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2008

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Articles 1 - 30 of 103

Full-Text Articles in European History

Henry Viii: Supremacy, Religion, And The Anabaptists, Joel Martin Gillaspie Dec 2008

Henry Viii: Supremacy, Religion, And The Anabaptists, Joel Martin Gillaspie

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In 1534, the English Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy. This effectively stripped all of the authority the Pope held in England and gave it to Henry VIII. Also because of the Act of Supremacy Henry VIII gained a new title: Supreme Head of the Church of England. However, there was a problem. The Act of Supremacy only vaguely defined the new powers that had been given to the King. Consequently, what exactly his new powers were and their limits had to be established. The other issue that had to be dealt with was the establishment of the canons of ...


(Review) The World Catholic Renewal 1540-1770 By R. Po-Chia Hsia, Marc R. Forster Dec 2008

(Review) The World Catholic Renewal 1540-1770 By R. Po-Chia Hsia, Marc R. Forster

History Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


International Terrorism:Role ,Responsibility And Operation Of Media Channles, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr Nov 2008

International Terrorism:Role ,Responsibility And Operation Of Media Channles, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr

Ratnesh Dwivedi

"Terrorism" is a term that cannot be given a stable defintion. Or rather, it can, but to do so forstalls any attempt to examine the major feature of its relation to television in the contemporary world. As the central public arena for organising ways of picturing and talking about social and political life, TV plays a pivotal role in the contest between competing defintions, accounts and explanations of terrorism. Which term is used in any particular context is inextricably tied to judgemements about the legitimacy of the action in question and of the political system against which it is directed ...


Liberdade, Ética E Direito, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2008

Liberdade, Ética E Direito, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Further than Ethics concieved as mere obedience, Republican Ethics expresses the idea of duty for freedom and Liberty. After Law concieved as only duty and imperative norms from power to the subjects, there is the possibility of a fraternal law, in new patterns. This article explores several ways in a new ethics and a new law paradigms, after the objective Roman Law and the subjective modern Law.


The Battle Of Morgarten In 1315: An Essential Incident In The Founding Of The Swiss State, Albert Winkler Nov 2008

The Battle Of Morgarten In 1315: An Essential Incident In The Founding Of The Swiss State, Albert Winkler

Faculty Publications

In 1315 Leopold I of the Habsburg family led an army invaded the early Swiss states of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden. Leopold’s army was typical feudal force and included many knights on horseback. The Swiss states were largely free peasants who were developing infantry tactics, and the conflict with the Habsburgs was in part a social conflict. In one of the most stunning and lopsided military victories in history, the Swiss overwhelmed and routed Leopold’s army at the Pass at Morgarten. Within days, the victorious Swiss states concluded the Pact of Brunnen which was a major step in ...


The Crusades, Timothy Tomasik Oct 2008

The Crusades, Timothy Tomasik

Timothy J. Tomasik

No abstract provided.


Yugoslavia In 1968: Hopes, Crisis, Disappointment, Nick Miller Oct 2008

Yugoslavia In 1968: Hopes, Crisis, Disappointment, Nick Miller

Nick Miller

No abstract provided.


Interview With James Leary, October 18, 2008, James Leary, Sierra R. Green Oct 2008

Interview With James Leary, October 18, 2008, James Leary, Sierra R. Green

Oral Histories

James Leary was interviewed on October 18, 2008, by Sierra Green about his experiences during World War II.

Course Information:

  • Course Title: HIST 300: Historical Method
  • Academic Term: Fall 2008
  • Course Instructor: Dr. Michael J. Birkner '72

Collection Note: This oral history was selected from the Oral History Collection maintained by Special Collections & College Archives. Transcripts are available for browsing in the Special Collections Reading Room, 4th floor, Musselman Library. GettDigital contains the complete listing of oral histories done from 1978 to the present. To view this list and to access selected digital versions please visit -- http://gettysburg.cdmhost ...


Flarr Pages #63: Soledad Gustavo And The Spanish Cultural Canon, James Wojtaszek Oct 2008

Flarr Pages #63: Soledad Gustavo And The Spanish Cultural Canon, James Wojtaszek

FLARR Pages

No abstract provided.


Malleus Maleficarum (Review), Michael D. Bailey Oct 2008

Malleus Maleficarum (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Malleus maleficarum is perhaps the most famous text in the history of European witchcraft. It is unfortunately best known to English-speaking readers via the 1928 translation presided over by the eccentric charlatan Montague Summers. With a paucity of notes, a tendentious historical introduction, and questionable translation choices at almost every turn, Summers's Malleus has long been excoriated by scholars, but no one (in the Anglophone world) stepped forward to produce anything better. That has now thankfully changed. Christopher Mackay's new edition and translation is a monumental, though somewhat marred, achievement.


“The Dust Of Some”: Glasnevin Cemetery And The Politics Of Burial, Nina Ranalli Oct 2008

“The Dust Of Some”: Glasnevin Cemetery And The Politics Of Burial, Nina Ranalli

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This project was born of my personal interest in revolutions. I have always been fascinated with history and have devoted a good deal of interest to the American Revolution and the heroes that came out of it. Through the course of my studies of Irish history, I began to develop an equal fascination for the series of revolutions that took place here, which are seemingly all strung together into a solid tradition of violent rebellion in Ireland. As discussed in more detail below, this interest evolved into a focus on Glasnevin Cemetery, where many of these revolutionary heroes are buried ...


Cultural Gifts In Florentine Diplomacy, Brian Maxson Sep 2008

Cultural Gifts In Florentine Diplomacy, Brian Maxson

Brian J. Maxson

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Lydia Murdoch, Imagined Orphans: Poor Families, Child Welfare, And Contested Citizenship In London, John D. Ramsbottom Sep 2008

Lydia Murdoch, Imagined Orphans: Poor Families, Child Welfare, And Contested Citizenship In London, John D. Ramsbottom

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Dr. Ramsbottom's review of "Imagined Orphans: Poor Families, Child Welfare, and Contested Citizenship in London"


The Jews And Ius Commune, Kenneth Stow Aug 2008

The Jews And Ius Commune, Kenneth Stow

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

From the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries, there was a gradually increasing integration of Jews into systems of ius commune, loosely, the law of the land, but actually a legal tradition based on Roman law, which subsumed local law, usually called ius proprium. The integration might be purely theoretical or in fact, as certainly occurred in the papal state and it seems elsewhere in Italy, too. This legal integration prepared the way for the major legal upheaval worked by the French Revolution. The implications are many. The details mostly unresearched. The Tractatus de Iudaeis of Giuseppe Sessa (Turin, 1713) is the ...


When The Indelible Sacrament Of Baptism Met Mercantile Raison D'Etat, Benjamin Ravid Aug 2008

When The Indelible Sacrament Of Baptism Met Mercantile Raison D'Etat, Benjamin Ravid

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

In theory, under almost all circumstances, once a Jew had been baptized, s/he became a Christian and any relapse constituted heresy and was liable to severe punishment, often by death. However, in the mid-sixteenth century the Papacy adopted a far more lenient policy out of considerations of commercial raison d' état and invited New Christian merchants to assume Judaism in Ancona with assurance of complete freedom from any persecution. At the same time, Venice expelled all Marranos from the city and forbade them to return. The papal attitude changed with the Counter-Reformation and former New Christians who had reverted ...


Trying Issues: Polish-Lithuanian Jews Under Multiple Jurisdictions, Adam Teller Aug 2008

Trying Issues: Polish-Lithuanian Jews Under Multiple Jurisdictions, Adam Teller

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The texts presented here highlight issues of multiple jurisdiction Jews were subjected to in early modern Poland-Lithuania

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Privilege for the Jews of Lwów (1692)
  • Privilege for the Jews of the Przemyśl Region and Rus' (1660)

Click here to view the video


Under Imperial Protection? Jewish Presence On The Imperial Aulic Court In The 16th And 17th Centuries, Barbara Staudinger Aug 2008

Under Imperial Protection? Jewish Presence On The Imperial Aulic Court In The 16th And 17th Centuries, Barbara Staudinger

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

From the middle ages on Jewish life in the holy roman empire was characterized by their egal status as servants of the imperial chamber (servi camerae, Kammerknechte). Paying taxes to the imperial chamber, the Jews stood under special protection of the Emperor. The so-called Speyrer Jew Privilege (1544) stated the legal framework of the Jewish community of the Empire, prohibiting expulsion, and „unjustified“ acusations of ritual murder and securing undisturbed religious practice, and imperial conduct and protection. But what was this privilege along with other privileges from indiviuals worth in reality? Based on two cases from the Imperial Aulic Court ...


Evasion As A Legal Tactic: The 1616 Amsterdam Regulations Concerning The Jews, Miriam Bodian Aug 2008

Evasion As A Legal Tactic: The 1616 Amsterdam Regulations Concerning The Jews, Miriam Bodian

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Early modern rulers (or ruling bodies) who chose to readmit Jews in places where they had long been banned were faced with theological dilemmas and practical problems. Although it is true that the principle of freedom of conscience was gaining increasing acceptance, its adherents were rarely clear about whether it could be applied to non-Christians. And while the economic interests of rulers favored the settlement of Jews in their lands, the opposition of guilds and clergy could not be ignored. In these circumstances, a rather striking policy of evasion was adopted - in France, in the Netherlands, and in England. The ...


The Herem As The Source Of Authority Of The Lay Governing Council, Anne Oravetz Albert Aug 2008

The Herem As The Source Of Authority Of The Lay Governing Council, Anne Oravetz Albert

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

A treatise on the herem composed by Isaac Aboab da Fonseca, the head rabbi of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community of Amsterdam. Specifically, this pamphlet defends the authority of the lay leadership council to do so, arguing against unnamed members of the community who are causing scandal by denying that authority.

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Exhortation to those who fear the Lord, not to fall into sin due to lack of understanding of the precepts of his Holy Law by Isaac Aboab de Fonseca (1679/80)

Click here to view the video


Challenging Herem In Hamburg, 1732, David Horowitz Aug 2008

Challenging Herem In Hamburg, 1732, David Horowitz

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

These documents represent one of the earliest calls for state intervention by the Hamburg authorities into the internal decisions of the bet din. The bed din of the Triple Community of Hamburg-Altona-Wandsbek compelled Joseph Jonas, a resident of Hamburg, to divorce his wife after she was suspected of adultery. When he refused, the chief rabbi and kahal put him and his wife in the ban (herem). Jonas turned to the Hamburg Senate for assistance in reversing the decision and removing himself from the ban. The documents comprise letters from Jonas and the Hamburg kahal in defense of their respective positions ...


Takkanot Kahal And The Origin Of Communal Structures In A Franconian Village Community In The 17th Century, Stefan Litt Aug 2008

Takkanot Kahal And The Origin Of Communal Structures In A Franconian Village Community In The 17th Century, Stefan Litt

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Takkanot Kahal are clearly a phenomenon of early modern Jewry in Europe. Throughout the Ashkenazi world there were four common ways to enact them. By elaborating takkanot, Jewish leaders copied the Gentile custom of creating legal digests in that time, thus adapting the communities to the administrative structures of the early modern state. The short statutes of the community in Ühlfeld, dating fromm 1688, are a rare example for takkanot enacted in an early stage of the local Jewish history. The text clearly shows the efforts of the author, R. Asher Enslen of Schnaittach, to strenghten the ties in the ...


Expanding Legal Horizons?, Edward Fram Aug 2008

Expanding Legal Horizons?, Edward Fram

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Legal change was not only a result needs to adapt the law to new situations but could be stimulated by new information. New sources were not always accepted and this presentation will attempt to locate the point in time in which acceptance of a large number of new sources took place in the eastern European community of the early modern age.

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Shulhan `arukh, Yoreh De'ah 19.1 (1567)
  • Siftei Kohen-The Priest's Lips on Yoreh De'ah 19.1 (1647)
  • Turei Zahab-The Golden Columns on Yoreh De'ah 19.1 (1646)


The Blasphemies Of Thomas Aikenhead: Boundaries Of Belief On The Eve Of The Enlightenment, Michael Graham Aug 2008

The Blasphemies Of Thomas Aikenhead: Boundaries Of Belief On The Eve Of The Enlightenment, Michael Graham

Michael F. Graham

This is the first modern book-length study of the case of Thomas Aikenhead, the sometime University of Edinburgh student who in 1697 earned the unfortunate distinction of being the last person executed for blasphemy in Britain. Taking a micro-historical approach, Michael Graham uses the Aikenhead case to open a window into the world of Edinburgh, Scotland and Britain in its transition from the confessional era of the Reformation and the covenants, which placed high emphasis on the defence of orthodox belief, to the polite, literary world of the Enlightenment, of which Edinburgh would become a major centre. Graham traces the ...


Ms-095: John Wright Collection, Kayla Lenkner Aug 2008

Ms-095: John Wright Collection, Kayla Lenkner

All Finding Aids

This collection consist of letters and postcards received by John Wright between June 1917 and December 1919. Most of the correspondence is addressed to John Wright or the Knoxville Journal, however, some letters are addressed to other people who presumably passed the letters along to Wright for publication in the paper. The collection contains a mixture of letters from soldiers, sailors, cavalry men and officers.


The Impact Of The European Economy On An Indigenous Productive Regime: Coca Production In The Yungas Of La Paz, 1548-1570, Krista Anderson Aug 2008

The Impact Of The European Economy On An Indigenous Productive Regime: Coca Production In The Yungas Of La Paz, 1548-1570, Krista Anderson

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of a European system of mercantile production on the indigenous organization of coca production in the yungas of La Paz in the years immediately following the Spanish conquest until the administration of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo (1569-1581 ). European mercantile ambitions in the earliest years of Spanish rule had an enormous, and often adverse, impact on the people of the yungas and their productive capabilities. The transformation of the yungas was introduced largely through the reorientation of coca production toward a market economy. This contact resulted in a marked increase in ...


Civilizing Women: British Crusades In Colonial Sudan, Heather J. Sharkey Jul 2008

Civilizing Women: British Crusades In Colonial Sudan, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Christian Demonology And Popular Mythology (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2008

Christian Demonology And Popular Mythology (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This is the second volume in a planned series of three emerging from an international conference held in 1999 in Budapest (for a review of the first volume, Communicating with the Spirits, by this reviewer, see Magic, Ritual, and Witchcraft 1.2 [2006], 257–60). The focus of this volume is human conceptions of and purported interaction with spirit-entities that traditional Christianity would label as demons. The essays collected here do not limit themselves to explorations of what Christian authorities had to say on the subject of demons, however, but also address folkloric spirit beliefs (the "popular mythology" as opposed ...


Witchcraft In Early Modern Europe (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2008

Witchcraft In Early Modern Europe (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This book, a volume in Houghton Mifflin's Problems in European Civilization series, brings together selections from recent scholarship on early modern [End Page 112] European witchcraft in order to expose students to major debates in the field. The book is divided into four parts, representing broad areas of research: "Intellectual Foundations and Demonology"; "Political, Economic, and Social Causes"; "Accusations, Trials, and Panics"; and the ever-contentious subject of "Gender and Witchcraft." In each section, Merry Wiesner presents four selections drawn from recent monographs or scholarly articles (all originally published within the last twenty years). While no such collection could possibly ...


The Age Of Magicians: Periodization In The History Of European Magic, Michael D. Bailey Jul 2008

The Age Of Magicians: Periodization In The History Of European Magic, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

John Maynard Keynes once described Sir Isaac Newton, perhaps the greatest figure of the scientific revolution, as being ‘‘not the first of the age of reason’’ but ‘‘the last of the magicians.’’ Keynes was commenting, among other things, on Newton’s fascination with alchemy and the influence it may have had on his mathematical studies of gravitation and optics. This quip, no doubt originally deployed for its pithiness, raises broad questions of historical periodization.


Book Review: The Grain Market In The Roman Empire: A Social, Political And Economic Study By Paul Erdkamp, David B. Hollander Jul 2008

Book Review: The Grain Market In The Roman Empire: A Social, Political And Economic Study By Paul Erdkamp, David B. Hollander

History Publications

The title of Erdkamp's new book fails to do it justice. This study looks at much more than the grain market. Indeed, the first three chapters are a wide-ranging discussion of-and excellent introduction to-Roman agriculture. They also examine the cultivation of olives and grapes, and the economic strategies of peasants, as well as those whose production was geared more toward the market. In order to understand the grain market, Erdkamp looks far beyond the marketplace to the constraints placed upon producers, the problems of storage and transportation, and the impacts of taxation, geography, and public food distribution on supply ...