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2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 316

Full-Text Articles in European History

Forum: Spanish Online Resources For Spanish And Latin American History, Roger L. Martínez-Dávila Dec 2016

Forum: Spanish Online Resources For Spanish And Latin American History, Roger L. Martínez-Dávila

Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies

The mid-2010s are a challenging period to investigate digital collections precisely because they exist as patchwork of emerging collections that are incompletely indexed, and thus it is difficult to appreciate their significance. For diligent researchers who employ a robust digital search methodology, there are substantial opportunities to locate and reveal high-dispersed and fragmentary histories. This researcher proposes six essential approaches to researching electronic collections based on personal expertise in physically researching in almost thirty Spanish private, local, church, provincial, and national archives and libraries, as well as countless digital collections.

The essential online digital collections for Spanish and Latin American ...


Beyond Cultural Imperialism: Rethinking Americanization, National Identity, And “Difference” In Post-Franco Spain, Hamilton M. Stapell Dec 2016

Beyond Cultural Imperialism: Rethinking Americanization, National Identity, And “Difference” In Post-Franco Spain, Hamilton M. Stapell

Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies

It was in the 1980s that Americanization became seen as a real cultural danger in Europe, especially in France and West Germany. While this resistance to American cultural influence has been well established in the existing scholarship, Spain’s reaction has remained far less clear. The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the Spanish response, especially in light of the French reaction. The main argument of this paper is that Spain may be somewhat of an exception to the European norm. Spaniards often welcomed American investment, business know-how, and cultural products with open arms. In these cases it appears ...


Franco's Spain And The European Integration Process (1945-1975), Enrique Moradiellos Dec 2016

Franco's Spain And The European Integration Process (1945-1975), Enrique Moradiellos

Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies

The Francoist dictatorship had a highly complex relationship with the European integration process started after 1945. On account of its authoritarian profile and pro-Axis policies during the Second World War, Spain was barred access to the new European institutions and organisations created in the postwar era. As a result, the Spanish regime adopted an official attitude of contempt towards the European integration process up to 1957. But the creation of the European Economic Community forced a marked change in its policies because Spain could not afford to be left out of the Common Market. The consequent search for some sort ...


Nuevas Reflexiones Sobre “Elena, Alias Eleno De Céspedes”, Transgénero, Redes Sociales Y Libertad En La España Del Siglo Xvi, Aurelia Martín Casares Prof., Magdalena Díaz Hernández Dec 2016

Nuevas Reflexiones Sobre “Elena, Alias Eleno De Céspedes”, Transgénero, Redes Sociales Y Libertad En La España Del Siglo Xvi, Aurelia Martín Casares Prof., Magdalena Díaz Hernández

Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies

Hasta ahora el personaje de Elena de Céspedes, una esclava que llegó a ser cirujano y a casarse con una mujer, ha sido reconocido por su dualidad sexual, de género o de ocupación. Sin embargo, todos esos factores se interrelacionan en la construcción de su realidad transgenéro. El cross-dressing o travestismo, el género fluido, la androginia y la transexualidad fueron elementos esenciales en la construcción de diferentes tipos de redes sociales que le posibilitaron ascender personal, social y profesionalmente, obteniendo así un amplio margen de libertad en la España de finales del siglo XVI.

Precisamente, el gran valor de Elena ...


“An Impossible Quid Pro Quo”: Representations Of Tomás De Torquemada, Carolyn Salomons Dec 2016

“An Impossible Quid Pro Quo”: Representations Of Tomás De Torquemada, Carolyn Salomons

Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies

The name Tomás de Torquemada has become synonymous with the Holy Office of the Spanish Inquisition, and a symbol of religious fanaticism, hatred, oppression of minorities, and even sadism. Throughout the centuries since his death, he has been co-opted by writers and artists as a representation of cruelty and persecution. Although contemporaries praised him (albeit somewhat carefully), and he certainly enjoyed the favor of his monarchs, Isabel and Ferdinand, after his death Torquemada quickly gained a nefarious reputation as a fanatical zealot and a torturer, a characterization which lingers today. How did an (admittedly) austere Dominican come to so powerfully ...


Hidden Jews Of The Balkans, Joshua A. Futtersak Dec 2016

Hidden Jews Of The Balkans, Joshua A. Futtersak

Capstones

The history of the Jewish people is one filled with trials, triumphs, and often devastation. Many believe themselves to be educated in Jewish history, but we often have blind spots in our research and schooling. This project aims to look at just one region of Jewish history to tell the stories that are not usually told.

The Balkan region is incredibly diverse in its ethnicities and cultures. The history of the Jews in this region expresses that diversity. This project focuses on the unique stories of the Jewish communities in Bosnia, Serbia, and Greece. These stories of survival and perseverance ...


Warlord: The Political And Military Ambitions Of Nazi Germany, William R. Underhill Dec 2016

Warlord: The Political And Military Ambitions Of Nazi Germany, William R. Underhill

Senior Theses

There are so many important stories to consider when thinking about World War II. It is easy to think about the popular aspects of the war: the causes, the major figures, the battles, and, of course, the lasting consequences. Yet there are other, lesser known storylines to consider, ones that have taken a backseat to the more popular narratives of the time. It is commonly understood that Nazi Germany was evil and that they had nothing but ill intentions for the rest of Europe and the world. However, it is vital to understand that Germany’s pre-war intentions are notably ...


The Writers, Artists, Singers, And Musicians Of The National Hungarian Jewish Cultural Association (Omike), 1939–1944, Frederick Bondy Dec 2016

The Writers, Artists, Singers, And Musicians Of The National Hungarian Jewish Cultural Association (Omike), 1939–1944, Frederick Bondy

Purdue University Press Book Previews

In May 1938, Hungary passed anti-Semitic laws causing hundreds of Jewish artists to lose their jobs. In response, Budapest’s Jewish community leaders organized an Artistic Enterprise under the aegis of OMIKE Országos Magyar Izraelita Közművelődési Egyesület (Hungarian Jewish Education Association) to provide employment and livelihood for actors, singers, musicians, conductors, composers, writers, playwrights, painters, graphic artists, and sculptors.

Between 1939 and 1944, activities were centered in Goldmark Hall beside the Dohány Street Synagogue in Budapest. Hundreds of artists from all over Hungary took part in about one thousand performances, including plays, concerts, cabaret, ballet, operas, and operettas. These performances ...


The Deportation Journeys Of The Holocaust, Connor Schonta Dec 2016

The Deportation Journeys Of The Holocaust, Connor Schonta

The Kabod

Roughly three million Jews were transported to extermination centers by train during the Holocaust.[1] Nearly all who boarded deportation trains were unaware of the fate that awaited them; and for most, fate meant death in a gas chamber.[2] Some, however, did survive. This paper is about that experience. It is a significant endeavor to study the accounts of Holocaust survivors, for through it, one is reminded of how much the victims endured, and that it truly happened—it happened to real individuals at a real time in history. And as they are remembered, may they be rightfully honored ...


Like Angels Among Them: John Calvin And The Protestant Pastorate, Jeff Temple Dec 2016

Like Angels Among Them: John Calvin And The Protestant Pastorate, Jeff Temple

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

One of the most significant challenges faced by sixteenth century Protestants was the need to define the character and function of the ministerial office. Having rejected the medieval model of a cleric who mediated contacted with the Divine via the sacramental system, Protestant were confronted with the task of redefining the clerical task in light of their core values of sola fide and sola Scriptura. The first generation Reformers, however (men like Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli and Martin Bucer), had proven unable to meet this challenge in a sustained and substantial way. Thus, the task fell to the next generation ...


The Prince And The Prophet Of Florence: Investigating The Impact Of Savonarola's Anthropology On The Political Philosophy Of Machiavelli, Mikah Sauskojus Dec 2016

The Prince And The Prophet Of Florence: Investigating The Impact Of Savonarola's Anthropology On The Political Philosophy Of Machiavelli, Mikah Sauskojus

Senior Honors Theses

This study seeks to investigate a connection between the political thought of Machiavelli and the philosophy prevalent in the work of Girolamo Savonarola. In this consideration, it will be necessary to examine the works of Savonarola. After considering Savonarola, the study focuses on Machiavelli and apparent similarities between the two men’s writings. In addition to cross-referencing Machiavelli and Savonarola, it is necessary to cross-reference the work of Machiavelli with other humanist sources to determine whether or not Machiavelli’s alternative perspectives of human nature can be synthesized into the larger context of the scholarship of his day. For this ...


Nazi Looted Art: View Of A Dutch Square Through Time, Rosita Saul, Bryleigh Sue Blaise Dec 2016

Nazi Looted Art: View Of A Dutch Square Through Time, Rosita Saul, Bryleigh Sue Blaise

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

After World War II, many Jewish families and their possessions were displaced or seized by German forces, only to resurface after the war. The case of the Kraus family and their painting, View of a Dutch Square, confiscated by the Nazis in 1941, raises particular questions about restitution laws. Our project traces the origin of the painting and displays how the restitution process fell apart when the Bavarian government, charged with the responsibility of returning stolen art to its rightful owners, failed to follow through on their commitment: even returning missing art pieces to the very Nazis who stole them ...


"Os Retornados" With Antunes: Luanda, Angola And Lisbon, Daniel De Zubia Fernández Dec 2016

"Os Retornados" With Antunes: Luanda, Angola And Lisbon, Daniel De Zubia Fernández

CALL: Irish Journal for Culture, Arts, Literature and Language

António Lobo Antunes explores a forced encounter of a Portuguese diaspora with Africa for some settlers. He examines the nature of the bi-directional diaspora for “os retornados”, who, having returned to Portugal after independence of the colonies, found they were invisible in the eyes of Portugal, as portrayed in ‘O esplendor de Portugal’ and in ‘A história do hidroavião’. Luanda, Angola and Lisbon are depicted as spaces where each individual represents the reverse of the Portuguese colonial past. Antunes turns to historical facts as a source for a critical fiction. The prominence given to the experience of Africa and Portugal ...


Paris Calling: Typical And Untypical Experiences Of Latin American And African Diasporas, Kian-Harald Karimi Dec 2016

Paris Calling: Typical And Untypical Experiences Of Latin American And African Diasporas, Kian-Harald Karimi

CALL: Irish Journal for Culture, Arts, Literature and Language

A metropolis such as Paris may provide a common ground for the experiences of migrants coming from Africa and Latin American. The traditional capital of Latin American literatures is also considered to be the greatest agglomeration of African immigrants mostly coming from former French colonies. But a common ground does not necessarily mean that they have a great deal in common. Two novels, Café Nostalgia by the Cuban author Zoé Valdés and Black Bazar by the Congolese writer Alain Mabanckou, not only define the topographic base of their exile. They also discuss the special reasons for their residence in ...


The Choral Intensification Of A Chronotope, Lluís Muntada Vendrell Dec 2016

The Choral Intensification Of A Chronotope, Lluís Muntada Vendrell

CALL: Irish Journal for Culture, Arts, Literature and Language

According to an ancient constant, literature can be regarded as a struggle against oblivion, as an attempt to preserve individual and collective memory. On the grounds of the Pragmatics of Literature, we can consider that the processes of (re)construction of the literary memory of rootlessness, exile, persecution and imprisonment reveal two basic types of creative models: the objective description of reality and a plausible fictionality. This paper focuses on the first of these two creative models through the exploration and critical analysis of the book Allez! Allez!, which contains a set of texts by several authors compiled by Professor ...


Names Of The Territory, Meanings Of Exile: Language And Space In The Catalan Exile (1939), Iglesias Narcis Dec 2016

Names Of The Territory, Meanings Of Exile: Language And Space In The Catalan Exile (1939), Iglesias Narcis

CALL: Irish Journal for Culture, Arts, Literature and Language

In 1939 a large number of Catalan and Spanish republicans left their country and sought shelter in France from the fascist army of the insurgent general Francisco Franco. The exile was a process which went through several stages: fleeing, crossing the border, settling in a new place, pondering their own and others’ identities, accepting their condition of rootlessness. From diverse written sources, such as personal diaries, reports, fiction texts, interviews, etc., I will focus on the analysis of the naming of the sites and the territory in two key moments: the moment of their flight and their arrival in the ...


The Poet And The Polemist: Demystifying The Natural Law Theory Of John Milton, John J. Mazola Dec 2016

The Poet And The Polemist: Demystifying The Natural Law Theory Of John Milton, John J. Mazola

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

A summation of the influences behind Milton's Natural Law theory as found in the works of Aristotle, Grotius, Hobbes, and Thomas Aquinas. The essay's intent is to uncover this important thread that runs through both Milton's Poetic Verse as well as his Polemic tracts.


"The Path To Ruin: Inflexibility, Delusion, And Discord Between The Kaiser, Chancellor, And German High Command In The Great War", Nicholas Vecchio Dec 2016

"The Path To Ruin: Inflexibility, Delusion, And Discord Between The Kaiser, Chancellor, And German High Command In The Great War", Nicholas Vecchio

#History: A Journal of Student Research

This paper focuses on the political and military decisions of the German High Command during the First World War. After first examining the unresolved historiographic discourse over Germany’s fifth Imperial Chancellor, Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, it explores the backgrounds of Kaiser Wilhelm II, Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg, General Erich von Falkenhayn, and General Erich Ludendorff, and studies the argument within the High Command over whether Germany should focus her war efforts on the western or eastern fronts. Two central theses are argued: (1) Germany had numerous opportunities to end the war diplomatically with favorable terms once it was clear they would ...


James Gustavus Whiteley: The Lost Agent Of King Leopold Ii, Jonathan Broida Dec 2016

James Gustavus Whiteley: The Lost Agent Of King Leopold Ii, Jonathan Broida

#History: A Journal of Student Research

No abstract provided.


George Grenville, Caleb Follmer Dec 2016

George Grenville, Caleb Follmer

#History: A Journal of Student Research

British Prime Minister George Grenville is frequently misunderstood. Unlike his predecessors, he sought compromise with the British colonies in North America, did not abuse the power and influence granted to him by him appointment, and did not award himself lavish gifts and a high salary under the guise of financial responsibility. Grenville actively sought to consolidate Britain's debt through his unwavering work ethic and honest business ideas. He also worked to find a new way to govern and control the British North American colonies. Left in debt by the costly Seven Years War, Britain expected her colonies to pay ...


Gender Reflections: A Reconsideration Of Pictish Mirror And Comb Symbols, Traci N. Billings Dec 2016

Gender Reflections: A Reconsideration Of Pictish Mirror And Comb Symbols, Traci N. Billings

Theses and Dissertations

The interpretation of prehistoric iconography is complicated by the tendency to project

contemporary male/female gender dichotomies into the past. Pictish monumental stone sculpture

in Scotland has been studied over the last 100 years. Traditionally, mirror and comb symbols

found on some stones produced in Scotland between AD 400 and AD 900 have been interpreted

as being associated exclusively with women and/or the female gender. This thesis re-examines

this assumption in light of more recent work to offer a new interpretation of Pictish mirror and

comb symbols and to suggest a larger context for their possible meaning. Utilizing the ...


Immigrant And Irish Identities In Hand In The Fire And Hamilton's Writing Between 2003 And 2014, Dervila Cooke Dec 2016

Immigrant And Irish Identities In Hand In The Fire And Hamilton's Writing Between 2003 And 2014, Dervila Cooke

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

In her article "Immigrant and Irish Identities in Hand in the Fire and Hamilton's Writing between 2003 and 2014" Dervila Cooke discusses the intertwining of Irish and immigrant identities. Cooke examines the connection between openness to memory and embracing migrant identities in Hamilton's writing both in the 2010 novel and as a whole. The empathetic and inclusive character of Helen in Hand in the Fire is analyzed in contrast to characters who have repressed memory including the Serbian Vid. Helen's ties to elsewhere, her openness to new influence, and her willingness to engage with traumatic elements of ...


Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2016 Annual Report, Michael Nassaney Dec 2016

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2016 Annual Report, Michael Nassaney

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

This year the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project continued to build upon its foundations and develop new research, teaching, and public outreach activities directed towards the study of the fur trade and colonialism in southwest Michigan. The Project is a collaboration between Western Michigan University (WMU) faculty and students, the City of Niles, the Fort St. Joseph Archaeology Advisory Commission (FSJAAC), interested stakeholders, supporters, members, and community volunteers in the greater Niles community.


Similarities Between Groups On Irish Home Rule And Independence, Cassie Young Dec 2016

Similarities Between Groups On Irish Home Rule And Independence, Cassie Young

History Class Publications

In this paper, I looked at two varieties of nationalism in nineteenth-twentieth century Ireland (parliamentary and revolutionary nationalism) and compared them to each other and to unionism. Specifically, I looked at how they were similar in their concern for religious equality, appeals to pride and love of country, desire for increased political rights, and the need to be unified.


Prudery And Perversion: Domination Of The Sexual Body In Middle-Class Men, Women, And Disenfranchised Bodies In Victorian England, Ashley Barnett Dec 2016

Prudery And Perversion: Domination Of The Sexual Body In Middle-Class Men, Women, And Disenfranchised Bodies In Victorian England, Ashley Barnett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research argues that with the rise of the middle-class, Victorian England saw the development of a power model in which middle-class men, middle-class women and disenfranchised bodies of children and lower-class women suffered from the demands of bodily domination. Because the bodily health of middle-class men was believed to represent national health, it was imperative that he dominate his body, particularly with regard to sexual urges. Consequently, the bodies of women with whom he sought sexual release suffered from forms of bodily domination as well. Through an analysis of journals and private writings of those living in Victorian England ...


Prisoner Resistance In The Auschwitz And Buchenwald Concentration Camps, Regina Coffey Dec 2016

Prisoner Resistance In The Auschwitz And Buchenwald Concentration Camps, Regina Coffey

Honors Theses

A great deal has been written about the Holocaust and about resistance organizations that formed in the concentration camps. Much of this literature, however, tends to focus on the contributions of a particular group of prisoners rather than on the many groups that came together to form these organizations. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine the resistance organizations in Auschwitz and Buchenwald concentration camps using firsthand accounts and to come to a conclusion on how cooperation between different groups of prisoners affected the overall effectiveness of these resistance organizations.


Thematic Bibliography To New Work On Immigration And Identity In Contemporary France, Québec, And Ireland, Dervila Cooke Dec 2016

Thematic Bibliography To New Work On Immigration And Identity In Contemporary France, Québec, And Ireland, Dervila Cooke

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

No abstract provided.


The Failure Of Westphalia: A Constructivist Examination Of Western And Middle Eastern Relations, Jayson Warren Dec 2016

The Failure Of Westphalia: A Constructivist Examination Of Western And Middle Eastern Relations, Jayson Warren

Masters Theses

This thesis is not intended to be a dogmatic or pedantic endorsement of any one religion, ethic, or culture. To the contrary, it is the intent of the author to examine a number of competing ideas, philosophies, and belief systems in order to extrapolate their geopolitical implications and to pursue them to their logical (albeit sometimes inevitable) conclusions. Too often, any number of presuppositions at work within a given situation go overlooked and subsequently skew geopolitical analysis and resulting policy decisions. This thesis seeks to transcend mere opinion or speculation and achieve instead a framework of Constructivism for pragmatic comprehension ...


French Women In Art: Reclaiming The Body Through Creation/Les Femmes Artistes Françaises : La Réclamation Du Corps À Travers La Création, Liatris Hethcoat Dec 2016

French Women In Art: Reclaiming The Body Through Creation/Les Femmes Artistes Françaises : La Réclamation Du Corps À Travers La Création, Liatris Hethcoat

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The research I have conducted for my French Major Senior Thesis is a culmination of my passion for and studies of both French language and culture and the history and practice of Visual Arts. I have examined, across the history of art, the representation of women, and concluded that until the 20th century, these representations have been tools employed by the makers of history and those at the top of the patriarchal system, used to control women’s images and thus women themselves. I survey these representations, which are largely created by men—until the 20th century. I ...


Review Of Muslims And Jews In France. History Of A Conflict By Maud S. Mandel, Bryan Turner Dec 2016

Review Of Muslims And Jews In France. History Of A Conflict By Maud S. Mandel, Bryan Turner

Publications and Research

The mood of European scholarship with respect to the recognition and integration of Islam is typically pessimistic. The rise of anti-immigrant and anti-Islam political parties – Golden Dawn in Greece, the Northern League in Italy, Marine Le Penn and the National Front in France, and the English defense league in Britain – have exposed a hitherto hidden or ignored under-current of resentment against foreigners. In the context of these developments, Maud Mandel’s study of Muslims and Jews in France is a welcome corrective to the dominant focus on anti-Islam in the academic literature and in the popular media. The historical picture ...