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Full-Text Articles in European History

The Uncrowned King: Axel Oxenstierna And Sweden's Rise To Power During The Thirty Years War, Forest R. Johnson Iii Jan 2016

The Uncrowned King: Axel Oxenstierna And Sweden's Rise To Power During The Thirty Years War, Forest R. Johnson Iii

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Axel Oxenstierna, the Chancellor of Sweden from 1611-1656 (his death), played an important role in the development of Swedish power through the Thirty Years War, and crafted reforms and policies which revitalized Sweden's system of governance when it was needed most. Though the monarchs he served, Gustavus Adolphus and his daughter Christina, have become well known figures of early modern European history, Oxenstierna has unfairly been left out of many history books. Given his numerous and enormous influences on both monarchs, as well as the political climate which resulted from the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 and the governance ...


Cats And Dogs: The Development Of The Household Pet Through Symbolic Interpretations And Social Practices In The Middle Ages And Renaissance, Lindsey Nicole Blair Jan 2016

Cats And Dogs: The Development Of The Household Pet Through Symbolic Interpretations And Social Practices In The Middle Ages And Renaissance, Lindsey Nicole Blair

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Cats and dogs are perhaps the most ubiquitous and consistently represented animals throughout documented human history. Forms of the respective species have roamed the earth for millions of years; however, cats and dogs have held different societal positions ranging from exalted deities to pests. The shifting attitudes and social practices between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance in Western Europe fostered the reexamination of the relationship between humans and animals. Dogs – and later cats – were the earliest animals to be allowed occupancy inside the medieval house solely to serve utilitarian needs. The development of the modern day concept of the ...