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2005

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Articles 1 - 30 of 58

Full-Text Articles in European History

Metropolitan Puritans And The Varieties Of Godly Reform In Monmouth, Newton Key, Joseph Ward Dec 2005

Metropolitan Puritans And The Varieties Of Godly Reform In Monmouth, Newton Key, Joseph Ward

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Oliver Cromwell's opening speech to the Assembly of Saints (BarebonesParliament) on 4 July 1653 has been singled out as 'the high-water markof radicalism' because his millenarian and reformist language revealed theinfluence of London-based Fifth Monarchists. 1 But Cromwell began hisspeech not with biblical references but with 'that case ofWales, which Imust confess for my own part I set myself upon, if I should inform youwhat discountenance that business of the poor people of God there had' bythe Rump's refusal to renew the Propagation Act 'to the discountenancingof the honest people there', despite the seemingly obvious proof 'thatGod kindles ...


Metropolitan Puritans And The Varieties Of Godly Reform In Monmouth, Newton Key, Joseph P. Ward Nov 2005

Metropolitan Puritans And The Varieties Of Godly Reform In Monmouth, Newton Key, Joseph P. Ward

Newton Key

Oliver Cromwell's opening speech to the Assembly of Saints (Barebones
Parliament) on 4 July 1653 has been singled out as 'the high-water mark
of radicalism' because his millenarian and reformist language revealed the
influence of London-based Fifth Monarchists. 1 But Cromwell began his
speech not with biblical references but with 'that case ofWales, which I
must confess for my own part I set myself upon, if I should inform you
what discountenance that business of the poor people of God there had' by
the Rump's refusal to renew the Propagation Act 'to the discountenancing
of the honest people ...


The Seven Years' War In New York State: Introduction, Timothy J. Shannon Oct 2005

The Seven Years' War In New York State: Introduction, Timothy J. Shannon

History Faculty Publications

Ask the average person on the street about the Seven Years' War and you are likely to get a blank stare. Try again, only this time call the conflict "The French and Indian War" and you might get a faint smile of recognition. Take a different approach: ask random strangers their opinion about The Last of the Mohicans. Many will tell you they loved it, although they will more likely be thinking about Daniel Day-Lewis than James Fenimore Cooper.

Such has been the fate of one of the most important events in early history. In 2004, the 250th anniversary of ...


Havel, Vaclav, Yvonne Howell Sep 2005

Havel, Vaclav, Yvonne Howell

Languages, Literatures, and Cultures Faculty Publications

Czech playwright, dissident writer and human rights philosopher, statesman, president of Czechoslovakia, and first president of the Czech Republic. Havel was born into a prominent business family in Prague during the interwar period of Czech independence.


The City As A Place Of Regulation, Border And Exclusion, Bernard D. Cooperman Aug 2005

The City As A Place Of Regulation, Border And Exclusion, Bernard D. Cooperman

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Supplications to the Government, Jewish Settlement in Livorno Atti Civili del Ufficio di governatore di Livorno (1605, 1610)

Click here to view the video


Law, Boundaries, And City Life In Early Modern Poland-Lithuania, Magda Teter Aug 2005

Law, Boundaries, And City Life In Early Modern Poland-Lithuania, Magda Teter

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The dynamics of relations within cities thus are shaped not only by class or religious or ethnic membership but also by the legal framework. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, divisions between the private and royal domains within cities disrupted not only their legal coherence but also that of Jewish communities themselves, sharpening economic competition and often also conflict. This is what the 1711 decree of the Lithuanian Tribunal against the kahal of Minsk highlights--legal distinctions sometimes exacerbated urban tensions.

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Decree of the Lithuanian Tribunal against the Kahal of Minsk (1711)

Click here to ...


Close Quarters Privacy And Jewish House Space In Early Modern Polish Cities, Adam Teller Aug 2005

Close Quarters Privacy And Jewish House Space In Early Modern Polish Cities, Adam Teller

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

The following texts were chosen in order to illustrate the implications of the growth in Jewish population in Poland's larger towns during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when the number of Jews grew faster than the non-Jewish authorities would allow the Jewish quarters to expand. This led to an increasing degree of crowding in the Jewish quarter as a whole as well as in individual houses. To illustrate this, some demographic data on the situation in the Jewish quarter of Poznan may be seen in the presentation.

This presentation is for the following text(s):

  • Cracow Community Ordinance of ...


Rural Jews Of Alsace, Debra Kaplan Aug 2005

Rural Jews Of Alsace, Debra Kaplan

Early Modern Workshop: Resources in Jewish History

From 1348/9-1477, the Jews of Alsace were expelled from the cities in which they had lived throughout the Middle Ages. While many opted to leave the Empire for centers in Eastern Europe and Italy, some Jews remained, moving to the towns and villages in the countryside. By the 1470's, the majority of Alsatian Jews lived in rural areas. Quotas often dictated residential policies in towns and villages, so it was not uncommon to find one or two Jewish families per village/town. The following documents detail the relationship of rural Alsatian Jews, as represented by their communal leaders ...


Stendhal And The Trials Of Ambition In Postrevolutionary France, Kathleen Kete Jul 2005

Stendhal And The Trials Of Ambition In Postrevolutionary France, Kathleen Kete

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Legend Of Ger Zedek (Righteous Convert) Of Wilno As Polemic And Reassurance, Magda Teter Jul 2005

The Legend Of Ger Zedek (Righteous Convert) Of Wilno As Polemic And Reassurance, Magda Teter

Division II Faculty Publications

The article analyzes the popular legend of a righteous convert to Judaism in eighteenth-century Wilno (now Vilnius) according to which a prominent count, Walentyn Potocki, converted to Judaism and then died a martyr's death at the stake in Wilno. The article traces parts of the legend to Boccaccio's Decameron, discusses the attitudes to converts to Judaism in Jewish law, and explains the historical and cultural context in which the legend emerged.


Interview With Arthur Bruce Boenau, June 9, 2005, Arthur Bruce Boenau, Michael J. Birkner Jun 2005

Interview With Arthur Bruce Boenau, June 9, 2005, Arthur Bruce Boenau, Michael J. Birkner

Oral Histories

Arthur Bruce Boenau was interviewed on June 9, 2005 by Michael Birkner about his life and time as a professor of Political Science at Gettysburg College. He discusses his childhood, his experiences during World War II and the Korean War in the Counterintelligence Corps, and finally his memories of the faculty, administrators, and students at Gettysburg.

Length of Interview: 94 minutes

Collection Note: This oral history was selected from the Oral History Collection maintained by Special Collections & College Archives. Transcripts are available for browsing in the Special Collections Reading Room, 4th floor, Musselman Library. GettDigital contains the complete listing ...


(Review) Finding The Middle Way: The Utraquists' Liberal Challenge To Rome And Luther, Marc R. Forster Jun 2005

(Review) Finding The Middle Way: The Utraquists' Liberal Challenge To Rome And Luther, Marc R. Forster

History Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


William Morris And The Society For The Protection Of Ancient Buildings: Nineteenth And Twentieth Century Historic Preservation In Europe, Andrea Yount Jun 2005

William Morris And The Society For The Protection Of Ancient Buildings: Nineteenth And Twentieth Century Historic Preservation In Europe, Andrea Yount

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Prudent Village: Risk Pooling Institutions In Medieval English Agriculture, Gary Richardson May 2005

The Prudent Village: Risk Pooling Institutions In Medieval English Agriculture, Gary Richardson

Gary Richardson

The prudent peasant mitigated the risk of crop failures by scattering his arable land throughout his village, Deirdre McCloskey argued, because alternative risksharing institutions did not exist. But, alternatives did exist, this essay concludes. Medieval English peasants formed two types of farmers’ cooperatives. Fraternities protected members from the perils of everyday life. Customary poor laws redistributed resources towards villagers beset by bad luck. In both institutions, the expectation of reciprocation motivated farmers with surpluses to aid neighbors with shortages.


Romanization And Ancient Iberia: Religion And Ideology, Lindsay Mcneill May 2005

Romanization And Ancient Iberia: Religion And Ideology, Lindsay Mcneill

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

No abstract provided.


Review: Moira R. Rogers, Newtonianism For The Ladies And Other Uneducated Souls: The Popularization Of Science In Leipzig, 1687-1750 (New York, 2003), Andre Wakefield May 2005

Review: Moira R. Rogers, Newtonianism For The Ladies And Other Uneducated Souls: The Popularization Of Science In Leipzig, 1687-1750 (New York, 2003), Andre Wakefield

Pitzer Faculty Publications and Research

Reviewed work: Moira R. Rogers. Newtonianism for the Ladies and Other Uneducated Souls: The Popularization of Science in Leipzig, 1687-1750. New York and Bern: Peter Lang, 2003. xiii + 181 pp. $61.95 (cloth), ISBN 978-0-8204-5029-2.


The True Patron Of Ireland : Saint Brigit And The Rise Of Celtic Christianity, Autumn Dolan May 2005

The True Patron Of Ireland : Saint Brigit And The Rise Of Celtic Christianity, Autumn Dolan

Honors Theses

When Saint Patrick landed in Ireland in 432 AD, history says that he brought Christianity to the Irish. In actuality, though, Patrick's arrival was the beginning of a religious struggle between Rome and Ireland. Patrick's Church was based on Roman traditions and his mission in Ireland was not just to defeat paganism, but to intercede in the foundations of an already developing Celtic Church. To challenge Patrick and his Roman ways, Ireland exalted a saint of its own. Saint Brigit ( 452-525 AD) and the characteristics she represented in Irish hagiography clearly illustrated the ideal Irish saint. Ireland's ...


Christianity And Craft Guilds In Late Medieval England: A Rational Choice Analysis, Gary Richardson Apr 2005

Christianity And Craft Guilds In Late Medieval England: A Rational Choice Analysis, Gary Richardson

Gary Richardson

In late-medieval England, craft guilds simultaneously pursued piety and profit. Why did guilds pursue those seemingly unrelated goals? What were the consequences of that combination? Theories of organizational behavior answer those questions. Craft guilds combined spiritual and occupational endeavors because the former facilitated the success of the latter and vice versa. The reciprocal nature of this relationship linked the ability of guilds to attain spiritual and occupational goals. This link between religion and economics at the local level connected religious and economic trends in the wider world.


Czech Fiction? Kafka And History In Czech Literature, Zachary Macholz Apr 2005

Czech Fiction? Kafka And History In Czech Literature, Zachary Macholz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Much of Czech literature of the twentieth century leans heavily on the political and historical context of a given time period. This is not true of Franz Kafka, but his work is nonetheless reflective of many elements of Czech history after the turn of the century. This paper explores the role that Kafka’s The Trial and Czech political and social history plays in the formation of works of fiction and drama, and concludes that Czech authors Hašek, Hrabal, and Havel all deal explicitly with political and historical themes, and draw from Kafka, while the authors Škvorecky and Kundera are ...


The Politics Of Survival: Indian And European Collaboration In Colonial North America, Ian Pajer-Rogers Apr 2005

The Politics Of Survival: Indian And European Collaboration In Colonial North America, Ian Pajer-Rogers

Inquiry Journal 2005

No abstract provided.


(Review) The Myth Of Nations: The Medieval Origins Of Europe, Frederick S. Paxton Apr 2005

(Review) The Myth Of Nations: The Medieval Origins Of Europe, Frederick S. Paxton

History Faculty Publications

Reviews Patrick J. Geary's, The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe. First paperback ed. Princeton N.J., and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2003. Pp. xi, 199. $16.95.


Review: Bettina Wahrig And Werner Sohn, Eds. Zwischen Aufklärung, Policey Und Verwaltung. Zur Genese Des Medizinalwesens, 1750-1850 (Wiesbaden, 2003), Andre Wakefield Mar 2005

Review: Bettina Wahrig And Werner Sohn, Eds. Zwischen Aufklärung, Policey Und Verwaltung. Zur Genese Des Medizinalwesens, 1750-1850 (Wiesbaden, 2003), Andre Wakefield

Pitzer Faculty Publications and Research

Reviewed work: Bettina Wahrig; Werner Sohn (Editors). Zwischen Aufklärung, Policey, und Verwaltung Zur Genese des Medizinalwesens, 1750–1850. 212 pp., index. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2003. €59.


Review Of The Book Dictionary Of Literary Biography, Vol. 299: Holocaust Novelists, John A. Drobnicki Mar 2005

Review Of The Book Dictionary Of Literary Biography, Vol. 299: Holocaust Novelists, John A. Drobnicki

Publications and Research

Review of the book Dictionary of literary biography, Vol. 299: Holocaust novelists.


Totalitarian Science And Technology, Paul R. Josephson Jan 2005

Totalitarian Science And Technology, Paul R. Josephson

Faculty Books

In Totalitarian Science and Technology Paul Josephson considers how physicists, biologists, and engineers have fared in totalitarian regimes. Adolph Hitler and Joseph Stalin relied on scientists and engineers to build the infrastructure of their states. The military power of their regimes was largely based on the discovery of physicists and biologists. They sought to use biology to transform nature, including their citizens, with murderous effect in Nazi Germany. They expected scientists to devote themselves entirely to the goals of the state, and were intolerant of deviation from state-sponsored programs and ideology. As a result, physicists, biologists, and engineers suffered from ...


The Scottish And English Religious Roots Of The American Right To Arms: Buchanan, Rutherford, Locke, Sidney, And The Duty To Overthrow Tyranny, David B. Kopel Jan 2005

The Scottish And English Religious Roots Of The American Right To Arms: Buchanan, Rutherford, Locke, Sidney, And The Duty To Overthrow Tyranny, David B. Kopel

David B Kopel

Many twenty-first century Americans believe that they have a God-given right to possess arms as a last resort against tyranny. One of the most important sources of that belief is the struggle for freedom of conscience in the United Kingdom during the reigns of Elizabeth I and the Stuarts. A moral right and duty to use force against tyranny was explicated by the Scottish Presbyterians George Buchanan and Samuel Rutherford. The free-thinking English Christians John Locke and Algernon Sidney broadened and deepened the ideas of Buchanan and Rutherford. The result was a sophisticated defense of religious freedom, which was to ...


Sex, Lies And Anecdotes: Gender Relations In The Life Stories Of Italian Women Artists, 1550-1800, Julia K. Dabbs Jan 2005

Sex, Lies And Anecdotes: Gender Relations In The Life Stories Of Italian Women Artists, 1550-1800, Julia K. Dabbs

Art History Publications

The writer discusses gender relations in life stories of Italian women artists between 1550 and 1800. In early modern life stories, a recurring emphasis on gender relations, typically deflecting or overshadowing discussion of artistic accomplishment, clearly marks the female artist as a breed apart from her male colleagues. In light of the fact that their biographers were frequently artists themselves, or at least were linked to artistic circles, the commonalities of these anecdotal narratives illuminate how these “miracles of nature” were viewed by the male artistic community, and, by association, the broader society of which they were a part. The ...


The Faux Pas Of A Vert Galant: The Historiography Of Henry Iv's Military Leadership, Annette Finley-Croswhite Jan 2005

The Faux Pas Of A Vert Galant: The Historiography Of Henry Iv's Military Leadership, Annette Finley-Croswhite

History Faculty Publications

Even though many modern historians agree that Henry IV was less than a brilliant military commander, a small but growing body of revisionist historians believe that his reputation deserves to be reassessed. While acknowledging his military innovations and battlefield successes, his critics see him primarily as an opportunist with a reckless streak who failed time and again to take full advantage of his victories. The revisionist school, however, believes that these interpretations are based on an inaccurate assessment of early modern warfare and its unique political, religious, and social components. Henry's modern defenders further note that his reputation has ...


Moses Mendelssohn's Approach To Jewish Integration In Light Of His Reconciliation Of Traditional Judaism And Enlightenment Rationalism, Robert J. Clark Jan 2005

Moses Mendelssohn's Approach To Jewish Integration In Light Of His Reconciliation Of Traditional Judaism And Enlightenment Rationalism, Robert J. Clark

History and Government Faculty Publications

Prior to the eighteenth century, European Jews lived in separate communal structures at the discretion of their host countries.1 A very few found places of influence and wealth as "court Jews" and lived as aristocrats, but their acceptance in society was limited, subject to official approval, and came at a price.2 There had always been opportunities for Jews to integrate into European society, albeit not without complication, via assimilation and conversion.3 But the ability to enter the social order as Jews and find a place to belong without rejecting their heritage and religion proved elusive. The emergence ...


Chopin, The Listener, Anthony Zielonka Jan 2005

Chopin, The Listener, Anthony Zielonka

Modern and Classical Languages and Cultures Department Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


He Is Depending On You: Militarism, Martyrdom, And The Appeal To Manliness In The Case Of France’S ‘Croix De Feu’, 1931-1940., Geoff Read Jan 2005

He Is Depending On You: Militarism, Martyrdom, And The Appeal To Manliness In The Case Of France’S ‘Croix De Feu’, 1931-1940., Geoff Read

Faculty Publications

This article examines the masculine discourse of the Croix de Feu, France’s largest political formation in the late 1930s, against the examples of the republican conservative parties – the Fédération Républicaine, the Alliance Démocratique, and the Parti Démocrate Populaire – as well the Socialist and Communist left. The author argues, based on the François de La Rocque papers, the movement’s newspaper, Le Flambeau, the archives of key political figures, as well as the other parties’ presses, that while the Croix de Feu’s preferred masculinity was similar to that found on the republican right in many regards, the movement, borrowing ...