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2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 39

Full-Text Articles in European History

Puritanism In Mid-Seventeenth Century England, Matthew J. Buchanan Nov 2016

Puritanism In Mid-Seventeenth Century England, Matthew J. Buchanan

Scholars Week

England experienced great societal changes in the seventeenth-century. Deep rooted tensions between the monarchy and Parliament cumulated in a Civil War and the decapitation of a king. In the end, an oppressive Puritan led regime would take control of English politics. This presentation seeks to answer the question of what characteristics of the Puritans allowed them to achieve increased political power? A review of both primary and secondary sources demonstrates that the rise of Puritan political influence was brought about by combining the already divisive climate of English society with the Puritan’s unique religious ideology, political preferences, and socioeconomic ...


Research And Study Of Fashion And Costume History Spanning From Ancient Egypt To Modern Day, Kaitlyn E. Dennis Miss Nov 2016

Research And Study Of Fashion And Costume History Spanning From Ancient Egypt To Modern Day, Kaitlyn E. Dennis Miss

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Through a generous donation to Morehead State University, research has been conducted on thousands of slides containing images of artwork and artifacts of historical significance. These images span from Egyptian hieroglyphs to the inaugural dress of every first lady of the United States. The slides are in the process of being recorded and catalogued for future use by students in hopes of furthering academic comprehension and awareness of the influence of fashion and costume history through the ages. Special thanks to the family of Gretel Geist Rutledge, faculty mentor Denise Watkins, as well as the Department of Music, Theatre, and ...


Education And Literature In The Third Reich, Maegann L. Hardison Nov 2016

Education And Literature In The Third Reich, Maegann L. Hardison

Posters-at-the-Capitol

This research examines education in the Third Reich and specifically focuses on children's literature. German children were exposed to different persuasive techniques and influences that dramatically impacted their culture and mindset. The purpose of this research is to explain how the propaganda used in the educational system was directed towards the German youth. The use of this propaganda reveals the reasons why many children grew to defend the Führer and their Volk.


Imperial Correlations Between The German Kaiserreich In Eastern Europe And The Third Reich In Eastern Europe, Laura Guebert Nov 2016

Imperial Correlations Between The German Kaiserreich In Eastern Europe And The Third Reich In Eastern Europe, Laura Guebert

Posters-at-the-Capitol

This project is an examination of correlations between imperial enterprises of the Second German Empire and the Nazi Reich through the lenses of global and imperial critiques. The two primary case studies are the German Ober Ost and Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe, particularly the General Government. This research draws heavily on certain themes and theories developed by leading historians of modern German and Eastern European history, including Timothy Snyder, Alexander Watson, Ben Kiernan, Shelley Baranowski, and Peter Fritzsche. By understanding the shared trends of empire and genocide, it is my aim to bring the actions of the National Socialists out of ...


Witchcraft In Scotland In Early Modern Europe, Chloe Chaplin Nov 2016

Witchcraft In Scotland In Early Modern Europe, Chloe Chaplin

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Chloe Chaplin

Dr. Kathy Callahan, Faculty Mentor

Dept. of History

Witchcraft in Scotland

This research project centered around witchcraft in Scotland and England in Early Modern Europe (roughly late 15th century to mid 18th century). The witch hunts characterized Europe during this time; our research initially looked at how England and Scotland compared to the European continent in the frequency of witch hunts, victimhood, and the specific details of the hunt. Scotland and England differed in that Scotland resembled the witch hunts of the continent whereas England was less prone to witch hunts. England suffered less witch hunts ...


Pilgrimage Project, David Sheffler, Mike Boyles, Christopher Baynard, Ron Lukens-Bull Nov 2016

Pilgrimage Project, David Sheffler, Mike Boyles, Christopher Baynard, Ron Lukens-Bull

DHI Digital Projects Showcase

The University of North Florida Pilgrimage Project combines interdisciplinary approaches with digital and STEM technologies and applies them to the study of pilgrimage with a special focus on the Camino de Santiago.


Emotions And Business In A Trans-Mediterranean Jewish Household, Francesca Bregoli Aug 2016

Emotions And Business In A Trans-Mediterranean Jewish Household, Francesca Bregoli

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

These five excerpts come from two letter books that belonged to Joseph Franchetti (ca. 1720-ca. 1794), a successful Jewish merchant of Mantuan origins based in Tunis. At the time of the correspondence (1776-1790), Franchetti was a chief partner in the Salomone Enriches & Joseph Franchetti Company, a family-based trading firm with interests in Tunis, Livorno, and Smyrna. In the 1770s and 1780s, the core of Franchetti’s business was the sale of Tunisian chechias. These hats, made in Tunis with European wool acquired from Livorno, were highly sought after in the Ottoman Empire, with Smyrna serving as key distribution center. The ...


Fear In The Archive: Police Dossiers And The History Of Emotions In Old Regime France, Jeffrey Freedman Aug 2016

Fear In The Archive: Police Dossiers And The History Of Emotions In Old Regime France, Jeffrey Freedman

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The following document is a police dossier drawn from the Y series of the Archives Nationales. Compiled by a neighborhood commissioner named Louis- Pierre Regnard, the dossier contains testimony pertaining to the case of François Fromard, a journeyman quarry worker who hanged himself in his apartment in a working-class neighborhood of Paris on 29 May 1750. According to the testimony of his wife and neighbors, Fromard saw police agents everywhere and, before taking his own life, had become convinced that he was going to be arrested and imprisoned. No one, however, gave any indication that the police were really pursuing ...


The Quality Of Mercy Strained--Regret And Repentance In Early Modern Law, David Myers Aug 2016

The Quality Of Mercy Strained--Regret And Repentance In Early Modern Law, David Myers

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The following texts come from a trial of Catherine Mundt, tried in 1693, for infanticide, and interrogated under torture. The records are preserved in the Stadt Archiv Braunschweig.


“For We Jews Are Merciful”: Emotions And Communal Identity, Elisheva Carlebach Aug 2016

“For We Jews Are Merciful”: Emotions And Communal Identity, Elisheva Carlebach

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Assigning character traits to national groups was a key pastime in the early modern period, part of a process of consolidation of European national identities. This presentation examines the way emotional characteristics were assigned to emerging national groups. In particular, it focuses on the way in which Jewish communal sources employed language and terms of emotion to characterize Jewish communities. Internally the language often functioned to call notice to an ideal that the community was failing to live up to.

The following texts are excerpts from Jewish communal records, as noted for each excerpt


A Short History Of Horror: Early Modern Jews And Their Monsters, Iris Idelson-Shein Aug 2016

A Short History Of Horror: Early Modern Jews And Their Monsters, Iris Idelson-Shein

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The following sources offer a short survey of one particularly troubling source of fear—and indeed horror—in the early modern period, namely—the womb. A mysterious, uniquely feminine organ, for centuries the womb has been the stuff of fantasies and nightmares. It has been imagined at one and the same time as a haven and a hell, a nest and a tomb, a source of pleasure and pain, life and illness.

The following excerpts come from different genres, spaces, and languages. The first two excerpts are taken from two medical compendiums written around the turn of the seventeenth and ...


For The Love Of God: Spiritual Purpose And Mastering Emotions In The Pietistic Writings Of Moses Hayim Luzzatt, David Sclar Aug 2016

For The Love Of God: Spiritual Purpose And Mastering Emotions In The Pietistic Writings Of Moses Hayim Luzzatt, David Sclar

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

During the early modern period, Jews lived with an assumed religious tenet to love their God. Biblical texts, including verses used in the liturgical Shema, explicitly commanded believers to wholly and actively do so. In the twelfth century, Maimonides had described a love of God driven by rational adoration of the Torah (and God’s works), which, appropriately realized, would result in a sense of intellectual and emotional fulfillment. Early modern kabbalists took the notion further by desiring to commune with the living God (devekut), channeling all of their faculties, including emotions, towards the spiritual. Both conceptions idealized love of ...


Rebbe Nachman Of Bratslav's Teachings On Melancholy And Joy, Lawrence Fine Aug 2016

Rebbe Nachman Of Bratslav's Teachings On Melancholy And Joy, Lawrence Fine

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The several texts presented here are from the teachings of Rebbe Nachman of Bratslav (1772-1810), great-grandson of the Ba’al Shem Tov, and one of the very most significant figures in the history of early Hasidism. They are from part two (tinyana) of Nachman’s most important published collection of teachings, Liqqutei Moharan. These passages each address the subject of melancholy—marah shechora in Nahman’s language--as well as its antidote, joy, simchah. While the avoidance of sadness, and the cultivation of joy, are common motifs in classical Hasidism, Rebbe Nachman’s discussion of them deserves special attention in any ...


Emotions In The Margins: Reading Toledot Yeshu After The Affective Turn, Sarit Kattan Gribetz Aug 2016

Emotions In The Margins: Reading Toledot Yeshu After The Affective Turn, Sarit Kattan Gribetz

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

In 826 C.E., Agobard, bishop of Lyon, published a treatise entitled De Judaicis superstitionibus, detailing and ridiculing the ‘superstitions’ of the Jews. The details Agobard recounts make clear that the bishop is referring to a medieval Jewish parody of the story of Jesus’ life, known as Toledot Yeshu (Life of Jesus), composed in Aramaic sometime before the second half of the eighth century and later translated into Hebrew. Toledot Yeshu tells the story of Jesus’ life in a biting, vulgar tone. It was a text composed and used by Jews as an anti-Christian polemic, and as an internal document ...


Emotions And Preaching, Sara Lipton Aug 2016

Emotions And Preaching, Sara Lipton

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Jacques de Vitry (b. ca. 1160, d. 1240) was one of the most famous preachers of the high Middle Ages. Born in northern France, he studied at the University of Paris, and in 1210 became a canon regular in the diocese of Liège. Jacques’s most popular collection, the Sermones vulgares vel ad status, contains sermons recorded in Latin but designed to be preached in the vulgar tongue to laypeople, and arranged according the social class and profession of the audience. The sermon transcribed and translated here appears in Jacques’s less popular collection—the Sermones dominicales et festivales. Less ...


Emw 2016: History Of Emotions/Emotions In History, Fordham University Aug 2016

Emw 2016: History Of Emotions/Emotions In History, Fordham University

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The 2016 Early Modern Workshop on “History of Emotions/Emotions in History” was held at Fordham University.

Alongside earlier “turns” such as the linguistic and the cultural, an “emotional turn” has provided historians with a fresh perspective to consider the past. Emotion structures human experience. But emotions are shaped by languages of expression that can have ramifications for human thought and behavior. Historians pursuing research about emotions tend to follow one of two tacks: either to explore emotions as an object of inquiry in its own right (did people in the past “feel” differently than we do today?) or to ...


Geography Of Gender And The Gender Of Geography In The Roman Imagination, Austin Howard May 2016

Geography Of Gender And The Gender Of Geography In The Roman Imagination, Austin Howard

Student Research Symposium

This paper argues for a profound link between gendered stereotypes and geography in the Graeco-Roman imagination focusing on the early Roman Empire. Hitherto, this link has been mentioned, sometimes assumed, and almost never treated as a venture worthy or deeper study or unifying themes, apart from questions of “proto-racism.” Notwithstanding, the links can be drawn comparing how the peoples living in different parts of the empire are described and how stereotypes of gender also appear in historical and literary texts. By careful examination (including cross-examination) of Strabo, Tacitus, Livy, Julius Caesar, and others, I seek the argue for a strong ...


The Roma And Sinti In Germany: Orientalism And Exclusion From German Historical Narratives (Romantisiert, Kriminalisiert, Und Abgewertet: Orientalismus Und Narrative Der Roma Und Sinti In Deutschland), Kimberly A. Longfellow Apr 2016

The Roma And Sinti In Germany: Orientalism And Exclusion From German Historical Narratives (Romantisiert, Kriminalisiert, Und Abgewertet: Orientalismus Und Narrative Der Roma Und Sinti In Deutschland), Kimberly A. Longfellow

Celebration

The Roma and Sinti represent presence and absence in German culture. Although there has been a population of Roma and Sinti in Germany for centuries, they are often perceived by the German majority population as distinctly "eastern" and, as such, non-German. The perceptions of Roma by the German majority population mimic Orientalist assumptions, where the Roma are romanticized, criminalized, and generally devalued in comparison to Eurocentric narratives. Through an analysis of the Roma presence in German history, literature, and current events, one can see that the experience of the Roma in Germany is largely structured by the perceptions and assumptions ...


The Evolving Depictions Of Women In Films About The Holocaust (Die Sich Entwickelnden Darstellungen Von Frauen In Visuellen Texten Zum Holocaust), Alexandra J. Leclaire Apr 2016

The Evolving Depictions Of Women In Films About The Holocaust (Die Sich Entwickelnden Darstellungen Von Frauen In Visuellen Texten Zum Holocaust), Alexandra J. Leclaire

Celebration

This paper explores how women are depicted in films about the Holocaust. Close readings of three films about the Holocaust reveal that the year of production, not the gender of the director or country of origin, is the greatest factor in how women are depicted. The miniseries Holocaust (1978) set the stage for depictions of women as naive and sexualized. Europa Europa (1990) continued to depict women in a typical way, as set by Holocaust (1978). Phönix (2014) departed from typical depictions of women by showing them as independent and not sexualized.


Vietnamese Contract Workers In The East German Republic, Sean W. Hough Apr 2016

Vietnamese Contract Workers In The East German Republic, Sean W. Hough

Celebration

This paper will analyze the historical and cultural conditions that affected how the German Democratic Republic treated one of its largest minority groups, the Vietnamese. During the height of the Cold War and as Decolonization reached its peak phase in the 1960s and 70s, these two factors pushed the GDR and Vietnam closer, which resulted in an exchange in workers. Contract Workers were brought to the GDR to work in an environment "united in socialist solidarity." However, despite this rhetoric, age-old racism, xenophobia, and Orientalism still infiltrated the so called "Socialist Paradise," as the GDR was often called by its ...


What’S Your Temperament: The Humoral Theory’S Influence On Medicine In Ancient Greece, Riley Sebers Apr 2016

What’S Your Temperament: The Humoral Theory’S Influence On Medicine In Ancient Greece, Riley Sebers

Young Historians Conference

Prior to the birth of Hippocrates of Cos in 460 BCE, medicine in ancient Greece revolved around the gods and magic. During Hippocrates lifetime, he remastered an old practice called the humoral theory: an idea stating that every individual person has a unique balance of substances called humors in their body. The balance of these humors is what keeps a man healthy, and if a specific amount is disturbed, sickness sets in. This theory allowed physicians in ancient Greece to move away from dominantly using magic to treat illness and start using the humoral theory instead.


The Devil Is In The Details: A Study Of How Ancient Greek Historian Thucydides’ Greatest Work, The History Of The Peloponnesian War, Changed Historiography, Kirsten E. Dodge Apr 2016

The Devil Is In The Details: A Study Of How Ancient Greek Historian Thucydides’ Greatest Work, The History Of The Peloponnesian War, Changed Historiography, Kirsten E. Dodge

Young Historians Conference

Before the time of recorded history, how did people view historical events? Was it just a story that was told and past down with narrative embellishments? Or did they take a more factual approach? This essay will explore one such work of historiography that attempts to transcend history as a story, and more as a necessary combination of dry facts for future generations to use. Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War endeavors to relay only the facts of what he thought would be one of the most influential wars in the history of his modern world.


The Islamic Iberian Peninsula: Cultural Fusion And Coexistence, Miguel A. Claxton Iii Apr 2016

The Islamic Iberian Peninsula: Cultural Fusion And Coexistence, Miguel A. Claxton Iii

Young Historians Conference

The Islamic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in the 8th century was the first occurrence of Islam reaching mainland Europe. Rather than bloody battles or wars fueled by ideological differences, which usually accompany invasions, the invasion of Iberia lacked any major conflict or bloodshed. The following four hundred years of Islamic dominance in the region is characterized by the same lack of conflict. Through initial limited exposure, and eventual cultural fusion, Muslims and non-Muslims were able to coexist in a society that was uniquely multicultural.


Empress Matilda: Always The Consort, Never The Queen, Sadie M. Kok-Carlson Apr 2016

Empress Matilda: Always The Consort, Never The Queen, Sadie M. Kok-Carlson

Young Historians Conference

In 12th century Europe, a world built and run primarily by men, a woman's success was defined through the men around her. This social concept applied especially to Empress Matilda, whose opportunity to claim her right to the throne of England was squandered by her husband, her rival, and her contemporaries. This paper examines the series of events leading up to the subsequent anarchistic civil war, argues that the decisions made by opposing parties were driven by sexist attitudes of the era, and affirms the importance of recognizing and remembering the Queen of England that never was.


The Role And Influence Of Anne Boleyn, Cynthia L. Abrams Apr 2016

The Role And Influence Of Anne Boleyn, Cynthia L. Abrams

Young Historians Conference

While Anne Boleyn's reputation is one that is often associated with Elizabeth I and her scandalous relationship with King Henry VIII, following her death she began to be identified as a Protestant reformer and proto-feminist. Drawing on primary sources including Anne Boleyn's correspondence with King Henry VIII and Cardinal Wolsey, as well as her portrayal in John Foxe's Book of Martyrs, this paper examines her defiance of 16th century social norms, specifically refusing to remain a mistress, favor of biblical translations, and manipulation of Henry VIII.


Music In The Hapsburg Empire 1750-1850, Alexander S. Klas Apr 2016

Music In The Hapsburg Empire 1750-1850, Alexander S. Klas

Young Historians Conference

This paper examines the role of music within the Habsburg empire in the century between 1750 and 1850. Music was used as a political tool beginning in the reign of Empress Maria Theresa to incite hostility against foreign enemies, reinforce public perception of the Habsburgs as leaders of the German nation, and stifle revolutionary sentiments among the populace. Drawing upon biographies and analysis of composers found in the Milton Cross' Encyclopedia of the Great Composers and their Music by Milton Cross and David Ewen from throughout the period, this paper demonstrates that patronage of music gave the Habsburgs a way ...


The Link Between Artemisia Gentileschi’S Biography And Her Artistic Oeuvre, Emma Komers Apr 2016

The Link Between Artemisia Gentileschi’S Biography And Her Artistic Oeuvre, Emma Komers

Young Historians Conference

Up until the era of Modern Art, the artistic community excluded women and dismissed their work as inferior. One exception to this trend is the 17th-century Italian artist, Artemisia Gentileschi, whose work demonstrated her ability to use scenes depicting familiar stories as a way to express her personal struggles as a woman. Drawing upon historical interpretations of her art, popular stories at the time, and the artwork itself, this paper demonstrates the use of art as a tool to communicate social injustice.


Alexander Of Macedonia And His Transformation Into Despotism, Brandon Tran Apr 2016

Alexander Of Macedonia And His Transformation Into Despotism, Brandon Tran

Young Historians Conference

At the age 20, Alexander of Macedonia began his campaign. After inheriting Macedonia from his father, he would expand his empire, stretching from Ancient Greece to Asia Minor. Besides conquering the land, Alexander changed the land by connecting cultures, adopting foreign customs and expanding trade. Historians like Plutarch and Arrian of the Second Sophistic Age would call him Alexander the Great. But was he truly great? His military campaign was riddled with atrocities and unjustified murders, but history books still describe Alexander as a great man. This paper explores the viewpoints of antiquities greatest historians like Plutarch and Arrian, while ...


Charles University: A History Of Revolution, Matous Komers Apr 2016

Charles University: A History Of Revolution, Matous Komers

Young Historians Conference

Although the students of Prague’s Charles University are mostly remembered for starting the Velvet Revolution in the 20th Century, the university’s history of revolution started nearly seven hundred years earlier with a young priest named Jan Hus. Hus started a movement of religious reform called Hussitism, which laid the groundwork for the Protestant Reformation. “Charles University: A History of Revolution” explores the impact and influence that Charles University had on the development and spread of the Hussite Reformation and Hus’ massive theological shift.


To What Extent Did British Advancements In Cryptanalysis During World War Ii Influence The Development Of Computer Technology?, Hayley A. Leblanc Apr 2016

To What Extent Did British Advancements In Cryptanalysis During World War Ii Influence The Development Of Computer Technology?, Hayley A. Leblanc

Young Historians Conference

This investigation will focus on the advancements made in the field of computing by British codebreakers working on German ciphers during World War II (1939­1945). Along with examining the state of code­breaking technology before the war, it will discuss the nature of computing after the war up until the present to determine the impact of the war on computers. It will consider being electronic (rather than electromechanical) as the defining characteristic of modern computers. This investigation will not discuss the cryptanalysis effort by any other country during the war, nor will it consider cryptography ­related advancements after the ...