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2006

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Articles 1 - 30 of 108

Full-Text Articles in European History

Getting Langue Winded How The European Union Language Policy Came To Be, Clinton R. Long Dec 2006

Getting Langue Winded How The European Union Language Policy Came To Be, Clinton R. Long

All Student Publications

While many people remember hearing about the French Revolution slogan of libert, galit et fraternit ringing through the streets of Paris in the eighteenth century, fewer people remember hearing about similar ideals ringing through the streets of Brussels, Bonn, and other European capitals in the 1950s with regard to the language policy of a united Europe. Even those familiar with the language policy of the European Union (EU) and its predecessors only talk about how the EU language policy is langue winded (langue means language in French) due to its inefficiencies without considering that these ideals-equality in particular-shaped the very ...


Magic And Superstition In Europe: A Concise History From Antiquity To The Present, Michael D. Bailey Dec 2006

Magic And Superstition In Europe: A Concise History From Antiquity To The Present, Michael D. Bailey

History Books

The only comprehensive, single-volume survey of magic available, this compelling book traces the history of magic, witchcraft, and superstitious practices such as popular spells or charms from antiquity to the present day. Focusing especially on Europe in the medieval and early modern eras, Michael Bailey also explores the ancient Near East, classical Greece and Rome, and the spread of magical systems_particularly modern witchcraft or Wicca_from Europe to the United States. He examines how magic and superstition have been defined in various historical eras and how these constructions have changed over time. He considers the ways in which specific categories of ...


San Francesco D'Assisi E Santa Caterina Da Siena. La Loro Influenza Sulla Letteratura, La Cultura, La Religione E L'Arte Italiana Dei Primordi, Ann-Frances Hamill Dec 2006

San Francesco D'Assisi E Santa Caterina Da Siena. La Loro Influenza Sulla Letteratura, La Cultura, La Religione E L'Arte Italiana Dei Primordi, Ann-Frances Hamill

Master's Theses, Dissertations, Graduate Research and Major Papers Overview

Examines the works and thoughts of two Italian saints: Saint Francis of Assisi (1181-1226) and Saint Catherine of Siena (1347-1380). Explores the common ideological denominator in the works of these major figures and analyzes their impact on Italian society and culture.


Religião, Direitos Humanos E Educação, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2006

Religião, Direitos Humanos E Educação, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Não admira que haja atritos, incompreensões, entre as religiões e os poderes. Porque, antes de mais, foi preciso a uns e a outros comprimirem-se para darem lugar (espaço, mesmo) ao outro tipo de normatividade e de poder. Em muitos casos históricos se terá começado com um poder de índole teocrática. E só com o tempo e o progresso social e político se passaria a admitir a cisão do mando, num ramo secular e num ramo sacral. O grande problema do tratamento da questão religiosa do ponto de vista dos Direitos Humanos, é que se trata, no limite, de pôr uma ...


"Review Of The Middle East Under Rome", Michael Patella Osb Oct 2006

"Review Of The Middle East Under Rome", Michael Patella Osb

School of Theology and Seminary Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Ms-082: Capt. Russell Miller And Claudia Lewis Miller Correspondence, 1916-1919, Amy Sanderson Oct 2006

Ms-082: Capt. Russell Miller And Claudia Lewis Miller Correspondence, 1916-1919, Amy Sanderson

All Finding Aids

This collection consists of 297 letters written between Russell Miller and Claudia Miller from Washington in 1916-1919 during their courtship and marriage before Russell was deployed to Europe during World War I. Almost all letters are attached to their original envelopes with stamps.

Special Collections and College Archives Finding Aids are discovery tools used to describe and provide access to our holdings. Finding aids include historical and biographical information about each collection in addition to inventories of their content. More information about our collections can be found on our website http://www.gettysburg.edu/special_collections/collections/.


(Review) Nails In The Wall: Catholic Nuns In Reformation Germany, Marc R. Forster Sep 2006

(Review) Nails In The Wall: Catholic Nuns In Reformation Germany, Marc R. Forster

History Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Review Of The Creation Of The British Atlantic World Edited By Elizabeth Mancke And Carole Shammas, Edward E. Andrews Sep 2006

Review Of The Creation Of The British Atlantic World Edited By Elizabeth Mancke And Carole Shammas, Edward E. Andrews

History Department Faculty Publications

Reviews the book The Creation of the British Atlantic World (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005) edited by Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas.


Ms-067: Robert Bell Bradley Papers, Barbara Schuitt Sep 2006

Ms-067: Robert Bell Bradley Papers, Barbara Schuitt

All Finding Aids

This collection is composed of Robert Bell Bradley’s memoirs of his experiences as a medic during combat in France during WWII and his subsequent capture and five months’ imprisonment east of Berlin in a prisoner-of-war facility. Included are poems from that time as well as collections of his general poetry selections and philosophical reflections. There are no letters or other memorabilia from his war experiences.

Special Collections and College Archives Finding Aids are discovery tools used to describe and provide access to our holdings. Finding aids include historical and biographical information about each collection in addition to inventories of ...


The Wess East German Study Tour: A Report, Richard Hacken, Kizer Walker Sep 2006

The Wess East German Study Tour: A Report, Richard Hacken, Kizer Walker

All Faculty Publications

Ten WESS members were selected to participate in a study tour of eastern Germany sponsored by the Goethe-Institut, New York; the U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Germany, Public Affairs Section; and Bibliothek & Information International, in cooperation with WESS. Titled "Leipzig, Dresden, Weimar: Exploring a Library Landscape," the tour was intended to acquaint German Studies specialists from US academic and research libraries with developments in librarianship and publishing in eastern Germany since unification. The tour, which ran March 16-23, 2006, was book-ended, start and finish, by the Leipzig Book Fair and Germany's national professional meeting of librarians, the Bibliothekartag, held ...


Ms-081: Leahy Family Correspondence; 1894-1901, Gibraltar, Amy Sanderson Sep 2006

Ms-081: Leahy Family Correspondence; 1894-1901, Gibraltar, Amy Sanderson

All Finding Aids

A collection of family correspondence illustrating service life and current event during the late 1800s - early 1900s. It is comprised of letters written by Captain H.G. Leahy to his wife, 1900-1901, from Gibraltar, containing an account of service life, including the commemoration of the death of Queen Victoria, accession of Edward VII and the visit of the Duke and Duchess of York en route to Australia.

It also includes letters from Alice Leahy to her mother and one to her aunt, from Gibraltar and London, 1899-1900 and letters to her husband, Captain Leahy, 1894-1899.

Special Collections and College Archives ...


Review Of Zunshine, Lisa, Bastards And Foundlings: Illegitimacy In Eighteenth-Century England, John D. Ramsbottom Sep 2006

Review Of Zunshine, Lisa, Bastards And Foundlings: Illegitimacy In Eighteenth-Century England, John D. Ramsbottom

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Dr. Ramsbottom's review of "Bastards and Foundlings: Illegitimacy in Eighteenth-Century England"


A Challenge To Sexual And Marital Propriety And Communal Reaction, Kenneth Stow Aug 2006

A Challenge To Sexual And Marital Propriety And Communal Reaction, Kenneth Stow

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The selection of sources from the early 1550's Rome deal with the question of honor of young women and their fathers.

The Jewish Community of Rome was unimpressed. It wanted it made clear that one did not make accusations that could harm the well-being, in fact, mostly financial, but also the honor, of young women. Indeed, the bride Ricca was herself awarded what amounted to a hefty fine; we know that among Christians, it was the father’s honor that was considered impugned, and any monetary sanctions would go to him. Not here.

Finally, we learn something about sacred ...


Two Cases Of Apostasy In Dubno In 1716 Jews, Christians, And Family Life, Magda Teter Aug 2006

Two Cases Of Apostasy In Dubno In 1716 Jews, Christians, And Family Life, Magda Teter

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

This text relates a trial of two Christian women who accepted to Judaism that took place in the city of Dubno in eastern Poland in 1716. The text presented here comes from a collection of primary sources published in Kiev [now Kyiv] in 1869, as part of effort by scholars at the time to collect and publish primary source materials about Ukraine. The collection is called Arkhiv Iugo-zapadnoi Rossii, or The Archive of South-Western Russia, and contains documents from the South-Western part of Ukraine.

This presentation is for the following text(s):


Juveniles In Early Modern Jewish-Italian Communities Between Family Control And Kabbalistic Piety, Roni Weinstein Aug 2006

Juveniles In Early Modern Jewish-Italian Communities Between Family Control And Kabbalistic Piety, Roni Weinstein

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The presentation discusses conceptions of childhood, youth, and marriage in Italian Jewish Culture.

The text reproduced is an excerpt from a mid-seventeenth century work by Pinhas Baruch Monselice.

Click here to view a video


“The First Duty Of Nature Is To Preserve Life” A Jewish Woman’S Plea For Divorce In Late 18th-Century Trieste, Lois Dubin Aug 2006

“The First Duty Of Nature Is To Preserve Life” A Jewish Woman’S Plea For Divorce In Late 18th-Century Trieste, Lois Dubin

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The presentation discusses a letter from Relle [Rachele] Morschene (1770-1844) of Trieste to Chief Rabbi Raffael Natan Tedesco, written in the throes of her three-year long effort to extricate herself from her marriage to husband Lucio Luzzatto (1755-1801). From 1793 to 1796, Morschene pursued separation and civil divorce through the Habsburg courts at the same time as a Jewish religious divorce. Indeed, she was one of the first European Jewish women to seek and obtain a civil divorce. Her legal situation was novel because Jews in the Habsburg Monarchy were among the first to be subjected to civil marriage regulation ...


The Woodstruck Deed The Documentation Of Accidental Defloration Among The Jews Of Early Modern Italy, David Malkiel Aug 2006

The Woodstruck Deed The Documentation Of Accidental Defloration Among The Jews Of Early Modern Italy, David Malkiel

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The “woodstruck” (mukat ets) deed, a Hebrew document that officially records the accidental defloration of a young girl, appears in sixteenth-century Italy, in a block of deeds recorded by Jewish notaries in Rome, in a rabbinic responsum and in the record book of the Padua community. Prior to that, there is no record of such an instrument anywhere in Jewish history and literature, despite the fact that the frequency of accidental defloration must have been a constant. Moreover, the registers of the Jewish notaries of sixteenth-century Rome contain over a hundred such deeds for the sixteenth century alone. The appearance ...


Jewish Women And Economic Encounters With Christians, Debra Kaplan Aug 2006

Jewish Women And Economic Encounters With Christians, Debra Kaplan

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

R. Yair Hayyim ben Moses Samson Bacharach (1638-1702) is well-known for his knowledge of halakha and Kabbalah. Over the course of his lifetime, he served as the rabbi in several locations in the Holy Roman Empire. In these two responsa, Bacharach deals with one of the halakhic problems surrounding women’s trade with non-Jews. Such trade inevitably caused women to enter into seclusion (yihud) with non-Jews, especially since according to Jewish law, the presence of the non-Jew’s wife did not alleviate the prohibition of seclusion with a non-Jew.

This presentation is for the following text(s):


Unequal Opportunities The Economic Possibilities Open To Jewish Women In 18th Century Poland-Lithuania, Adam Teller Aug 2006

Unequal Opportunities The Economic Possibilities Open To Jewish Women In 18th Century Poland-Lithuania, Adam Teller

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The following texts present an image of economic opportunities, and gender roles in Jewish society in eastern Europe. The first text is an 18th-century supplication by a Jew, Bunim Szlomowicz, against his wife; the second is a 1751 decree by the Council of Lithuania regulating women's roles in trade.


Family Ties & Political Structure In Pisa And Livorno, Bernard D. Cooperman Aug 2006

Family Ties & Political Structure In Pisa And Livorno, Bernard D. Cooperman

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

In his presentation of two documents pertaining to Jews in Pisa and Livorno, Bernard Cooperman discusses the link between family connections and the construction of a new formal Jewish community and explores the connection between family and business networks. Cooperman argues here that new communities in early modern Italy were often structured as merchant companies, and it was a family that was a base of trade networks. Family also became a method of joining the community, while at the same time families and individuals used membership in a community to legitimize a family. The presentation further explores interracial marriages and ...


Marriage And Networkbuilding, Claudia Ulbrich Aug 2006

Marriage And Networkbuilding, Claudia Ulbrich

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

In eastern France Jewish marriages are well documented in the eighteenth century. Following a decree by Louis XIV in 1701 that Jewish marriage contracts had to be deposited with notaries within 15 days of marriage, these documents were registered with increasing frequency in the entire French-German region. Registration became generally obligatory in that time, so that we have large amounts of documents both for Christian as for Jews. Historians have never fully analyzed these files. Jean Fleury, who was prompted by genealogical interests, surveyed the 8500 items in the Metz archive, and compiled 2021 marriage contracts from the seventeenth and ...


How Family Wealth And Power Are Organized, Moshe Rosman Aug 2006

How Family Wealth And Power Are Organized, Moshe Rosman

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The following is a translation of Todros Kozuchowski's will. Originally written in Polish, then translated into Hebrew, the will was translated into English by Moshe Rosman.


Pinkas Shamash Altona (1766-1767), Elisheva Carlebach Aug 2006

Pinkas Shamash Altona (1766-1767), Elisheva Carlebach

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

Elisheva Carlebach's presentation discusses excerpts from the Pinkas Shamash Altona, providing a glimpse on an aspect of Jewish life that usually remained obscured--illegitimate children born to Jewish domestic servants, and the servants themselves, held very marginal status in the community. One of the pertinent issue was death. If they died the responsibility for buying them was contested between many different parties.

This presentation is for the following text(s):

Click here for a video presentation.


Jewish Marriage In Christian Eyes, Yaacov Deutsch Aug 2006

Jewish Marriage In Christian Eyes, Yaacov Deutsch

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

This presentation deals with a Christian description of early modern Jewish marriage rituals. The text is a translation of a chapter on Jewish marriage from Johannes Buxtorf's "Synagoga Judaica" or "Jewish Synagogue" (1603).

This presentation is for the following text(s):


Ordering Early Modern Marriage, Elisheva Baumgarten Aug 2006

Ordering Early Modern Marriage, Elisheva Baumgarten

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

In this presentation, Elisheva Baumgarten discusses marriage rituals as recorded by a seventeenth-century Jewish author of a book of customs (sefer minhagim), which became popular in the early modern period. Baumgarten compares Yuspa of Worms' work with materials from the medieval period. She also places Jewish marriage rituals within the context of non-Jewish cultures of the time.

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • The Custom book of R. Juspa of Worms (17th century)

Click here to view the video


Emw 2006: Gender, Family, And Social Structures, Emw 2006 Aug 2006

Emw 2006: Gender, Family, And Social Structures, Emw 2006

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The 2006 Early Modern Workshop on the topic of “Gender, Family, and Social Structures” addressed a spectrum of topics about the transformation of the concept and form of family in general, and of Jewish family in particular in the early modern period.

The workshop took up questions of: marriage rituals, as represented by early modern (Elisheva Baumgarten) and Christians (Jacob Deutsch), and marriage contracts (Ruth Lamdan), responsibilities of the Jewish community to women and out-of-wedlock children (Elisheva Carlebach), challenges to marriage and marital propriety (Debra Kaplan on rabbinic responses to Jewish women’s encounters with Christian men; David Malkiel and ...


Earthly Powers: The Clash Of Religion And Politics In Europe From The French Revolution To The Great War (Book Review), John B. Roney Jul 2006

Earthly Powers: The Clash Of Religion And Politics In Europe From The French Revolution To The Great War (Book Review), John B. Roney

History Faculty Publications

Book review by John Roney.

Burleigh, Michael. Earthly Powers: The Clash of Religion and Politics in Europe From the French Revolution to the Great War. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2005. ISBN 9780060580933


Making History: Czech Voices Of Dissent And The Revolution Of 1989 (Review), Stephen Paul Foster Ph.D. Jul 2006

Making History: Czech Voices Of Dissent And The Revolution Of 1989 (Review), Stephen Paul Foster Ph.D.

University Libraries' Staff Publications

The article is a book review of Making History: Czech Voices of Dissent and the Revolution of 1989 by Michael Long.


The Malleus Maleficarum And The Construction Of Witchcraft: Theology And Popular Belief (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2006

The Malleus Maleficarum And The Construction Of Witchcraft: Theology And Popular Belief (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

There is perhaps no historical text more associated in the popular imagination with the horrors of the European witch hunts than the infamous Malleus maleficarum, commonly ascribed to the Dominicans Heinrich Kramer (Institoris) and Jacob Sprenger (in fact much evidence points to Kramer as the sole author). Proclaimed to be the great witch-hunting manual of the late-medieval and early-modern period, the Malleus has been held by some as a definitive statement of authoritative conceptions of witchcraft. In fact, scholars of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries have long recognized that the Malleus was in many respects an idiosyncratic work, that ...


The Propaganda Of Augustus Caesar How Peace, Power, And Stability Was Achieved During The Age Of Augustus, Kevin P. Jeffries Jun 2006

The Propaganda Of Augustus Caesar How Peace, Power, And Stability Was Achieved During The Age Of Augustus, Kevin P. Jeffries

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

No abstract provided.