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2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 112

Full-Text Articles in European History

Stalin’S Collectivization: From An Idealistic View To A Defensive Stance, 1928-1934, Kristopher Schendel Dec 2009

Stalin’S Collectivization: From An Idealistic View To A Defensive Stance, 1928-1934, Kristopher Schendel

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

No abstract provided.


Overcoming The Empty Years: The Role Of Philosophy And The Humanities In West Germany After 1945, Nicholas E. Di Liberto Dec 2009

Overcoming The Empty Years: The Role Of Philosophy And The Humanities In West Germany After 1945, Nicholas E. Di Liberto

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The close relationships formed between teachers and students in the materially impoverished and politically compromised postwar universities in western Germany are the central focus of this dissertation. I analyze how a divided generation of politically overburdened intellectual youth negotiated the new possibilities opened up by the collapse of cultural restrictions imposed by the twelve-year dictatorship and the new expectations, stemming from the changing ideas and realities of the university and philosophy in an expanding middle-class, consumerist society. In spite of the limitations of their institutional and cultural environment, the younger philosophers and intellectuals I investigate develop highly productive models for ...


(Review) Walter Ziegler, Die Entscheidung Deutscher Länder Für Oder Gegen Luther..., Marc R. Forster Dec 2009

(Review) Walter Ziegler, Die Entscheidung Deutscher Länder Für Oder Gegen Luther..., Marc R. Forster

History Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


A Study Of The Social And Political Implication Of Friedrich Schlegel’S ‘Comedy Of Freude’, Manjit Singh Bhatti Dec 2009

A Study Of The Social And Political Implication Of Friedrich Schlegel’S ‘Comedy Of Freude’, Manjit Singh Bhatti

Masters Theses

Generally speaking, scholarship in the field of Germanistik has taken an interest in Friedrich Schlegel’s early publication, “Vom aesthetischen Werte der griechischen Komoedie” (1794), either because of its perceived influence on German Romantic Comedy [(Catholy 1982), (Kluge 1980), (Holl 1923), (Japp 1999)], or else because of its relevance as an example of Schlegel's still inchoate aesthetic philosophy [(Dierkes 1980), (Behrens 1984), (Schanze 1966), (Michel 1982), (Dannenberg 1993), (Mennemeier 1971)]. As a theory of comedy in its own right, Schlegel’s essay has garnered little attention, in part because of its supposed inapplicability to comedic praxis and at times ...


'Light, More Light': The 'Light' Newspaper, Spiritualism, And British Society, 1881 - 1920., Brian Glenney Dec 2009

'Light, More Light': The 'Light' Newspaper, Spiritualism, And British Society, 1881 - 1920., Brian Glenney

All Theses

This thesis looks at the spiritualist weekly Light through Late Victorian, Edwardian, and World War I Britain. Light has never received any extended coverage or historical treatment yet it was one of the major spiritualist newspapers during this part of British history. This thesis diagrams the lives of Light's first four major editors from 1881 till the end of World War I and their views on the growth of science, God, Christ, evolution, and morality. By focusing on one major spiritualist newspaper from 1881 till 1920, this thesis attempts to bridge the gap in spiritualist historiography that marks World ...


Ideologia E Utopias Nas Mais Recentes Constituintes Brasileira E Portuguesa: Algumas Linhas De Leitura, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2009

Ideologia E Utopias Nas Mais Recentes Constituintes Brasileira E Portuguesa: Algumas Linhas De Leitura, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Based upon a political compromise, in which « democratic socialists » and « social democrats » were the main protagonists, the ideology of Portuguese Constitution of 1976 was discrete, subtle. And ulterior constitutional revisions confirmed that fondamental aspect. Of course, utopia was present. But, even more present was the « hope principle ». We believe that the Brazilean constituent assembly, with the original importance of popular contributions, also had hope principle’s decisive influence. But the dinamics of the constituent assembly moderated, since the very beggining, the verbal signs of less discret ideologies. Utopia, neverthless, is very present in the aim of the « Citizen Constitution » to ...


Brokers Of Public Trust: Notaries In Early Modern Rome, Laurie Nussdorfer Oct 2009

Brokers Of Public Trust: Notaries In Early Modern Rome, Laurie Nussdorfer

Laurie Nussdorfer

No abstract provided.


The United States And Iran, Michael Zirinsky Oct 2009

The United States And Iran, Michael Zirinsky

Michael Zirinsky

Since the 1978-79 revolution and emergence of an Islamic Republic, America has been transfixed by images of Iran fomenting terror against the US. Ironically, before 1978 most Americans knew nothing about Iran, leading President Carter famously to praise it, on the eve of upheaval, as an island of stability in the midst of a sea of turmoil. Sad to say, many Iranians also have a hostile view of America, based not on the beneficent idealism which characterized US policy in the Middle East before the Second World War, but on American Cold War activism, including sponsoring a 1953 coup d ...


‘That Ye May Know Each Other’: Late Victorian Interactions Between British And West African Muslims, Brent D. Singleton Oct 2009

‘That Ye May Know Each Other’: Late Victorian Interactions Between British And West African Muslims, Brent D. Singleton

Library Faculty Publications

From the early 1890’s to 1908 members of the Liverpool Moslem Institute led by Sheik William Henry Abdullah Quilliam had extensive contacts with their West African Muslim counterparts. This era was marked by several trends including the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, European colonialism, extensive overseas Christian missionary activities as well as the vast expansion of Islam in West Africa. In this milieu, the British and West African Muslims built a mutually beneficial relationship with equality, respect, and brotherhood as its cornerstone. Their contacts developed and flourished quickly, leading to extensive correspondence, visits, and general support for one another ...


Review Of "Teachers And Schools In Siena, 1357-1500" By P. Denley, Michael Kucher Oct 2009

Review Of "Teachers And Schools In Siena, 1357-1500" By P. Denley, Michael Kucher

SIAS Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Hebrew Library Of A Renaissance Humanist: The Bibliography To Andreas Masius' Edition Of The Book Of Joshua (Antwerp: Christopher Plantin 1574), Theodor Dunkelgrün Aug 2009

The Hebrew Library Of A Renaissance Humanist: The Bibliography To Andreas Masius' Edition Of The Book Of Joshua (Antwerp: Christopher Plantin 1574), Theodor Dunkelgrün

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Andreas Masius' 1574 polyglot edition of the book of Joshua with copious annotations and commentaries is a monument of Renaissance biblical scholarship. In an appendix - the text presented here - Masius recorded the Hebrew and Aramaic books he consulted in preparing his edition. In spite of the brevity of its descriptions, this bibliography has much to tell us about Christian readership of the Hebrew book in the 16th century. It reveals the depth, breadth, and sophistication of Masius' grasp of Jewish literature. It is a snapshot of his own library, but at the same time also a panorama of the flourishing ...


Sefer Or Le-Et Erev: A History Of A Misunderstanding, Pawel Maciejko Aug 2009

Sefer Or Le-Et Erev: A History Of A Misunderstanding, Pawel Maciejko

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

This presentation explores the boundaries of the concept of the ‘Jewish book’ on the basis of Yiddish and Hebrew texts distributed by Protestant missionaries among the Jews in 18th-century East Central Europe. Such texts were not always recognised as Christian by their Jewish readers. The case in point is the brochure Or le-Et Erev circulated by the Halle Pietists. The Yiddish text does not give the name of the author or the place of publication; it does not refer explicitly to Jesus’s identity with the Jewish Messiah until the final pages; and it bases much of its argument on ...


Early Modern Yiddish Readers: Immoderately Addicted To Rhyme?, Ruth Von Bernuth Aug 2009

Early Modern Yiddish Readers: Immoderately Addicted To Rhyme?, Ruth Von Bernuth

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Roughly one third of Old Yiddish literature is based on traceable European literary sources, mainly German. Given how close Old Yiddish is to Early New High German, some of these Old Yiddish texts with European sources feel like mere transcriptions, others more like legitimate translations and yet others more like free adaptations. From the Yiddish reader's perspective, the texts become accessible through transcription into Hebrew characters and more accessible the more that the translator engages the text as representative Jewish reader. A large proportion of these Yiddish books with German sources are prose novels–a genre newly popular with ...


From Apologetics To Polemics: Isaac Orobio De Castro’S Defences Of Judaism And Their Use In The French Enlightenment, Adam Sutcliffe Aug 2009

From Apologetics To Polemics: Isaac Orobio De Castro’S Defences Of Judaism And Their Use In The French Enlightenment, Adam Sutcliffe

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

This presentation explores the use by non-Jews in eighteenth-century France of controversialist works written primarily for manuscript circulation within the seventeenth-century Sephardic communities of the Netherlands. In response to sustained theological doubts regarding Judaism posed by Sephardim deeply conditioned by having lived as outward Catholics in the Iberian peninsula, several community leaders in seventeenth-century Amsterdam, such as the doctor and controversialist Isaac Orobio de Castro (c.1617-1687), authored trenchant attacks on Christian doctrine, in particular emphasizing the enduring validity of Jewish law and the superiority of Jewish biblical exegesis. French translations of some of these texts - which circulated in Paris ...


The Power Of Texts In The Conversion Of An Old Christian Hebraist, Miriam Bodian Aug 2009

The Power Of Texts In The Conversion Of An Old Christian Hebraist, Miriam Bodian

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Lope de Vera y Alarcón was an Old Christian Hebraist at the University of Salamanca in the late 1630s. In his professional training, he had access to texts that few people in Spain were permitted to see. His subversive reading of Erasmus and the Hebrew diary of David Reuveni, among other works, were not the only factors in his becoming a "judaizer," but by his own account they were of great importance. The texts I will present are excerpts from his Inquisition trial (1639-1644).

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Inquisition file of Lope de Vera y Alarcón ...


Jews Under Surveillance: Censorship And Reading In Early Modern Italy, Federica Francesconi Aug 2009

Jews Under Surveillance: Censorship And Reading In Early Modern Italy, Federica Francesconi

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

This talk explores how Counter-Reformation’s dynamics affected the readings of Italian Jews, after the political changes of the 1550s and the promulgation of the Index by Clement VIII in 1596 (with the ban of the Talmud). Dealing with censorship, expurgation and banning of books, in fact, Italian Jews found themselves caught up between the intricate and often conflicting positions between the Congregation of the Index and the Office of the Inquisition. Based on the analysis of both Inquisitorial sources (proceedings, guidelines and censors’ reports) and biographical accounts, I will explore how rabbis and converts, who worked as appointed censors ...


Putting Hebrew Books In Order: The First Printed Hebrew Bibliography, Avri Bar-Levav Aug 2009

Putting Hebrew Books In Order: The First Printed Hebrew Bibliography, Avri Bar-Levav

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Siftey yeshenim (The lips of those who are asleep, Amsterdam 1680) is the first printed Hebrew bibliography. In his introduction,the author, Shabtai Meshorer Bas of Prague (1641-1718), explains why such a novel book is needed, and what are its usages for Heberw readers and writers with various interests.

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Siftey yeshenim (The lips of those who are asleep, Amsterdam 1680)


The Paratexts Of Jacob Marcaria: Addressing The (Imagined) Reader In Mid-Sixteenth-Century Italy, Adam Shear Aug 2009

The Paratexts Of Jacob Marcaria: Addressing The (Imagined) Reader In Mid-Sixteenth-Century Italy, Adam Shear

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

For a few years in the middle of the sixteenth century (1557-1564), a Hebrew press was active in Riva del Garda (Riva di Trento) under the management of Jacob Marcaria, a physician. The business arrangements of the press seem complicated and difficult to reconstruct (having only the evidence of the printed editions): Marcaria was printer for most of the books and may be considered the publisher of some; for others, he was in partnership with Rabbi Joseph Ottolenghi of nearby Cremona. The activities of Marcaria and Ottolenghi were undertaken with the permission of the Prince-Bishop of Trent, Cardinal Cristoforo Madruzzo ...


Leon Modena's Ari Nohem Between Print And Manuscript, Yaacob Dweck Aug 2009

Leon Modena's Ari Nohem Between Print And Manuscript, Yaacob Dweck

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

This presentation examines Leon Modena's critique of Kabbalah, a Hebrew treatise composed in Venice in 1639 entitled Ari Nohem (The Roaring Lion). One of the primary causes of Modena's critique was the printing of kabbalistic books such as the Zohar, Ma'arekhet ha-Elohut, and Sefer Yetzirah. In Modena's argument, the printing of kabbalistic books in the sixteenth century had disrupted prior patterns of the transmission of kabbalistic knowledge. In particular, Modena argues that kabbalistic books had begun to be read in new ways by new audiences. Using Modena's analysis as a point of departure this presentation ...


Shlomo Lutzker's Introduction To Magid Devarav Le-Ya'akov, Moshe Rosman Aug 2009

Shlomo Lutzker's Introduction To Magid Devarav Le-Ya'akov, Moshe Rosman

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

ABSTRACT: This presentation analyzes Shlomo Lutzker's Introduction to Magid Devarav Le-Ya'akov as a key source of information on the process of formation and publication of early hasidic books and the activities of printers and aditors. It also bears on the questions of whether there existed "hasidic publishers" and how it might be possible to identify a "hasidic book".

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Shlomo Lutzker's Introduction to Magid Devarav Le-Ya'akov: Likutei Amarim (1781)


A Publisher In Service Of His Readers: Prefaces To Amsterdam 1711 Edition Of The Tsene Rene, Shlomo Berger Aug 2009

A Publisher In Service Of His Readers: Prefaces To Amsterdam 1711 Edition Of The Tsene Rene, Shlomo Berger

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The Amsterdam 1711 edition of the Tsene Rene is a particularly interesting because it contains prefaces that include allusions to and discussions of Yiddish texts and book production, the roles of publishers and the envisaged demands of readers. It enables us to determine and evaluate the status of books with the early modern Ashkenazi culture.

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Preface to the 1711 edition of Tsene Rene

Click here to view the video.


Emw 2009: Reading Across Cultures: The Jewish Book And Its Readers In The Early Modern Period, Emw 2009 Aug 2009

Emw 2009: Reading Across Cultures: The Jewish Book And Its Readers In The Early Modern Period, Emw 2009

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The sixth Early Modern Workshop will focus on the topic of "Reading across Cultures: The Jewish Book and Its Readers in the Early Modern Period." The workshop was held at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Studies at Harvard University from Sunday, August 23, 2009 and to Tuesday, August 25, 2009.

The workshop opened a discussion of the culture of reading in Jewish society, as well as of the reading of Jewish books in Christian society, during a period of rapid cultural transformation. What was a "Jewish" book, one participant asked? What were the different or parallel developments within Jewish society ...


Review Of "Dance As Text: Ideologies Of The Baroque Body" By Mark Franko, Laurie Nussdorfer Aug 2009

Review Of "Dance As Text: Ideologies Of The Baroque Body" By Mark Franko, Laurie Nussdorfer

Laurie Nussdorfer

No abstract provided.


Review Of The Book The Great Patriotic War Of The Soviet Union, 1941-45: A Documentary Reader, John A. Drobnicki Aug 2009

Review Of The Book The Great Patriotic War Of The Soviet Union, 1941-45: A Documentary Reader, John A. Drobnicki

Publications and Research

Review of the book The great patriotic war of the Soviet Union, 1941-45: A documentary reader.


Religion, Longevity, And Cooperation: The Case Of The Craft Guild, Gary Richardson Jul 2009

Religion, Longevity, And Cooperation: The Case Of The Craft Guild, Gary Richardson

Gary Richardson

Whenthe mortality rate is high, repeated interaction alonemaynot sustain cooperation, and religion may play an important role in shaping economic institutions. This insight explains why during the fourteenth century, when plagues decimated populations and the church promoted the doctrine of purgatory, guilds that bundled together religious and occupational activities dominated manufacturing and commerce. During the sixteenth century, the disease environment eased, and the Reformation dispelled the doctrine of purgatory, necessitating the development of new methods of organizing industry. The logic underlying this conclusion has implications for the study of institutions, economics, and religion throughout history and in the developing world ...


Out Of The (Historiographic) Ghetto: Jews And The Reformation, Magda Teter, Debra Kaplan Jul 2009

Out Of The (Historiographic) Ghetto: Jews And The Reformation, Magda Teter, Debra Kaplan

Division II Faculty Publications

Existing historiography has created a historiographic ghetto, seldom considering Jewish sources and Jews as relevant to the larger narrative of European history. This has created two parallel, often disconnected areas of study, “European history” and “Jewish history.” Archival materials from across Europe strongly show that Jews and Christians resided side by side and interacted on a daily basis in early modern Europe. Reformation Strasbourg and post-Reformation Poland, two geographically and demographically diverse cases offer new insights about the past by including sources about Jews. In Reformation Strasbourg, cross-confessional collaboration was more frequent than previously imagined, as leaders of different Christian ...


Astrologie Und Öffentlichkeit Im Mittelalter (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2009

Astrologie Und Öffentlichkeit Im Mittelalter (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This is a curiously conceived book. In his introduction, Mentgen begins by noting the “shocking” lack of attention the topic of astrology has received especially among German medievalist (p. 1). He also notes that the practice of astrology faced two significant obstacles throughout the medieval period—it had suffered legal condemnations since late antiquity, and certain aspects of it contradicted the Christian doctrine of human free will. Yet this book deals not at all with the long and complex history of legal or intellectual opposition to astrology. Neither does it intend to provide a complete survey of the practice of ...


Wörterbuch Des Aberglaubens (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2009

Wörterbuch Des Aberglaubens (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

In his foreword, Dieter Harmening, who literally wrote the book on superstition in medieval Europe (Superstitio: Überlieferungs- und theoriegeschichtliche Untersuchungen zur kirchlich-theologischen Aberglaubensliteratur des Mittelalters [Berlin, 1979]), explains why this new, compact “dictionary of superstition” [End Page 111] is needed. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, superstition was a topic mainly explored by folklorists, ethnographers, and historical linguists. They understood superstitious beliefs and practices primarily as the residue of very early cultures, and used superstitions as a point of access to pre-Christian Germanic societies. The mammoth Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens, published between 1927 and 1942, is marked by this ...


Under The Devil's Spell: Witches, Sorcerers, And The Inquisition In Renaissance Italy (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2009

Under The Devil's Spell: Witches, Sorcerers, And The Inquisition In Renaissance Italy (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This is a useful, although ultimately curious, book. The early modern heartland of witchcraft and witch-hunting lay, of course, north of the Alps, and studies of northern Europe tend to dominate the historiography. Experts typically know that southern Europe presents something of a different magical world. While many general beliefs about magic and witchcraft held sway in the south as well as in the north, southern Europe offers notable variations: less outright witchcraft, for example, and more love magic. Institutionally, the highly bureaucratic Roman, Spanish, and Venetian Inquisitions all worked to restrict the sort of major witch hunts that were ...


Beyond The Witch Trials: Witchcraft And Magic In Enlightenment Europe, And: Witchcraft Continued: Popular Magic In Modern Europe (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2009

Beyond The Witch Trials: Witchcraft And Magic In Enlightenment Europe, And: Witchcraft Continued: Popular Magic In Modern Europe (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The continuation, and continued development, of magical beliefs and various forms of witchcraft and countermagic in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries has become an increasingly important topic for scholars. Ever since the resurgence of European witchcraft studies in the 1970s with, among other landmark publication, Keith Thomas’s Religion and the Decline of Magic, tremendous attention has focused on the (mainly) sixteenth- and seventeenth-century witch hunts. As Thomas’s title indicates, the need to explain the decline of magical beliefs and the transformation of Europe from a witch-hunting society into a putatively “disenchanted” one was always part of this ...