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2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 49

Full-Text Articles in European History

Forum: Spanish Online Resources For Spanish And Latin American History, Roger L. Martínez-Dávila Dec 2016

Forum: Spanish Online Resources For Spanish And Latin American History, Roger L. Martínez-Dávila

Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies

The mid-2010s are a challenging period to investigate digital collections precisely because they exist as patchwork of emerging collections that are incompletely indexed, and thus it is difficult to appreciate their significance. For diligent researchers who employ a robust digital search methodology, there are substantial opportunities to locate and reveal high-dispersed and fragmentary histories. This researcher proposes six essential approaches to researching electronic collections based on personal expertise in physically researching in almost thirty Spanish private, local, church, provincial, and national archives and libraries, as well as countless digital collections.

The essential online digital collections for Spanish and Latin American ...


Beyond Cultural Imperialism: Rethinking Americanization, National Identity, And “Difference” In Post-Franco Spain, Hamilton M. Stapell Dec 2016

Beyond Cultural Imperialism: Rethinking Americanization, National Identity, And “Difference” In Post-Franco Spain, Hamilton M. Stapell

Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies

It was in the 1980s that Americanization became seen as a real cultural danger in Europe, especially in France and West Germany. While this resistance to American cultural influence has been well established in the existing scholarship, Spain’s reaction has remained far less clear. The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the Spanish response, especially in light of the French reaction. The main argument of this paper is that Spain may be somewhat of an exception to the European norm. Spaniards often welcomed American investment, business know-how, and cultural products with open arms. In these cases it appears ...


Franco's Spain And The European Integration Process (1945-1975), Enrique Moradiellos Dec 2016

Franco's Spain And The European Integration Process (1945-1975), Enrique Moradiellos

Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies

The Francoist dictatorship had a highly complex relationship with the European integration process started after 1945. On account of its authoritarian profile and pro-Axis policies during the Second World War, Spain was barred access to the new European institutions and organisations created in the postwar era. As a result, the Spanish regime adopted an official attitude of contempt towards the European integration process up to 1957. But the creation of the European Economic Community forced a marked change in its policies because Spain could not afford to be left out of the Common Market. The consequent search for some sort ...


Nuevas Reflexiones Sobre “Elena, Alias Eleno De Céspedes”, Transgénero, Redes Sociales Y Libertad En La España Del Siglo Xvi, Aurelia Martín Casares Prof., Magdalena Díaz Hernández Dec 2016

Nuevas Reflexiones Sobre “Elena, Alias Eleno De Céspedes”, Transgénero, Redes Sociales Y Libertad En La España Del Siglo Xvi, Aurelia Martín Casares Prof., Magdalena Díaz Hernández

Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies

Hasta ahora el personaje de Elena de Céspedes, una esclava que llegó a ser cirujano y a casarse con una mujer, ha sido reconocido por su dualidad sexual, de género o de ocupación. Sin embargo, todos esos factores se interrelacionan en la construcción de su realidad transgenéro. El cross-dressing o travestismo, el género fluido, la androginia y la transexualidad fueron elementos esenciales en la construcción de diferentes tipos de redes sociales que le posibilitaron ascender personal, social y profesionalmente, obteniendo así un amplio margen de libertad en la España de finales del siglo XVI.

Precisamente, el gran valor de Elena ...


“An Impossible Quid Pro Quo”: Representations Of Tomás De Torquemada, Carolyn Salomons Dec 2016

“An Impossible Quid Pro Quo”: Representations Of Tomás De Torquemada, Carolyn Salomons

Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies

The name Tomás de Torquemada has become synonymous with the Holy Office of the Spanish Inquisition, and a symbol of religious fanaticism, hatred, oppression of minorities, and even sadism. Throughout the centuries since his death, he has been co-opted by writers and artists as a representation of cruelty and persecution. Although contemporaries praised him (albeit somewhat carefully), and he certainly enjoyed the favor of his monarchs, Isabel and Ferdinand, after his death Torquemada quickly gained a nefarious reputation as a fanatical zealot and a torturer, a characterization which lingers today. How did an (admittedly) austere Dominican come to so powerfully ...


The Deportation Journeys Of The Holocaust, Connor Schonta Dec 2016

The Deportation Journeys Of The Holocaust, Connor Schonta

The Kabod

Roughly three million Jews were transported to extermination centers by train during the Holocaust.[1] Nearly all who boarded deportation trains were unaware of the fate that awaited them; and for most, fate meant death in a gas chamber.[2] Some, however, did survive. This paper is about that experience. It is a significant endeavor to study the accounts of Holocaust survivors, for through it, one is reminded of how much the victims endured, and that it truly happened—it happened to real individuals at a real time in history. And as they are remembered, may they be rightfully honored ...


"Os Retornados" With Antunes: Luanda, Angola And Lisbon, Daniel De Zubia Fernández Dec 2016

"Os Retornados" With Antunes: Luanda, Angola And Lisbon, Daniel De Zubia Fernández

CALL: Irish Journal for Culture, Arts, Literature and Language

António Lobo Antunes explores a forced encounter of a Portuguese diaspora with Africa for some settlers. He examines the nature of the bi-directional diaspora for “os retornados”, who, having returned to Portugal after independence of the colonies, found they were invisible in the eyes of Portugal, as portrayed in ‘O esplendor de Portugal’ and in ‘A história do hidroavião’. Luanda, Angola and Lisbon are depicted as spaces where each individual represents the reverse of the Portuguese colonial past. Antunes turns to historical facts as a source for a critical fiction. The prominence given to the experience of Africa and Portugal ...


Paris Calling: Typical And Untypical Experiences Of Latin American And African Diasporas, Kian-Harald Karimi Dec 2016

Paris Calling: Typical And Untypical Experiences Of Latin American And African Diasporas, Kian-Harald Karimi

CALL: Irish Journal for Culture, Arts, Literature and Language

A metropolis such as Paris may provide a common ground for the experiences of migrants coming from Africa and Latin American. The traditional capital of Latin American literatures is also considered to be the greatest agglomeration of African immigrants mostly coming from former French colonies. But a common ground does not necessarily mean that they have a great deal in common. Two novels, Café Nostalgia by the Cuban author Zoé Valdés and Black Bazar by the Congolese writer Alain Mabanckou, not only define the topographic base of their exile. They also discuss the special reasons for their residence in ...


The Choral Intensification Of A Chronotope, Lluís Muntada Vendrell Dec 2016

The Choral Intensification Of A Chronotope, Lluís Muntada Vendrell

CALL: Irish Journal for Culture, Arts, Literature and Language

According to an ancient constant, literature can be regarded as a struggle against oblivion, as an attempt to preserve individual and collective memory. On the grounds of the Pragmatics of Literature, we can consider that the processes of (re)construction of the literary memory of rootlessness, exile, persecution and imprisonment reveal two basic types of creative models: the objective description of reality and a plausible fictionality. This paper focuses on the first of these two creative models through the exploration and critical analysis of the book Allez! Allez!, which contains a set of texts by several authors compiled by Professor ...


Names Of The Territory, Meanings Of Exile: Language And Space In The Catalan Exile (1939), Iglesias Narcis Dec 2016

Names Of The Territory, Meanings Of Exile: Language And Space In The Catalan Exile (1939), Iglesias Narcis

CALL: Irish Journal for Culture, Arts, Literature and Language

In 1939 a large number of Catalan and Spanish republicans left their country and sought shelter in France from the fascist army of the insurgent general Francisco Franco. The exile was a process which went through several stages: fleeing, crossing the border, settling in a new place, pondering their own and others’ identities, accepting their condition of rootlessness. From diverse written sources, such as personal diaries, reports, fiction texts, interviews, etc., I will focus on the analysis of the naming of the sites and the territory in two key moments: the moment of their flight and their arrival in the ...


"The Path To Ruin: Inflexibility, Delusion, And Discord Between The Kaiser, Chancellor, And German High Command In The Great War", Nicholas Vecchio Dec 2016

"The Path To Ruin: Inflexibility, Delusion, And Discord Between The Kaiser, Chancellor, And German High Command In The Great War", Nicholas Vecchio

#History: A Journal of Student Research

This paper focuses on the political and military decisions of the German High Command during the First World War. After first examining the unresolved historiographic discourse over Germany’s fifth Imperial Chancellor, Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, it explores the backgrounds of Kaiser Wilhelm II, Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg, General Erich von Falkenhayn, and General Erich Ludendorff, and studies the argument within the High Command over whether Germany should focus her war efforts on the western or eastern fronts. Two central theses are argued: (1) Germany had numerous opportunities to end the war diplomatically with favorable terms once it was clear they would ...


James Gustavus Whiteley: The Lost Agent Of King Leopold Ii, Jonathan Broida Dec 2016

James Gustavus Whiteley: The Lost Agent Of King Leopold Ii, Jonathan Broida

#History: A Journal of Student Research

No abstract provided.


George Grenville, Caleb Follmer Dec 2016

George Grenville, Caleb Follmer

#History: A Journal of Student Research

British Prime Minister George Grenville is frequently misunderstood. Unlike his predecessors, he sought compromise with the British colonies in North America, did not abuse the power and influence granted to him by him appointment, and did not award himself lavish gifts and a high salary under the guise of financial responsibility. Grenville actively sought to consolidate Britain's debt through his unwavering work ethic and honest business ideas. He also worked to find a new way to govern and control the British North American colonies. Left in debt by the costly Seven Years War, Britain expected her colonies to pay ...


Immigrant And Irish Identities In Hand In The Fire And Hamilton's Writing Between 2003 And 2014, Dervila Cooke Dec 2016

Immigrant And Irish Identities In Hand In The Fire And Hamilton's Writing Between 2003 And 2014, Dervila Cooke

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

In her article "Immigrant and Irish Identities in Hand in the Fire and Hamilton's Writing between 2003 and 2014" Dervila Cooke discusses the intertwining of Irish and immigrant identities. Cooke examines the connection between openness to memory and embracing migrant identities in Hamilton's writing both in the 2010 novel and as a whole. The empathetic and inclusive character of Helen in Hand in the Fire is analyzed in contrast to characters who have repressed memory including the Serbian Vid. Helen's ties to elsewhere, her openness to new influence, and her willingness to engage with traumatic elements of ...


Introduction To New Work On Immigration And Identity In Contemporary France, Québec, And Ireland, Dervila Cooke Dec 2016

Introduction To New Work On Immigration And Identity In Contemporary France, Québec, And Ireland, Dervila Cooke

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

No abstract provided for the introduction.


Thematic Bibliography To New Work On Immigration And Identity In Contemporary France, Québec, And Ireland, Dervila Cooke Dec 2016

Thematic Bibliography To New Work On Immigration And Identity In Contemporary France, Québec, And Ireland, Dervila Cooke

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

No abstract provided.


Mattes J., 2015. Reisen Ins Unterirdische. Eine Kulturgeschichte Der Höhlenforschung In Österreich Bis In Die Zwischenkriegszeit. [Travelling Into The Underground. A Cultural History Of Cave Exploration In Austria Through The Interwar Years], Monika Schöner Nov 2016

Mattes J., 2015. Reisen Ins Unterirdische. Eine Kulturgeschichte Der Höhlenforschung In Österreich Bis In Die Zwischenkriegszeit. [Travelling Into The Underground. A Cultural History Of Cave Exploration In Austria Through The Interwar Years], Monika Schöner

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


Marsilio Ficino's Music Theory, Amanda E. Crossan Nov 2016

Marsilio Ficino's Music Theory, Amanda E. Crossan

Oglethorpe Journal of Undergraduate Research

This paper explores the musical theory of Marsilio Ficino, a 15th century Italian philosopher. Examining his own work and those works which inspired him this paper attempts to explain his theory and understand its place in the world today. Looking at modern examples of the Renaissance philosopher's ideas shows that he may not have been too far from discovering the truth.


Soviet Kitsch During Stalin's Purges, Jenna Marco Oct 2016

Soviet Kitsch During Stalin's Purges, Jenna Marco

Oglethorpe Journal of Undergraduate Research

This article explores the applications of Modris Eksteins' concept of kitsch to Stalin's reign in the Soviet Union, particularly the period of the Party purges in the 1930s. It traces the construction and development of Soviet kitsch under Stalin in the political, social, cultural, and artistic spheres. Overall, the article argues that the presence of kitsch was ultimately harmful to Soviet politics and culture. In conclusion, the article briefly poses the question of whether or not kitsch fully died out in the Soviet Union after the death of Stalin, and if kitsch is still present in current Russian politics ...


We Speak Design Oct 2016

We Speak Design

SIGNED: The Magazine of The Hong Kong Design Institute

Germany has been at the heart of architectural, aesthetic and artistic innovation for most of the last two centuries and as a new exhibition that celebrates its design industry's achievements over the last 125 years opens at HKDI, Daniel Jeffreys examines the way one country's creative masters shaped the environment in which we live today.


Verdens Undergang (1916) And The Birth Of Apocalyptic Film: Antecedents And Causative Forces, Wynn Gerald Hamonic Oct 2016

Verdens Undergang (1916) And The Birth Of Apocalyptic Film: Antecedents And Causative Forces, Wynn Gerald Hamonic

Journal of Religion & Film

This essay describes the antecedents and causative forces giving rise to the birth of apocalyptic cinema in the early 20th Century and the first apocalyptic feature, Verdens Undergang (1916). Apocalyptic cinema's roots can be traced back to apocalyptic literary tradition beginning 200 BCE, New Testament apocalyptic writings, the rise of premillenialism in the mid-19th Century, 19th century apocalyptic fiction, a growing distrust in human self-determination, escalating wars and tragedies from 1880 to 1912 reaching a larger audience through a burgeoning press, horrors and disillusionment caused by the First World War, a growing belief in a dystopian future, and changes ...


Book Review: Genocide On The Drina River, Iva Vukušić Oct 2016

Book Review: Genocide On The Drina River, Iva Vukušić

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Relics, Processions And The Sounding Of Affections: Barbara Strozzi, The Archduchess Of Innsbruck, And Saint Anthony Of Padua, Sara M. Pecknold Sep 2016

Relics, Processions And The Sounding Of Affections: Barbara Strozzi, The Archduchess Of Innsbruck, And Saint Anthony Of Padua, Sara M. Pecknold

Yale Journal of Music & Religion

In 1655, Barbara Strozzi issued her fifth and only sacred opus, the Sacri musicali affetti, a print comprising fourteen passionately religious motets for solo voice and continuo. This article demonstrates how Strozzi's final motet to Saint Anthony reflects a surge in trans-Alpine Antonine devotion--a devotional trend in which both Strozzi's dedicatee, Anna de' Medici, and possibly the composer herself, participated. This essay examines two particular events: a procession of Saint Anthony’s relics from Venice to Padua in 1652, and the founding of a Antonine confraternity at the court of Innsbruck in the same year. When these phenomena ...


The Effect Of Richard Wagner's Music And Beliefs On Hitler's Ideology, Carolyn S. Ticker Sep 2016

The Effect Of Richard Wagner's Music And Beliefs On Hitler's Ideology, Carolyn S. Ticker

Musical Offerings

The Holocaust will always be remembered as one of the most horrific and evil events in all of history. One question that has been so pervasive in regards to this historical event is the question of why. Why exactly did Hitler massacre the Jewish people? Why did he come to the conclusion that the Jews were somehow lesser than him, and that it was okay to kill them? What and who were his influences and how did they help form Hitler’s opinions leading up to the Holocaust? Although more than one situation or person influenced Hitler, I believe that ...


Animals In Irish Literature And Culture Edited By Kathryn Kirkpatrick And Borbála Faragó, Geneviève Pigeon Aug 2016

Animals In Irish Literature And Culture Edited By Kathryn Kirkpatrick And Borbála Faragó, Geneviève Pigeon

The Goose

Review of Kathryn Kirkpatrick and Borbála Faragó's Animals in Irish Literature and Culture.


An Environmental History Of Medieval Europe By Richard C. Hoffman, Geneviève Pigeon Dr Aug 2016

An Environmental History Of Medieval Europe By Richard C. Hoffman, Geneviève Pigeon Dr

The Goose

Review of Richard C. Hoffman's An Environmental History of Medieval Europe.


The Extent Of Indigenous-Norse Contact And Trade Prior To Columbus, Donald E. Warden Aug 2016

The Extent Of Indigenous-Norse Contact And Trade Prior To Columbus, Donald E. Warden

Oglethorpe Journal of Undergraduate Research

Norse exploration during the medieval period was widespread and diverse in location. Of the many places visited by the Norse, North America has continued to be surrounded by mystery. The full extent of Norse exploration in North America is a growing field and the extent of their contact and trade with Indigenous Americans is becoming increasingly known. A thorough compilation of the evidence allows for significant, new conclusions to be made about Norse presence in the Americas.


A "Princely Lady": The Religion, Power And Identity Of Anne Boleyn, Alexandra Elise Deselms Jun 2016

A "Princely Lady": The Religion, Power And Identity Of Anne Boleyn, Alexandra Elise Deselms

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

Anne Boleyn (c. 1501 – 1536), the second wife of Henry VIII, was an influential and controversial figure in her time and is the subject of intense debate among historians today, not to mention fascination among the general public. Historians are sharply divided and seek to categorize her as either an early Protestant influential at court (historians such as Ives, Warnicke, and Starkey) or ultimately Catholic and passive (Bernard). This thesis moves beyond such polemics by combining a close analysis of documents from the time and the goals of their authors with post-modern approaches to historical biography emphasizing the fluidity of ...


Past Disquiet: From Research To Exhibition, Kristine Khouri, Rasha Salti Jun 2016

Past Disquiet: From Research To Exhibition, Kristine Khouri, Rasha Salti

Artl@s Bulletin

An exhibition of an exceptional scale and scope took place in Beirut in the middle of the civil war and today, its archival and documentary traces have been almost entirely lost. The International Art Exhibition for Palestine opened in the Spring of 1978, comprising some 200 works donated by artists hailing from nearly 30 countries, to be a seed collection for a museum in exile. This is a transcript of a presentation of the transformation of research into an exhibition format and a virtual walkthrough of the show Past Disquiet: Narratives and Ghosts from the International Art Exhibition for Palestine ...


Book Review: Remembering Genocide, Tony Barta Jun 2016

Book Review: Remembering Genocide, Tony Barta

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.