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Full-Text Articles in European History

Losing Our Minds To Madness: Paradigm Changes In Western European Perceptions Of Mental Illness, James Michael Cecil Nov 2019

Losing Our Minds To Madness: Paradigm Changes In Western European Perceptions Of Mental Illness, James Michael Cecil

History

Academia and scholarship of the 20th-century bred a renewed interest in mental illness throughout history. Despite an increase in the literature within the discourse surrounding "madness," scholars have generally failed to understand how and why Western European societies have viewed mental illness in various ways throughout recorded history. This paper argues that there remains an inherent, human desire to reject anything different from humanity, particularly mental illness, which is nearly impossible to fully comprehend. This is especially true in the case of how societies have institutionalized, punished, and subjugated the "mad" individual.


Home Sweet Home: Domesticity In English And Scottish Insane Asylums, 1890-1914, Vesna Curlic Jul 2019

Home Sweet Home: Domesticity In English And Scottish Insane Asylums, 1890-1914, Vesna Curlic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis considers the implementation of domestic aesthetics and activities in the insane asylum at the end of the nineteenth century. Doctors sought to bring elements of the Victorian home into the asylum as part of a modern, humane regime of mental healthcare, which I call “institutional domesticity.” I argue that this process was fraught with challenges. While implementation of domesticity was relatively successful in regard to asylum activities, like labour and employment, domesticity reached its limitations in the physical asylum space. Ultimately, this thesis demonstrates the ways in which all asylum actors, including patients, staff, community members, and the ...


Vile Blood: Hereditary Degeneracy In Victorian England, Dalton Lee Brock May 2019

Vile Blood: Hereditary Degeneracy In Victorian England, Dalton Lee Brock

Theses and Dissertations from 2019

During the late 1800s, the people of England grew anxious about hereditary degeneracy. That anxiety was rooted in the medical literature of the Victorian period. Nature predetermined individuals to be either healthy or unhealthy. Unhealthy individuals were marked by degenerative mental or physical characteristics such as epilepsy. Medical professionals, including Henry Maudsley, emphasized reversion and its hereditary nature as a threat to individuals and society. All based their works and arguments on Charles Darwin’s idea of inheritance. Darwin, in turn, had adopted and modified Lamarckian inheritance to make up for the absence of an inheritance principle in his theory ...


Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson May 2019

Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Using the lives of impaired individuals catalogued in the Íslendingasögur as a narrative framework, this study examines medieval Scandinavian social views regarding impairment from the ninth to the thirteenth century. Beginning with the myths and legends of the eddic poetry and prose of Iceland, it investigates impairment in Norse pre-Christian belief; demonstrating how myth and memory informed medieval conceptualizations of the body. This thesis counters scholarly assumptions that the impaired were universally marginalized across medieval Europe. It argues that bodily difference, in the Norse world, was only viewed as a limitation when it prevented an individual from fulfilling roles that ...


Blood, Water And Mars: Soviet Science And The Alchemy For A New Man, Sophie Y. Andarovna Jan 2019

Blood, Water And Mars: Soviet Science And The Alchemy For A New Man, Sophie Y. Andarovna

All Master's Theses

The themes of blood, water and Mars in Soviet science and technology show the strong utopian and even religious foundations of Soviet society, which invariably centered around forging a new environment and, in so doing, a new variety of human to inhabit it. In the minds and experiments of some of the radical men behind Russia’s Revolution, blood was to create a more advanced, biologically “equal” humanity capable of potential immortality, while water was harnessed with the millenarian aim of transforming the Soviet Union’s vast landscape into fields of bountiful fertility, as well as cities of efficient industry ...