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Full-Text Articles in European History

The Nineteenth Century British Workhouse: Mission Not Accomplished, Brenda Derin Dec 2019

The Nineteenth Century British Workhouse: Mission Not Accomplished, Brenda Derin

Senior Theses and Capstone Projects

How to correct poverty in a society is extremely complex. In the nineteenth century, the British struggled to house, feed and care for the unemployed and destitute men, women and children created by the Industrial Revolution. Many in the upper classes considered poverty a moral failure, yet they had little impetus to end it. Poverty, as defined by an inability to provide for one’s needs due to a variety of factors, was seen as necessary, for without it there would be no motivation for the lower classes to work and provide a luxurious life for the wealthy.

Although some ...


Revolutionary Affinities: Democracy And Revolution In Hannah Arendt’S Portrait Of Rosa Luxemburg, Matthew P. Finck Sep 2019

Revolutionary Affinities: Democracy And Revolution In Hannah Arendt’S Portrait Of Rosa Luxemburg, Matthew P. Finck

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This work is an exploration of Hannah Arendt’s portrait of Rosa Luxemburg. Beginning with a few minor discussions of Luxemburg in her first major work Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), the socialist revolutionary’s place in the constellation of figures that appear in Arendt’s work grew over the course of her career. Arendt’s portrait of Luxemburg culminated in “A Heroine of Revolution,” which appeared in the New York Review of Books, and in Men in Dark Times (1968). Yet Arendt’s portrait of Luxemburg was notable for its excision of her revolutionary Marxism in the process of sculpting ...


Who Owned Waterloo? Wellington’S Veterans And The Battle For Relevance, Luke A. L. Reynolds Sep 2019

Who Owned Waterloo? Wellington’S Veterans And The Battle For Relevance, Luke A. L. Reynolds

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation examines the afterlife of the battle of Waterloo in the collective memory of Great Britain as well as the post-war lives of officers who fought there. Using a variety of techniques associated with cultural, social, and military history, it explores the concept of cultural ownership of a military event and contextualizes the relationship between Britain and her army in the nineteenth century, both at home and abroad. It argues that, almost immediately after the dust settled on the field of Waterloo, a variety of groups laid claim to different aspects of the ownership of the memory of the ...


Kabbala, Christians, And Jews: An Examination Of The Rise And Fall Of Peculiar Relationships That Developed Between Christian Elites And Jewish Scholars In Renaissance Italy, Glenda Leona Dannenfelser Aug 2019

Kabbala, Christians, And Jews: An Examination Of The Rise And Fall Of Peculiar Relationships That Developed Between Christian Elites And Jewish Scholars In Renaissance Italy, Glenda Leona Dannenfelser

Theses and Dissertations

The Italian Renaissance was to many of its contemporaries a golden age. It was unarguably a phenomenal time in European history. The sharing of intellectual ideas and innovations during this period permanently changed the world. Knowledge was spread across Europe at an unprecedented pace and intellectual minds were greatly expanded from both new and old discoveries. During this period, classical works were fortuitously unearthed and swiftly consumed for their hoary wisdom and guidance. Among these works were found ancient productions related to various occult ideas and practices such as alchemy and magic. A subset of the prominent group of Italian ...


A Kingdom Of Co-Inherence: Christian Theology And The Laws Of King Magnus The Lawmender Of Norway, 1261-1281, Dillon Richard Frank Knackstedt Aug 2019

A Kingdom Of Co-Inherence: Christian Theology And The Laws Of King Magnus The Lawmender Of Norway, 1261-1281, Dillon Richard Frank Knackstedt

Master's Theses

This thesis explains a new interpretation of the law books written during the reign of King Magnus the Lawmender of Norway (1239-1280, crowned 1261, r.1263-1280). In the process it also teases out common themes in Norway’s early histories, Iceland’s early laws, and biblical exegesis and re-writes much of what is assumed about “church” and “state” in this era, beginning at Magnus’ coronation and ending with the fraught year following his death, 1281.

According to the new interpretation explored in these four chapters, the laws of Magnus the Lawmender were not an attempt at royal legitimization of the ...


Home Sweet Home: Domesticity In English And Scottish Insane Asylums, 1890-1914, Vesna Curlic Jul 2019

Home Sweet Home: Domesticity In English And Scottish Insane Asylums, 1890-1914, Vesna Curlic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis considers the implementation of domestic aesthetics and activities in the insane asylum at the end of the nineteenth century. Doctors sought to bring elements of the Victorian home into the asylum as part of a modern, humane regime of mental healthcare, which I call “institutional domesticity.” I argue that this process was fraught with challenges. While implementation of domesticity was relatively successful in regard to asylum activities, like labour and employment, domesticity reached its limitations in the physical asylum space. Ultimately, this thesis demonstrates the ways in which all asylum actors, including patients, staff, community members, and the ...


The Effects Of The Third Reform Act On Political Activity And Organization In Industrial Britain, 1886-1906., Michael S. Vernon Jul 2019

The Effects Of The Third Reform Act On Political Activity And Organization In Industrial Britain, 1886-1906., Michael S. Vernon

Electronic Thesis Collection

The Third Reform Act doubled the size of the British electorate by extending the urban franchise reform of 1867 into the counties. The Act also called for a redistribution of seats in Parliament which eliminated most multi-member constituencies and replace them with single-member constituencies. These reforms changed the political landscape resulting in a more democratic electorate. The twenty years following the Third Reform Act are characterized by a Conservative ascendancy, which saw Conservatives take power and control British politics for the next generation. This Conservative ascendancy was possible because of the increased importance of public opinion in the electoral calculus ...


Arrival Of The Fittest: German Pows In Ontario During The Second World War, Jordyn Bailey Jul 2019

Arrival Of The Fittest: German Pows In Ontario During The Second World War, Jordyn Bailey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Over 35,000,000 soldiers, sailors and aviators, statistically one in three combatants, were taken prisoner during the Second World War. Some 35,000 of these prisoners were members of the German army, navy and air force, imprisoned in twenty-five internment compounds and 300 small, isolated labour camps across Canada. Once on Canadian soil, German POWs were treated with remarkable hospitality in lieu of their status as the “Nazi” enemy. Canada’s excellent treatment of German POWs was a product of many things: a desire to adhere to the Geneva Convention; concern for the well-being of Canadian and other Allied ...


Politics And Religion During The Rise And Reign Of Anne Boleyn, Megan E. Scherrer Jul 2019

Politics And Religion During The Rise And Reign Of Anne Boleyn, Megan E. Scherrer

LSU Master's Theses

During the 1520s and 1530s England endured a tumultuous time of drastic political change and religious reform. At the heart of it all was Anne Boleyn, whose relationship with King Henry VIII launched the English Reformation and the Royal Supremacy, and whose tragic end became a story passed down through the current day. This work examines Anne’s life, particularly her religion and influence in politics, and the figures who shone and dimmed as she came to power and once she lost everything. Some of the most significant of these figures include Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell ...


Crisis In The European Union: The Politics Of Integration, Engagement, And Dissent, 2008-2016, Edward I.C. Reminiskey Jun 2019

Crisis In The European Union: The Politics Of Integration, Engagement, And Dissent, 2008-2016, Edward I.C. Reminiskey

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This thesis is a comprehensive interpretation of European political history in the periodization from 2008 to 2016. The history begins with an exploration of the intellectual and political origins of the post-World War II project of European integration and the development of, and opposition to, the early institutions that eventually formed the contemporary assemblage of the European Union. Following a traditionally structured history, this work is styled as a ‘history of the present’ that specifies the role of the European Union in precipitating and attempting to overcome the financial and monetary crises, foreign policy quandaries on its Eastern periphery, an ...


Erotic Devotional Poetry: Resisting Neoplatonism In Protestant Christianity, Sarah M. Pruis Jun 2019

Erotic Devotional Poetry: Resisting Neoplatonism In Protestant Christianity, Sarah M. Pruis

Honors Projects

A genre best known for its appearance in Eastern religions, erotic devotional poetry uses sensual imagery to access an experience of the divine. Historically, many Christian traditions, excluding the mystical ones, have pushed back against such literature, seeing it as an impure model that degrades divinity by association with the physical, especially in the specific physical ritual of sex. This stance is a hallmark of Protestant Christianity. The idea of a dichotomy and hierarchy between soul and body, though, comes not from theology but from the introduction theologians made between Western philosophy, particularly Platonic Dualism, and Christianity, which was then ...


Förgörning To Trolldom: A History Of Danish Witchcraft And Magic, Cole M. Robert Jun 2019

Förgörning To Trolldom: A History Of Danish Witchcraft And Magic, Cole M. Robert

Honors Theses

Numerous historical texts have evaluated European witchcraft trials and beliefs to discover the political, social, theological, economic, and cultural factors that led to the persecution of accused witches. These texts largely focus on the trials in Continental Europe, predominantly Southwestern Germany, with scant mentions of the trials in northern Europe. The Danish witchcraft trials in the early seventeenth century are significant to the greater history of witchcraft because they were highly concentrated yet resulted in relatively few executions. This paper seeks to determine the origins of the Danish witch trials and to explain why the death toll was restrained, with ...


L'Évolution De La Présence Et La Reconnaissance Des Afro-Allemand(E)S En Allemagne, De La Colonisation Jusqu’À Nos Jours, Oumou-Hani Zakaria Jun 2019

L'Évolution De La Présence Et La Reconnaissance Des Afro-Allemand(E)S En Allemagne, De La Colonisation Jusqu’À Nos Jours, Oumou-Hani Zakaria

Honors Theses

The history of the presence of Afro-Germans in Germany is a complex path that goes back thousands of years ago. Nevertheless, the fight to be recognized as real Germans was only taken serious in 1980, with the arrival of Audre Lorde, an American writer, feminist, womanist, librarian, and civil rights activist, to Germany. Audre Lorde initiated the Afro-German movement with Afro-German women including May Ayim, Dagmar Schultz, Katharina Oguntoye, Ika Hügel-Marshall, and many others. Before her arrival, Afro-Germans were alienated from society and were only referred to as “war babies,” “occupation babies,” and many other racist names. So this movement ...


Cartel Practices And Policies In The World War Ii Era, Caleb Yoken Jun 2019

Cartel Practices And Policies In The World War Ii Era, Caleb Yoken

Honors Theses

The goal of this thesis is to examine cartels in the World War II era: how and why they operated, why they existed, and any assistance they may or may not have received from their respective governments. This thesis, in particular, will focus on three countries, the United States, Germany, and Britain. Cartels are typically defined through the lens of monopolized business activity that can deal with anything from petroleum and steel to pharmaceuticals, and take actions to restrict output and raise prices to eliminate their competition. The research finds that cartels that operated in Europe during this era were ...


The Iconography Of The Honey Bee In Western Art, Maura Wilson May 2019

The Iconography Of The Honey Bee In Western Art, Maura Wilson

Master of Arts in Humanities | Master's Theses

This master’s thesis studies the ways in which the honey bee is used as a symbol in Western art, specifically between the 1st century AD and the 17th century. Artists have had a close relationship with honey bees since they first drew scenes of life on cave walls; since then, honey bees have been a recurring image featured in artworks spanning centuries, cultures, and religions. During the Renaissance in Europe, the honey bee was adapted from a symbol associated with fertility and polytheistic cult rituals to become a symbol of eloquence in Christianity. The community-based, diligent nature ...


"No Room For Denial"?: Historical Memory And The 1995 Genocide At Srebrenica, Julia Masur May 2019

"No Room For Denial"?: Historical Memory And The 1995 Genocide At Srebrenica, Julia Masur

History Theses

The title of this research project comes from a documentary by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) called “Srebrenica Genocide: No Room for Denial”, that commemorated the 20th anniversary of the genocide of Bosniak Muslims.The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) has called the 1995 massacre in Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, “the single worst atrocity committed in the former Yugoslavia during the wars of the 1990s and the worst massacre that occurred in Europe since the months after World War II.”[1] Based on evidence from exhumations of mass graves, demographics studies, interception ...


Charles De Gaulle And The “Forever Abandoned”: Conceptualizations Of Empire And French Identity, Julien Herpers May 2019

Charles De Gaulle And The “Forever Abandoned”: Conceptualizations Of Empire And French Identity, Julien Herpers

Student Honors Theses By Year

No abstract provided.


Ptolemaic Elephants In Iii Maccabees And The Social Stratification Of The Kingdom Of Kush, Leslie Dean Sam Jr. May 2019

Ptolemaic Elephants In Iii Maccabees And The Social Stratification Of The Kingdom Of Kush, Leslie Dean Sam Jr.

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation

Trade helped to catapult early societies from hunter gatherers – living in small communities of friends and family – to living in sprawling urban environments of ideas and exchange. Socialization and the exchange of ideas – and war—molded our modern times into what it is now. Ancient Nubia found itself in a conundrum that would test their resolve. Ptolemaic-ran Egypt was at their border, forcing themselves in as conquerors, unapologetic towards the millennia old culture that contributed much to their society. With a truce made between the Greeks and Meroe, trade was inevitably was enacted between the two power houses, helping to ...


Vile Blood: Hereditary Degeneracy In Victorian England, Dalton Lee Brock May 2019

Vile Blood: Hereditary Degeneracy In Victorian England, Dalton Lee Brock

Theses and Dissertations from 2019

During the late 1800s, the people of England grew anxious about hereditary degeneracy. That anxiety was rooted in the medical literature of the Victorian period. Nature predetermined individuals to be either healthy or unhealthy. Unhealthy individuals were marked by degenerative mental or physical characteristics such as epilepsy. Medical professionals, including Henry Maudsley, emphasized reversion and its hereditary nature as a threat to individuals and society. All based their works and arguments on Charles Darwin’s idea of inheritance. Darwin, in turn, had adopted and modified Lamarckian inheritance to make up for the absence of an inheritance principle in his theory ...


Battle For The Minds: Use Of Propaganda Films In Stalinist Russia And Nazi Germany, David Rosenblum May 2019

Battle For The Minds: Use Of Propaganda Films In Stalinist Russia And Nazi Germany, David Rosenblum

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Since the end of the Second World War, scholars and experts have examined the use of cinema in spreading totalitarian propaganda. Nazi Germany, in particular, has caught the most attention. However, most of these studies focus exclusively on one nation, and relatively few studies have tried to directly compare the cinematic propaganda of different countries. This study aims to directly compare cinematic propaganda of Stalinist-era Russia and Nazi Germany and find out who utilized the medium of film more effectively. To accomplish this, this study will examine and directly compare several critical components, such as industry structure and artistic merits ...


"We Germans Fear God, And Nothing Else In The World!" Military Policy In Wilhelmine Germany, 1890-1914, Cavender Sutton May 2019

"We Germans Fear God, And Nothing Else In The World!" Military Policy In Wilhelmine Germany, 1890-1914, Cavender Sutton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Throughout the Second Reich’s short life, military affairs were synonymous with those of the state. Indeed, it was the zeal and blood of Prussian soldiers that allowed the creation of a unified German empire. After solidifying itself as a major power, things grew more complicated as the Reich found itself increasingly surrounded by hostile rivals. To the west, French humiliation over their catastrophic defeat in 1870-71 continued to fester while, in the east, Russian sympathies for the new empire waned. The finalization of a Franco-Russian alliance in 1894 meant Germany faced formidable adversaries along her eastern and western borders ...


The Great Heathen Failure: Why The Great Heathen Army Failed To Conquer The Whole Of Anglo-Saxon England, Ryan Macneill May 2019

The Great Heathen Failure: Why The Great Heathen Army Failed To Conquer The Whole Of Anglo-Saxon England, Ryan Macneill

Graduate Theses

In the year 865 CE, a coalition of Viking forces combined to form an army aimed at the conquest and settlement of England. Known as The Great Heathen Army, these Vikings managed to capture most of the territory that today constitutes England with the notable exception of the English kingdom of Wessex. And so, despite many successes, they failed to conquer all of English territory. Though these events, which transpired throughout the 860s and 870s, are well documented, the Viking perspective is rarely taken into account and there has yet to have been an argument that pinpoints how and why ...


"I Deny Your Authority To Try My Conscience:" Conscription And Conscientious Objectors In Britain During The Great War, Albert William Wetter May 2019

"I Deny Your Authority To Try My Conscience:" Conscription And Conscientious Objectors In Britain During The Great War, Albert William Wetter

Honors Projects

During the Great War, the Military Service Act was introduced on January 27, 1916 and redefined British citizenship. Moreover, some men objected to the state’s military service mandate, adamant that compliance violated their conscience. This thesis investigates how the introduction of conscription reshaped British society, dismantled the “sacred principle” of volunteerism, and replaced it with conscription, resulting in political and popular debates, which altered the individual’s relationship with the state. British society transformed from a polity defined by the tenets of Liberalism and a free-will social contract to a society where citizenship was correlated to duty to the ...


Population Movement And State Building: A Case Study Of Migratory Policies In Italy, Julia Pagnamenta May 2019

Population Movement And State Building: A Case Study Of Migratory Policies In Italy, Julia Pagnamenta

Student Theses

The current study examines Italian laws and policies around migratory movements since Italy first became a modern nation state in 1861 up until April 2019, when the research was concluded. This paper is a case study of Italian migratory policies. It first looks at the way Italy’s early efforts at nation building coincided with the mass emigration of its citizens, informing its policies on emigration and colonial expansion. The study then analyzes the way in which Italy developed a policy response to the growing immigrant and refugee population in the late 1980s following geo-political transformations in Europe. The evolution ...


Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson May 2019

Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Using the lives of impaired individuals catalogued in the Íslendingasögur as a narrative framework, this study examines medieval Scandinavian social views regarding impairment from the ninth to the thirteenth century. Beginning with the myths and legends of the eddic poetry and prose of Iceland, it investigates impairment in Norse pre-Christian belief; demonstrating how myth and memory informed medieval conceptualizations of the body. This thesis counters scholarly assumptions that the impaired were universally marginalized across medieval Europe. It argues that bodily difference, in the Norse world, was only viewed as a limitation when it prevented an individual from fulfilling roles that ...


Art And War: Republican Propaganda Of The Spanish Civil War, Jason Manrique May 2019

Art And War: Republican Propaganda Of The Spanish Civil War, Jason Manrique

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis focuses on propaganda used by the Republican side of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) to gain support for their cause and win the war. It focuses on three forms of media: cinema, posters and photography, and it is divided into an introduction, three separate chapters, and a conclusion. In them I provide a historical context on the II Republic and the Civil War and analyze the effectiveness of concrete artworks to propagate the Republican message.


The Family, Political Theory, And Ideology: A Comparative Study Of John Stuart Mill And Friedrich Engels, David M. Murray Jr. May 2019

The Family, Political Theory, And Ideology: A Comparative Study Of John Stuart Mill And Friedrich Engels, David M. Murray Jr.

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This project is concerned with the development of the Christian family in Europe and how its sociological and historical characteristics informed the writings of John Stuart Mill and Friedrich Engels. The term “Christian family” refers to the dominant form of the family seen in Western Europe, namely the atomistic nuclear family. The sociological and ideological foundations of the family are explored to provide context for the writings of John Stuart Mill and Friedrich Engels that utilize the concept of the family for their political projects. Both wrote critically about the state of the family in their lifetimes, particularly in regard ...


Strict Restraints: Abstinence's Gender Problems In Measure For Measure, Joseph Makuc Apr 2019

Strict Restraints: Abstinence's Gender Problems In Measure For Measure, Joseph Makuc

History Honors Papers

Shakespeare’s Measure for Measure poses questions about sexual coercion and governmental corruption that resonate today. Recent scholarship has examined sexual abstinence in Measure for Measure in terms of its historical economic and religious context regarding Isabella. However, Angelo and the Duke, the play's other central characters, also make claims about the value of abstinence. I put these characters’ claims into dialogue with Judith Butler’s theory of gender performativity and extensive scholarship on Shakespearean England. I argue that abstinence is the axis around which Measure’s main characters revolve, and that Measure locates these characters’ abstinences as competing ...


Jumping Through Hoops: The Rise And Demise Of The Hoop Petticoat In The Eighteenth Century, Charlotte Engel Apr 2019

Jumping Through Hoops: The Rise And Demise Of The Hoop Petticoat In The Eighteenth Century, Charlotte Engel

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis looks at eighteenth-century hooped petticoats and society's attitudes towards them in the hope of learning more about what made these garments so popular. It examines their change over time, satirical commentary on these garments, and who was wearing them throughout society.


Das Ss-Helferinnenkorps: Drei Phasen, Drei Frauen, Hayden Mueller Apr 2019

Das Ss-Helferinnenkorps: Drei Phasen, Drei Frauen, Hayden Mueller

Senior Theses and Projects

Since the end of World War II, scholarship on the Third Reich has focused predominantly on men. Recent developments in the field have brought women into view, but their roles, motivations, and contributions remain under-researched. The SS-Helferinnenkorps, created for the dual purpose of relieving male communications staff for service on the front and establishing a vetted group of women embodying Himmler’s weibliche Ideal, has remained largely overlooked, and the little serious scholarship available presents the organization as a separate unit. To fill gaps in the research as well as bring about an understanding of the SS-Helferinnenkorps in the context ...