teachings supported by a limited version of Aristotelian cosmology supportive of Platonism survived the decline of ancient Greek philosophy during the Roman Empire. Christianity later prevailed, and toward the end of the Middle Ages Aristotle’s secular perspective was only taken into account by Arab philosophers such as Averroes and Avicenna. After the collapse of Arab civilization during the twelfth century, the secular concept of a double truth between belief and reason put philosophy on equal footing with religion in such universities as Cordoba and the University of Paris. After a large assortment ...


Working Paper No. 01, Three Forms Of Fascism, Lauren Sweger-Hollingsworth Dec 2018

Working Paper No. 01, Three Forms Of Fascism, Lauren Sweger-Hollingsworth

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that fascism can appear in three forms. A classical fascist, a brutal and dominating figure, is autodidactic, having impressive and engaging oratory skills that effectively put forth their ideals to the working-class majority. Neo-fascists, or neo-Nazis, idolize Hitler and the society of Nazi Germany, being extremely radical and militant, they exist in small groups dispersed around the world. A post-modern fascist uses money and various forms of media to spread their ideologies to vulnerable members of society. Post-modern fascists project themselves as hard-working and tough, but they buy loyalty and pay others to do their ...


Echoes Of War: The Great War’S Impact On Literature, Samuel R. Williams Dec 2018

Echoes Of War: The Great War’S Impact On Literature, Samuel R. Williams

The Great Lakes Journal of Undergraduate History

This paper examines the works produced by: Erich Maria Remarque, Ernest Hemingway, C.S. Lewis, and J.R.R. Tolkien, specifically to show how their writings recorded and translated the experiences of soldiers during World War I, and their struggle to assimilate into civilian society afterward. By examining authors and novels from varying geographic and national background, common themes of bitterness, trauma, and disillusionment are found in men that fought on both sides of the conflict. Literature’s reflection of these scars appears in the lived experiences woven into the writings by the authors, and the reactions of the wider ...


Judicializing History: Mass Crimes Trials And The Historian As Expert Witness In West Germany, Cambodia, And Bangladesh, Rebecca Gidley, Mathew Turner Dec 2018

Judicializing History: Mass Crimes Trials And The Historian As Expert Witness In West Germany, Cambodia, And Bangladesh, Rebecca Gidley, Mathew Turner

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Henry Rousso warned that the engagement of historians as expert witnesses in trials, particularly highly politicized proceedings of mass crimes, risks a judicialization of history. This article tests Rousso’s argument through analysis of three quite different case studies: the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial; the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia; and the International Crimes Tribunal in Bangladesh. It argues that Rousso’s objections misrepresent the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial, while failing to account for the engagement of historical expertise in mass atrocity trials beyond Europe. Paradoxically, Rousso’s criticisms are less suited to the European context that represents his purview ...


A New Brand Of Men: Masculinity In French Republican Socialist Rhetoric, Randolph A. Miller Dec 2018

A New Brand Of Men: Masculinity In French Republican Socialist Rhetoric, Randolph A. Miller

Theses and Dissertations

Social theorist and activist, August Blanqui, used his appearance before court in 1832 to lay out an argument that condemned the present political and economic system and demanded emancipation of the male worker. During his monologue, along with his devastating portrayal of worker misery and systemic corruption, Blanqui made comparisons between the male bourgeoisie and the male proletariat. Recounting the recent overthrow of Charles X for his audience, Blanqui described the “glorious workers” as six feet tall, towering over a groveling bourgeoisie who praised them for their “selflessness and courage.” According to Blanqui, the workers, unlike the aristocracy of wealth ...


Vasco Da Gama’S Voyages To India: Messianism, Mercantilism, And Sacred Exploits, S. M. Ghazanfar Dec 2018

Vasco Da Gama’S Voyages To India: Messianism, Mercantilism, And Sacred Exploits, S. M. Ghazanfar

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

The Portuguese explorer, Vasco da Gama (1460-1524), was the first European to sail from Portugal to India. Accolades for this achievement have long obscured the messianic motivation for the 1498 voyage, “to invade, capture, vanquish, and subdue all Saracens (Muslims) and pagans and other enemies of Christ; to reduce them to perpetual slavery; to convert them to Christianity; [and] to acquire great wealth by force of arms from the Infidels,” as sanctified by various Papal Bulls, together called “the Doctrine of Discovery” (Dum Diversas, 1452; Romanus Pontifex, 1455; Inter Caetera, 1493). The other key motive in this enormous undertaking was ...


Schendel And Cunninghams' "Calling And Vocation: From Martin Luther To The Modern World Of Work" (Book Review), Stefana Dan Laing Dec 2018

Schendel And Cunninghams' "Calling And Vocation: From Martin Luther To The Modern World Of Work" (Book Review), Stefana Dan Laing

The Christian Librarian

No abstract provided.


Associational Republicanism: Antifederalism In Context, 1790 - 1830, Ashley Jordan Dec 2018

Associational Republicanism: Antifederalism In Context, 1790 - 1830, Ashley Jordan

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


British Family Structure: Expressions Of Power And Conceptions Of Family, Chloe Chaplin, Kathy Callahan Dr. Nov 2018

British Family Structure: Expressions Of Power And Conceptions Of Family, Chloe Chaplin, Kathy Callahan Dr.

Posters-at-the-Capitol

The goal of this research is to examine family structure in early modern Scotland and England though the use of written communication. The primary focus will be on aristocratic families with a secondary look at upper-middle class families. This is due primarily to availability of records, and also why I will mainly be using written correspondence rather than secondary analyses, as this field is still relatively new. By exploring the development of key familial relationships (e.g. parent-child, husband-wife, and in-law interactions) through private correspondence, larger insights can be drawn about gender and the nuclear family. Also, these central relationships ...


100 Kilometers To Freedom: Women's Stories Of Escape During The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, Cameron Mitchell Nov 2018

100 Kilometers To Freedom: Women's Stories Of Escape During The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, Cameron Mitchell

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

“100 Kilometers to Freedom: Women’s Stories of Escape During the 1956 Hungarian Revolution” looks at the way people fled Hungary after the uprising against the Soviet rulers, specifically through the lens of Hungarian women. The paper follows the process of escape through resettlement and analyzes the various ways people escaped and resettled. In this paper I argue that, though escape routes and methods were wildly varied and resettlement went differently for everyone, those fleeing were often motivated to do so for political reasons.

This paper relies on a variety of primary source materials, including a collection of oral histories ...


Reason Vs. Truth: How The Enlightenment And Romanticism Effected The Victorian Occult, Jessica Brazinski Nov 2018

Reason Vs. Truth: How The Enlightenment And Romanticism Effected The Victorian Occult, Jessica Brazinski

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

“Reason vs. Truth: How the Enlightenment and Romanticism Effected the Victorian Occult.”

By: Jessica Brazinski

Abstract:

This research project is a historical analysis of occult secret societies and organizations during and soon after the reign of Queen Victoria. In particular, this research focuses on the impact of Romanticism and the Enlightenment on the Victorian occult. By examining the founding myths, practices, and core beliefs of these organizations this study found that Enlightenment, Romanticist, and Neoclassical ideas all played a part in the adoption of foreign ideas into these societies. The Freemasons, for instance, were very much influenced by Enlightenment ideas ...


British Motives In The Settlement Of German Palatines In Colonial New York, Adam G. Novey Nov 2018

British Motives In The Settlement Of German Palatines In Colonial New York, Adam G. Novey

Bound Away: The Liberty Journal of History

In 1710, a group of German Palatine refugees landed in the New World courtesy of Britain’s Queen Anne. While British propaganda boasted charitable and religious motives behind the Palatine relocation to America—particularly in light of the Catholic-Protestant feud gripping Europe at that time—the historical record paints an alternative picture. Based on the evidence, the move was predominantly an act of convenience and profit to the Crown. Britain had a need to remove excess poor from its midst, make its northerly Colonies profitable, and ensure Colonial security in the face of Iroquois threat. England viewed the Palatines as ...


A Voyage Into The Abyss – A Look Into The First Year Of The Jamestown Settlement, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr. Oct 2018

A Voyage Into The Abyss – A Look Into The First Year Of The Jamestown Settlement, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

A brief introduction into the first year at the Jamestown settlement and the troubles the settlers faced upon arrival to the New World.


“Apoleptic” Ironies And “Accident-Ed” Realities: World War I And Berlin Dada Photomontage, Barbara L. Miller Oct 2018

“Apoleptic” Ironies And “Accident-Ed” Realities: World War I And Berlin Dada Photomontage, Barbara L. Miller

Dada/Surrealism

No abstract provided.


After Faith, Hope, And Love: The Unique Divergence Of Asceticism By Gregory The Great And Maximus The Confessor, Caleb N. Zuiderveen Oct 2018

After Faith, Hope, And Love: The Unique Divergence Of Asceticism By Gregory The Great And Maximus The Confessor, Caleb N. Zuiderveen

Theses and Dissertations

In the late sixth and early seventh centuries, asceticism continued as a frequent expression of Christian devotion. Despite communications between the Eastern and Western Churches and a common patristic foundation, theology in the East and West during this time diverged on the results of asceticism. This paper explores this divergence by examining two theologians, Gregory the Great and Maximus the Confessor. Current scholarship has examined Gregory the Great and Maximus the Confessor on their own, yet the dialogue between each tradition and its implications remains understudied. Thus, this study contextualizes Gregory the Great’s On the Song of Songs and ...


The Socialist World In The Second Age Of Globalization: An Alternative History?, James M. Robertson Oct 2018

The Socialist World In The Second Age Of Globalization: An Alternative History?, James M. Robertson

Markets, Globalization & Development Review

The history of the Second Age of Globalization (from 1945 through to the present) has traditionally been told through the lens of either the industrially advanced First World, or, more critically, the developing countries of the Third World. Less is known about the experience of globalization in the so-called “Second World”, the socialist states of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites. The following review essay draws on recent work in the history of globalization to show that, contrary to long-held assumptions that socialism was an autarkic system that cut countries off from the wider world, post-war socialist countries ...


Running Wires: Digital History In The Classroom And The Field, Ian A. Isherwood, Amy E. Lucadamo, R.C. Miessler Oct 2018

Running Wires: Digital History In The Classroom And The Field, Ian A. Isherwood, Amy E. Lucadamo, R.C. Miessler

Musselman Library Staff Publications

The First World War Letters of H.J.C. Peirs is a digital history project that publishes the letters of a British World War I officer 100 years to the day they were written. By telling the story of one person, we have aimed to humanize a dehumanizing war and supported the effort to commemorate the centennial of the conflict. While the project was conceived with pedagogy in mind, it has grown beyond the letters and crossed boundaries: from the analog to the digital, from the classroom to the public, and from the archives to the field.


Lessons From The Treblinka Archive: Transnational Collections And Their Implications For Historical Research, Chad S.A. Gibbs Oct 2018

Lessons From The Treblinka Archive: Transnational Collections And Their Implications For Historical Research, Chad S.A. Gibbs

Journal of Contemporary Archival Studies

In work for his 1979 book The Death Camp Treblinka, Alexander Donat began the process of locating survivors of the camp and recording their histories. In a telling testament to the lethality of this place, he could identify only sixty-eight survivors. Analysis of Donat’s early findings—emerging six years prior to the publication of any major academic monograph on the subject—offers a window into the difficulties of conducting research on this Nazi extermination camp and its widely-scattered witnesses.

Treblinka’s disembarkation ramp was effectively the eye of a transnational needle through which so many passed and so few ...


The Spanish Civil War Memory Archive: Creating Access To International Exchange, Andrea R. Davis Oct 2018

The Spanish Civil War Memory Archive: Creating Access To International Exchange, Andrea R. Davis

Bucknell University Digital Scholarship Conference

The Spanish Civil War Memory Project consists of over one hundred audiovisual testimonies of victims, militants, survivors, and witnesses of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and Francoist repression (1939-1975). The testimonies were recorded by graduate student researchers between 2006 and 2010 as part of an initiative of UC San Diego in collaboration with several human rights associations in Spain. To make the archive that resulted from this collaboration a more user-friendly and media-rich experience, we are now in the process of training student researchers to digitally enhance the collected testimonies with the web-based system OHMS. In these efforts we aim ...


The English Voyage Of Pietrobono Burzelli, Evan A. Maccarthy Oct 2018

The English Voyage Of Pietrobono Burzelli, Evan A. Maccarthy

Faculty Scholarship

Praised by poets, scholars, and fellow musicians of his day, the singer, lutenist, and teacher Pietrobono Burzelli (ca. 1417–97) achieved international renown for his skill at improvisational performances on plucked instruments. Until recently, archival documents recorded his presence at many courts on the Italian peninsula and as far away as the Hungarian court. Documents until now unknown to musicologists reveal that Pietrobono also traveled to England. In August 1466 he signed a will and testament in advance of a risky trip “ad partes Anglie” that he was planning to begin the next day.

The testament offers new information about ...


Nineteen Minutes Of Horror: Insights From The Scorpions Execution Video, Iva Vukušić Oct 2018

Nineteen Minutes Of Horror: Insights From The Scorpions Execution Video, Iva Vukušić

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

After the fall of Srebrenica in summer of 1995, the Scorpions unit, dispatched to support the Bosnian Serb Army as it took over the enclave, shot six men in Trnovo. The men, three of whom were underage, were some of thousands of Bosnian Muslims that fell into the hands of Bosnian Serb troops, and that were executed in the days and weeks following July 11th. A member of the unit filmed the execution. Fragments of the video were first shown during the Slobodan Milosevic trial, and multiple times in the years after, in the courtrooms in The Hague and Belgrade ...


Bonding Images: Photography And Film As Acts Of Perpetration, Christophe Busch Oct 2018

Bonding Images: Photography And Film As Acts Of Perpetration, Christophe Busch

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Historical and contemporary cases of collective violence show an incremental use of photography and film to capture and disseminate violent acts. Recording cruelty during conflict seems to be a highly ritualised practice that urges the question what communicative and psychological functions these acts have? Why and how does perpetrator photography shape a binding moral world that divides 'us' versus 'them'? These visualising acts are commonly seen as proof of power that desensitises the perpetrators and dehumanises the victims. This contribution focuses on the imagery of the Holocaust, looks into the functions that capturing and sharing cruelty has on the evolution ...


The Plains Of Mars, European War Prints, 1500-1825, Melissa Casale, Bailey R. Harper, Felicia M. Else, Shannon Egan Oct 2018

The Plains Of Mars, European War Prints, 1500-1825, Melissa Casale, Bailey R. Harper, Felicia M. Else, Shannon Egan

Schmucker Art Catalogs

Over fifty original prints by renowned artists from the sixteenth through the early nineteenth century, including Albrecht Dürer, Lucas Cranach, Théodore Géricault, and Francisco de Goya, among many others, are featured inThe Plains of Mars: European War Prints, 1500-1825. On loan from the Sarah Campbell Blaffer Foundation at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, the works of art included in this exhibition examine the topics of war and peace, propaganda, heroism, brutal conflicts, and the harrowing aftermath of battle. Spanning from the Renaissance to the Romantic periods and encompassing a wide geographic scope including Italy, Germany, France, Spain, the Low ...


An Assessment Of Parliament’S View Of The Jamestown Settlement In 1652 – 45 Years After The Initial Establishment, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr. Sep 2018

An Assessment Of Parliament’S View Of The Jamestown Settlement In 1652 – 45 Years After The Initial Establishment, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

A brief opinion piece based on parliament’s view of the Jamestown colony in 1652, 45 years after the colony’s establishment in the new world. The paper is substantiated by early English documents with a present day interpretation.


Ms-232: Edward A Frederick Papers, Joy Zanghi Sep 2018

Ms-232: Edward A Frederick Papers, Joy Zanghi

All Finding Aids

This collection is a small collection mostly comprised of postcards written by Edward A. Frederick to his family. The postcards follow Frederick from his training with the Aero Squadron in San Antonio Texas at Kelly Field to his service overseas in the UK and France. The collection also contains photographs, a newspaper clipping, and a ring and pins from the US Aero Squadron. Overall, the postcards and the collection as a whole do not provide much insight or detail about the life of a soldier during WWI.

Special Collections and College Archives Finding Aids are discovery tools used to describe ...


The Merchants At The Casino: Sephardic Elites And Leisure Time In Eighteenth-Century Livorno, Francesca Bregoli Sep 2018

The Merchants At The Casino: Sephardic Elites And Leisure Time In Eighteenth-Century Livorno, Francesca Bregoli

Publications and Research

In 1712,a casino was established in the Jewish neighborhood of the Mediterranean port of Livorno. This venue, which stayed open until 1720, appears unique, as no similar Jewish institutions have been described in comparable communities. This explores the significance of the casino for the relationship of Livornese Jewry with Tuscan culture and the state by investigating internal documents from the Livornese Jewish community (nazione ebrea) in light of analogous Tuscan institutions. By considering an episode in the relatively little studied history of early modern Jewish leisure, we gain insight into values and aspirations of members of one of the ...