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2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 247

Full-Text Articles in European History

Homes Across The Border: Russian Summer Houses In The Karelian Isthmus And The Finnish State, 1917–1927, Kitty Lam Dec 2012

Homes Across The Border: Russian Summer Houses In The Karelian Isthmus And The Finnish State, 1917–1927, Kitty Lam

Faculty Publications & Research

At the end of the 19th century, numerous St. Petersburg residents established their summer homes in the Karelian Isthmus, a picturesque region in the Grand Duchy of Finland, an autonomous province of the Russian Empire. The ease of travel between the Russian imperial capital and the Finnish seaside towns contributed to this practice. After 1917, a new border regime delineated the nascent Finnish state from the equally new Russian/ Soviet state. This change displaced the majority of Russian proprietors, as well as those imperial subjects who rented vacation properties from local Finns. This article addresses how state-building practices distinguishing between ...


Impostos E Alternativas, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2012

Impostos E Alternativas, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

O Tribunal Constitucional terá que muito provavelmente apreciar o OGE para 2013. Será uma prova decisiva para a nossa democracia e a II República. Façamos entretanto um recuo e lembremos, ainda que muito sucintamente, os problemas de legitimação de qualquer tributação, e o contrato social para que remete. Será também que, como se dizia nos tempos da "dama de ferro", "there is no alternative"? Há sempre alternativas. Por isso é que há política e não mera tecnocracia. Há sempre Política. E sempre pode haver outras políticas, desde que haja políticos com coragem, imaginação e competência.


Daniel O’Connell’S Struggle To Harness Religion And Nationalism In The Pursuit Of Universal Civil Rights And Home Rule In Ireland, Colin Daunt Dec 2012

Daniel O’Connell’S Struggle To Harness Religion And Nationalism In The Pursuit Of Universal Civil Rights And Home Rule In Ireland, Colin Daunt

History Theses

In this paper I examined the religious shift in Irish national identity, from Protestant to Catholic, in the early 19th century. This shift was led by Daniel O’Connell, who led the Irish home rule movement up until his death in 1847. O’Connell had to maintain a delicate balance in his push for independence; he wanted a legislatively independent and unified Ireland for both Catholics and Protestants. But he could never attain the balance he desired because the Protestants were always wary of the O’Connell’s Catholicism. Their wariness was due to O’Connell’s early focus ...


Massa E Elite. Uma Lição Da 'Renascença Portuguesa', Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2012

Massa E Elite. Uma Lição Da 'Renascença Portuguesa', Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Há muitos mitos e preconceitos sobre o elitismo e o seu papel em democracia. Confunde-se elite com oligarquia, por exemplo. Desde a Antiga Grécia que os regimes mais perfeitos eram mistos, em que não havia um único princípio a governar, mas vários. Hoje que as manifestações enchem as ruas e as massas podem ter maior protagonismo (já o estão a ter) é preciso refletir sobre o papel das massas e de como se relacionam com as elites. Um contributo para essa reflexão está já no movimento da Renascença Portuguesa, que se encontra em tempo de comemoração, mas também revisitação crítica ...


Miracles In The Shadow Of The Economic Miracle: The 'Supernatural 50s' In West Germany, Monica Black Dec 2012

Miracles In The Shadow Of The Economic Miracle: The 'Supernatural 50s' In West Germany, Monica Black

Monica Black

This essay explores the overlapping worlds of spiritual healing, everyday magic, popular religion, and witchcraft beliefs in West Germany in the 1950s. Available at: http://0-www.jstor.org.library.simmons.edu/stable/full/10.1086/667597 Article DOI: 10.1086/667597


Miracles In The Shadow Of The Economic Miracle: The 'Supernatural 50s' In West Germany, Monica Black Dec 2012

Miracles In The Shadow Of The Economic Miracle: The 'Supernatural 50s' In West Germany, Monica Black

History Publications and Other Works

This essay explores the overlapping worlds of spiritual healing, everyday magic, popular religion, and witchcraft beliefs in West Germany in the 1950s.

Available at: http://0-www.jstor.org.library.simmons.edu/stable/full/10.1086/667597

Article DOI: 10.1086/667597


'Graecomans’ Into Bulgarians: Shifting Perceptions Of Greek- Bulgarian Interethnic Marriages In The Nineteenth Century, Evguenia Davidova Dec 2012

'Graecomans’ Into Bulgarians: Shifting Perceptions Of Greek- Bulgarian Interethnic Marriages In The Nineteenth Century, Evguenia Davidova

International & Global Studies Faculty Publications and Presentations

This article employs Greek-Bulgarian interethnic marriage as a category of analysis to contextualize the intersection of language, class, gender, and nationalism. Such marriages reveal pragmatic practices of auto-hellenization as expressions of eclectic urban lifestyles that flourished in the Ottoman era up to the 1830s, a process interrupted by the emergence of nation-states and the Tanzimat that led to intra-millet conflicts in which the groups caught in-between became scapegoats. Also, Greek language (enriched with a Turkish and Slav mix), a blend that can be called Balkan commercial koinē, which played a cohesive role similar to its Hellenistic predecessor, became a target ...


Zoomorphic Penannular Brooches In 6th And 7th Century Ireland, Esther G. Ward Dec 2012

Zoomorphic Penannular Brooches In 6th And 7th Century Ireland, Esther G. Ward

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Creative Activity, School of Art, Art History and Design

In this thesis the author examines the evolution, manufacture, and societal significance of zoomorphic penannular brooches, a type of metal dress fastener used in early medieval Ireland that is often decorated. The brooches examined are dated to the 6th and 7th centuries, during which the Irish underwent a process of religious conversion from Celtic paganism to Christianity, and social rank was paramount. It is in this social context that the brooches are examined. Despite the significance of this time of social change, brooches from this period tend to be overlooked by scholarship in favor of the more ornate ...


Ralph Raico: Champion Of Authentic Liberalism, Daniel P. Stanford Dec 2012

Ralph Raico: Champion Of Authentic Liberalism, Daniel P. Stanford

History Theses

ABSTRACT OF THESIS

Ralph Raico: Champion of Authentic Liberalism

This paper explores the intellectual life and writings of Professor Emeritus in History at Buffalo State College, Ralph Raico. The central thesis seeks to portray Professor Raico as the great modern libertarian revisionist historian, and the great modern champion of historical, classical liberalism. More broadly, the work attempts to solidify Professor Raico’s reputation as a major figure in the modern American libertarian movement.

Raico’s intellectual foundations are fully developed, beginning from grade school at Bronx High School of Science, to his attendance of Ludwig von Mises’s New York ...


Music In The Third Reich, Delora J. Neuschwander Dec 2012

Music In The Third Reich, Delora J. Neuschwander

Musical Offerings

Music played a prominent role in the rise of Nazi culture in Germany and was used extensively in propaganda and indoctrination of the entire country; the Nazi party brought music and politics together and sought to shape their ideal culture by elevating their ideas of pure music to the highest status and outlawing what they defined as inferior. This study addresses Hitler’s specific views on music and explores several of the factors and individuals that contributed to his views. His views were directly inferred into the core of the Nazi party. Hitler himself was an artist and felt that ...


Ms-130: World War I Letters Of Henry W. Straus, Devin Mckinney Dec 2012

Ms-130: World War I Letters Of Henry W. Straus, Devin Mckinney

All Finding Aids

This collection comprises 48 letters from Henry W. Straus to his wife Anna. They were written between June 1918 and March 1919, when Henry, as a U.S. Army medical officer, was serving a British ambulance corps in France. Throughout the letters, Straus addresses his wife with great tenderness and yearning, anticipating their reunion and post-war life. He also displays a progressive attitude with respect to women’s independence, abilities, and right to do useful work.

Special Collections and College Archives Finding Aids are discovery tools used to describe and provide access to our holdings. Finding aids include historical and ...


Agriculture, Influence, And Instability Under The Ancien Régime: 1708-1768, Adam J. Polk Dec 2012

Agriculture, Influence, And Instability Under The Ancien Régime: 1708-1768, Adam J. Polk

Master's Theses

The French Revolution has been studied from myriad perspectives. The majority of scholarship focuses on the political and urban chaos of the times. Agricultural conditions and the influence of onerous taxation and stagnant agricultural options are given only a cursory examination in most research. This thesis aims to investigate the relationship between agronomic and environmental conditions and the eruption of violence in urban centers during the French Revolution and the years leading up to it (1708-1768). This period prior to the French Revolution serves as a template to investigate the nature of the rural-agricultural influences, with a particular focus paid ...


Depictions Of Women In Stalinist Sovet Film, 1934-1953, Andrew Weeks Dec 2012

Depictions Of Women In Stalinist Sovet Film, 1934-1953, Andrew Weeks

HIM 1990-2015

Popular films in the Soviet Union were the products of the implementation of propagandistic messages into storylines that were both ideologically and aesthetically consistent with of the interests of the State and Party apparatuses. Beginning in the 1930s, following declaration of the doctrine on socialist realism as the official form of cultural production, Soviet authorities and filmmakers tailored films to the circumstances in the USSR at that given moment in order to influence and shape popular opinion; however, this often resulted in inconsistent and outright contradictory messages. Given the transformation that gender relations were undergoing in the early stages of ...


The Battle For The Mind Of Europe: The Ideological Warfare Of Orwell, Stalin And Mussolini, Tim Zellinger Dec 2012

The Battle For The Mind Of Europe: The Ideological Warfare Of Orwell, Stalin And Mussolini, Tim Zellinger

History

No abstract provided.


On The Social Construction Of Hellenism Cold War Narratives Of Modernity, Development And Democracy For Greece, Despina Lalaki Dec 2012

On The Social Construction Of Hellenism Cold War Narratives Of Modernity, Development And Democracy For Greece, Despina Lalaki

Publications and Research

Hellenism is one of those overarching, ever-changing narratives always subject to historical circumstances, intellectual fashions and political needs. Conversely, it is fraught with meaning and conditioning powers, enabling and constraining imagination and practical life. In this essay I tease out the hold that the idea of Hellas has had on post-war Greece and I explore the ways in which the American anti-communist rhetoric and discussions about political and economic stabilization appropriated and rearticulated Hellenism. Central to this history of transformations are the archaeologists; the archaeologists as intellectuals, as producers of culture who, while stepping in and out of their disciplinary ...


Da Universidade. Reflexão Jurídica Em Tempo De Crise, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2012

Da Universidade. Reflexão Jurídica Em Tempo De Crise, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Há princípios constitucionais para as Universidades. É bom que tal não se esqueça num tempo em que a Constituição está, mais que metida na gaveta, apedrejada todos os dias. E há princípios de bom senso, também. A Universidade não pode ser desvirtuada nem por asfixia financeira, nem por burocracia antidemocrática, nem por modismos que distraiam os professores (e até os estudantes) dos fins naturais e primaciais que tem: aprender e ensinar.


Exposing England For Famine Wrongs, Ian Kilroy Nov 2012

Exposing England For Famine Wrongs, Ian Kilroy

Articles

A critical review of The Famine Plot by Tim Pat Coogan. Coogan blames English government policy for the Irish Famline.


Brisa De Anomia - Da Constituição Real Ao Quotidiano Incompetente, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2012

Brisa De Anomia - Da Constituição Real Ao Quotidiano Incompetente, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Há vários sintomas de mal estar social, todos sabemos. Desde uma Constituição que parece ter passado a nominal ou semântica em algumas dimensões ao menos, não por culpa sua mas de quem a deveria cumprir, até ao esboroar das relações laborais e ao crescendo da insatisfação laboral de quem trabalha, a par do crescendo do desemprego, ou à falta de boa fé contratual... Sente-se ainda que muitos serviços estão a funcionar mal, mercê da precaridade dos contratos dos trabalhadores, promovidos a verdes colaboradores muitas vezes... Ainda parece, em geral, viver-se sob a lei, mas já há muitas bolsas de torto ...


Don Quijote: Una Esmerada Crítica De La Sociedad Aún Valiosa En Nuestros Días (Don Quixote: A Detailed Critique Of Spanish Society), Jeremy W. Bachelor Nov 2012

Don Quijote: Una Esmerada Crítica De La Sociedad Aún Valiosa En Nuestros Días (Don Quixote: A Detailed Critique Of Spanish Society), Jeremy W. Bachelor

Faculty Scholarship – Spanish

El tema del presente trabajo trata sobre Don Quijote, una crítica de Cervantes sobre la sociedad española de su época. El objetivo principal de la investigación es analizar lo que precisamente criticaba Cervantes y cómo esa crítica de la realidad española se hizo patente en la novela. Los objetivos incluyen el análisis de la estratificación socioeconómica de la sociedad, la descripción de la transición del feudalismo a las fases iniciales del capitalismo, una explicación del sistema principal de valores de la sociedad en el contexto de la transición y un análisis del papel de la Iglesia y de las guerras ...


Inverting The Eagle To Embrace The Star Of David: The Nationalist Roots Of German Christian Zionism, George Faithful Nov 2012

Inverting The Eagle To Embrace The Star Of David: The Nationalist Roots Of German Christian Zionism, George Faithful

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

It is no secret that Christian Zionism in the U.S. has long been paired with American patriotism. Since at least as far back as William Blackstone’s 1891 “Memorial,” American Christian Zionists have proclaimed that their support of a Jewish homeland as bolstering their own country’s perceived privileged relationship with God. Less obvious is the link between German nationalism and Christian Zionism in that country in the period following World War II. Whereas American Christian Zionism has been marked by militarism and triumphalism, the German variant has been understandably penitential in the aftermath of the Holocaust. Nonetheless, this ...


The Crusades And The Lost Literature Of The Italian Renaissance, Brian Maxson Oct 2012

The Crusades And The Lost Literature Of The Italian Renaissance, Brian Maxson

Brian J. Maxson

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O Cidadão E O Estadista, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Oct 2012

O Cidadão E O Estadista, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Fala-se muito em crise, naturalmente em mudanças políticas, e até em regeneração dos partidos. Cremos que esta é fundamental. Ou tal ocorre, ou virá, mais dia menos dia, após esta ou aquela convulsão, a ditadura e o partido único, sob qualquer bandeira, normalmente populista. Muitos estão já a atiçar o lume antipartidário e antidemocrático, como ocorreu noutros tempos. E apontando já os bodes expiatórios a sacrificar, enquanto os verdadeiros responsáveis passam ao largo... Por outro lado, não é Estadista quem quer. São precisas virtudes e qualidades. Não uma competência mitificada e abstrata. Mas projeto político e capacidade, experiência, etc.


The Transformation Of The Pope: The Agony And The Ecstasy (1965) And The Second Vatican Council (1962-65), Jennifer Mara Desilva Oct 2012

The Transformation Of The Pope: The Agony And The Ecstasy (1965) And The Second Vatican Council (1962-65), Jennifer Mara Desilva

Journal of Religion & Film

In 1965 the film The Agony and The Ecstasy (dir. Carol Reed) presented Renaissance artistic culture, Catholic iconography, and the papal court in Rome to a popular, broad, and non-denominational audience. Based on the novel by Irving Stone (1961), the narrative follows Michelangelo and Pope Julius II through the decoration of the Sistine chapel ceiling (1508-12), outlining a relationship between the two protagonists that suggests some spiritual equality. In the same way that the Second Vatican Council (1962-65) strove for spiritual renewal and an emphasis on the wonder of humankind’s relationship with God, The Agony and The Ecstasy portrays ...


Bawds, Babes, And Breeches: Regendering Theater After The English Restoration, Laura Larson Oct 2012

Bawds, Babes, And Breeches: Regendering Theater After The English Restoration, Laura Larson

History Theses

Restoration England (1660~1720) was a raucous time for theater-making. After an 18- year Puritanical ban on the theater, and with the restoration of the worldly Charles II to the throne, English theater underwent a pivotal rebirth. At this time, women were allowed to act on the public stage for the first time, an event carrying enormous implications for gender roles. This paper argues that actresses posed a threat to the patriarchal hierarchy that was in place at this time. Their unique position in professional theater and unusual access to a public voice not available to the rest of women ...


Carine Dunand, Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462, Michael D. Bailey Oct 2012

Carine Dunand, Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

For more than twenty years, volumes in the Cahiers Lausannois d’Histoire Médiévale have explored the cases and contexts of early European witch trials in and around the western Alps. They have largely focused on the diocese of Lausanne, but in this volume, Carine Dunand looks slightly further afield, to the Chamonix valley in the shadow of Mont Blanc, which was part of the neighboring diocese of Geneva. She follows the same format as other Cahiers volumes, most of which originated as mémoires de licence in the medieval history seminar at the University of Lausanne: about half the book is ...


On The Discursive Construction Of Jewish “Racialization” And “Race Passing:” Jews As “U-Boats” With A Mysterious “Queer Light”, Warren J. Blumenfeld Oct 2012

On The Discursive Construction Of Jewish “Racialization” And “Race Passing:” Jews As “U-Boats” With A Mysterious “Queer Light”, Warren J. Blumenfeld

Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis

The Nazi Gestapo referred to Jews in hiding as “U-Boats” to survive under the Third Reich. Like the seagoing vessels, they traveled a fluid sea. Some navigated below the depths, while others floated on the surface in plain view, artfully (and not so artfully) disguised to conceal their actual identities. The article profiles the author’s family, the Mahlers of Antwerp, Belgium, during the Nazi occupation through an investigation of the historical, theoretical, and discursive categories of “race” and “race passing,” specifically as it relates to European-heritage Jewish people.


Willem Blaeu's 'Asia Noviter Delineata': Expressions Of Power Through Naval Might And Natural Knowledge In Dutch Mapmaking, Joshua W. Poorman Oct 2012

Willem Blaeu's 'Asia Noviter Delineata': Expressions Of Power Through Naval Might And Natural Knowledge In Dutch Mapmaking, Joshua W. Poorman

Student Publications

This paper situates Dutch mapmaker Willem Blaeu’s Asia noviter delineata—part of the Stuckenberg Map Collection in the Gettysburg College Special Collections—within the larger framework of Renaissance thought and a shifting colonial balance of power. The map’s pictorial marginalia expresses a Dutch quest for empirical knowledge that echoed contemporary cabinets of curiosities throughout early modern Europe. Similar to these cabinets, Blaeu’s map can be seen as a cartographic teatro mundi, used to propagate Dutch hegemony through both a robust naval presence and an expanding geographic and natural knowledge of the world.


Perceptions And Realities Of The Irish Republican Army During The Second World War, L.B. Wilson Iii Oct 2012

Perceptions And Realities Of The Irish Republican Army During The Second World War, L.B. Wilson Iii

Master's Theses

This thesis investigates the British and German perception of the IRA and claims that the organization represented an insurmountable obstacle to the progress of both German intelligence and British counter-intelligence. The IRA was also the primary contributor to the political troubles oflrish neutrality during World War II. It examines the perceived threat of the IRA in the minds of the Irish Prime Minister Eamon de Valera and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and those ministers' respective governments. The thesis looks at official debates in the British Parliament and the Irish Dail as well as interwar newspapers and official records. Additionally ...


Ecos Do Ipiranga. Autonomia, Cidadania E Justiça No Brasil, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Sep 2012

Ecos Do Ipiranga. Autonomia, Cidadania E Justiça No Brasil, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

O grito do Ipiranga é um belo mito de independência. O Brasil é cultural e juridicamente uma realidade que está a construir uma interessantíssima identidade nacional, colhendo dos outros o que interessa, mas sobretudo afirmando-se com autonomia. E já pode exportar produtos jurídicos próprios, como, pela sua visibilidade, a publicidade televisiva das sessões do Supremo Tribunal Federal.


Paradigmas Jurídicos Do Ter, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Aug 2012

Paradigmas Jurídicos Do Ter, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

A questão da propriedade é essencial ao Direito. A forma como com ela lida determina-o na sua essência. Por isso o primeiro grande paradigma jurídico foi o do direito objetivo, com relação de propriedade direta sobre as coisas, depois o subjetivo, em que a relação se subjetiviza e aparentemente (só aparentemente) se imaterializa, ao ponto de hoje tudo ser governado pelos Mercados sem rosto, e tem-se a esperança que possa vir a triunfar um Direito Novo, Humanista, Fraterno, em que conte mais a Pessoa que a propriedade. Este artigo recorda os momentos matinais em que se (de alguma forma miticamente ...