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Articles 1 - 30 of 1690

Full-Text Articles in European History

Cuckoldry And The “Gone For A Soldier” Narrative: Infidelity And Performance Among Eighteenth-Century English Plebeians, Elias Hubbard May 2019

Cuckoldry And The “Gone For A Soldier” Narrative: Infidelity And Performance Among Eighteenth-Century English Plebeians, Elias Hubbard

Lawrence University Honors Projects

This project addresses existing historical arguments about the role of performance in eighteenth-century English plebeian infidelity cases, identifying some of the cultural scripts available to married men and women from popular texts in order to better understand cases of infidelity in contemporary plebeian marriages. The thesis seeks to clarify the effect of infidelity on a plebeian individual’s social standing and relationships, and to draw conclusions about the nature of plebeian infidelity, marriage, and gender in England through the long eighteenth century.

While examining contemporary public texts of cuckoldry, I address how homosocial behavior appears in narratives of cuckoldry, how ...


1st Place Research Paper: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn May 2019

1st Place Research Paper: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn

Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize

"A case study of the Czechoslovak New Wave and New Hollywood compares the functioning of cinematic movements under Communist and Capitalist societies. The period of the 1960s-70s in which these movements take place is emblematic of the shift from modernist to postmodernist structuring of society, which will be analyzed through the framework of Frederic Jameson, Alain Badiou, and Jean Baudrillard."


The Battle Of The Ourcq River, Earl Jacob Starbuck May 2019

The Battle Of The Ourcq River, Earl Jacob Starbuck

Masters Theses

An account of the Battle of the Ourcq River, 28 July-6 August, 1918, World War One.


Englands Happie Queene: Female Rulers In Early English History, Emily Benes Apr 2019

Englands Happie Queene: Female Rulers In Early English History, Emily Benes

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This paper examines the historical records and later literature surrounding three early mythic and historical British queens: Albina, mythic founder of Albion; Cordelia, pre-Roman queen regnant in British legend; and Boudica, the British leader of a first-century CE rebellion against the Romans. My work focuses on who these queens were, what powers they were given, and the mythos around them. I examine when they appear in the historical record and when their stories are expanded upon, and how those stories were influenced by the political culture of England through the early seventeenth century. In particular, I examine English attitudes toward ...


1st Place Contest Entry: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn Apr 2019

1st Place Contest Entry: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn

Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize

This is Maddie Gwinn's submission for the 2019 Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize, which won first place. It contains her essay on using library resources, a three-page sample of her research project on how the Czech New Wave and New Hollywood cinema are defined by their agency in preserving and prescribing cultural meaning across their societies while being bound to their economic systems, and her works cited list.

Maddie is a senior at Chapman University, majoring in Film Production. Her faculty mentor is Dr. Carmichael Peters.


Anglo-Spanish Trade And Diplomacy 1712-1742, Forrest La Jeunesse Apr 2019

Anglo-Spanish Trade And Diplomacy 1712-1742, Forrest La Jeunesse

Masters Theses

Between the War of Spanish succession till the war of Austrian succession, the British focus shifted from matters of the European Continent towards that of expanding its trade and its commercial empire. With the securing of an important treaty with France, the British were able to seek trading concessions from the Spanish, through diplomacy or war, in order to gain economic dominance in the West Indies. However, unequal and often conflicting interests between the two nations prevented desired expansion into the West Indies for the British, so they sought to exploit vague treaty terms and obligations in order to conduct ...


Investigation Of Chlorine Gas, Phosgene Gas, And Mustard Gas: Development, Use, Effects, And Treatments With A Focus On World War I, Kyle Zaremba Apr 2019

Investigation Of Chlorine Gas, Phosgene Gas, And Mustard Gas: Development, Use, Effects, And Treatments With A Focus On World War I, Kyle Zaremba

Honors Projects

The German attack in Ypres on April 22, 1915 ushered in a new era of warfare. For the first time in military history, large amounts of weaponized gas were being deployed. The first attack utilized chlorine gas while subsequent attacks used phosgene gas, mustard gas, or a combination of them. Scientific and medical communities scrambled to combat the new threat, leading to great advancements in the understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment relating to chemical gas attacks. New ways to bypass chlorine gas, phosgene gas, and mustard gas effects were proposed and tested and already existing medical interventions proved useful ...


Learning From The Dead: How Burial Practices In Roman Britain Reflect Changes In Belief And Society, Samuel F. Engel Apr 2019

Learning From The Dead: How Burial Practices In Roman Britain Reflect Changes In Belief And Society, Samuel F. Engel

Student Publications

This paper begins by examining the burial traditions of the Iron age Britons and Classical Romans to see how these practices reflect their societal values and belief systems. The funerary methods of both the Britons and Romans are then analyzed following the Roman occupation of Britain in 43 AD to see how these practices changed once the two groups came into contact with each other. The findings show that rather than Romanization, there is a hybridization of burial practices which incorporated and reflect both Roman and British beliefs and values.


Education In Nazi Germany, Ian R. James Apr 2019

Education In Nazi Germany, Ian R. James

Student Publications

This essay investigates the sweeping educational reforms that the Nazi government implemented to use elementary education to further its political goals. Along with the major laws concerned, it concentrates on several personal accounts of families and students during this era to better understand how these educational reforms affected Germans. Additionally, it analyzes the Hitler Youth and other such recreational organizations that the Nazis created to continue to mold students’ ideologies. It examines the stories of several people who were children in these organizations and what their impressions were of the groups. Finally, it places these Nazi reforms in the context ...


"Ein Pakt Mit Dem Teufel": Leni Riefenstahl, Triumph Of The Will, And The Nature Of Guilt, Andrew O. Burns Apr 2019

"Ein Pakt Mit Dem Teufel": Leni Riefenstahl, Triumph Of The Will, And The Nature Of Guilt, Andrew O. Burns

Student Publications

Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will is rightly considered a massive technical achievement in the world of cinema and propaganda. However, this achievement was undertaken at the behest of the immoral, murderous regime of Nazi Germany, a regime that Riefenstahl was more than willing to work with and glorify in order to further her career. This thesis will argue that Riefenstahl’s onscreen deification of Hitler, visual representation of völkisch ideology, and use of the music of Richard Wagner make her later claims of ignorance as to the film’s ultimate meaning impossible to correlate with established facts.


Mary Stuart: Turbulence In Politics & Religion, Latayzia Harris, Kyle Thompson Apr 2019

Mary Stuart: Turbulence In Politics & Religion, Latayzia Harris, Kyle Thompson

Posters

Mary Stuart’s upbringing played a large part in her political and religious positions, as well as her position as a female ruler in a land dominated by the whims of men. Mary is often portrayed as a passionate woman whose life was dominated by her emotions. At 6 days old Mary inherited the throne to Scotland, a highly contested re­gion located directly above the ever-expanding realm of England. Mary spent much of her time in France, being raised as the Dauphiness to strengthen the ties of Catholic monarchs. Historians like John Guy and Antonia Frasier frame this as ...


Coming And Going: Identity, Institutions, And The United Kingdom's Resistance To The European Union, Lauren Bruning Mar 2019

Coming And Going: Identity, Institutions, And The United Kingdom's Resistance To The European Union, Lauren Bruning

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

In 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union, a decision widely known as ‘Brexit’. This analysis compares two competing theories – institution and identity – to explain why. Four historical events, chronologically ordered from 1945 to 2016, are examined with both identity and institution analysis to explain British integration and its subsequent withdrawal from the European Union. Through this analysis, one can conclude the United Kingdom’s decision to withdraw in 2016 stemmed from a variety of reasons, but each of these can be explained by identity (a sense of nationalism), or institution (EU relationships).

Nationalism around the world ...


Collection 0180: Berlin Fellowship Collection, 1952-2015, Fuller Seminary Archives And Special Collections Mar 2019

Collection 0180: Berlin Fellowship Collection, 1952-2015, Fuller Seminary Archives And Special Collections

List of Archival Collections

The Berlin Fellowship Collection, 1952-2015 consists of physical and digital materials received from the Berlin Fellowship U.S.A. and Berlin Fellowship, Germany. The records document the activities of an informal group of Presbyterian laypeople and pastors who maintained an ecumenical visitation ministry with Christians in the German Democratic Republic, 1961-1996.

Formats include subject files, correspondence, photographs, reports, minutes, financial records, clippings, scrapbooks, publications, audio cassettes, and digital files. Materials were created from 1952-1996.


La Culture Française Du Moyen Âge Au Xxe Siècle, Marilyn Kidd Dr. Jan 2019

La Culture Française Du Moyen Âge Au Xxe Siècle, Marilyn Kidd Dr.

Faculty Publications

Une analyse de la culture française à partir des stéréotypes du peuple français et une étude historique à partir du moyen âge jusqu'à l'époque moderne qui tente de fournir une explication des origines de ces stéréotypes. Pour chaque siècle il y a une analyse de l'histoire, de l'art, de la musique, de la philosophie et de la littérature. A la fin de chaque chapitre il y a des suggestions de matériaux et d'activités à utiliser dans l'enseignement aux étudiants au niveau universitaire.


[Mis-]Managing Fisheries On The West Coast Of Ireland In The Nineteenth Century, John B. Roney Jan 2019

[Mis-]Managing Fisheries On The West Coast Of Ireland In The Nineteenth Century, John B. Roney

History Faculty Publications

This study focuses on the cultural heritage of artisan coastal fishing in the west of Ireland in the 19th century. The town and port of Dingle, County Kerry, offers an important case study on the progress of local development and changing British policies. While there was clearly an abundance of fish, the poverty and the lack of capital for improvements in ports, vessels, gear, education, and transportation, left the fishing industry underdeveloped until well after the 1890s. In addition, a growing rift developed between the traditional farmer-fishermen and the new middle-class capitalist companies. After several royal commissions examined the fishing ...


The Latitudinarian Influence On Early English Liberalism, Amanda Oh Jan 2019

The Latitudinarian Influence On Early English Liberalism, Amanda Oh

The Larrie and Bobbi Weil Undergraduate Research Award Documents

This paper takes the unexpected position that early liberal thought developed in transformative events within the Anglican Church during the second half of the seventeenth century. The historical evolution of religion laid the foundation of English political and intellectual philosophy, as supported by works written by the branch of Anglican churchmen known as the Latitudinarians. I will argue that these ministers were foremost in advancing the argument for religious toleration because their religious writings held political consequence. Toleration was the principle value of liberalism in the late seventeenth century because the problem of Dissenters was so pertinent to English religious ...


The Forgotten Third Post-War Berlin Crisis: The Mobilization Of The Reserves, Marvin L. Simner Ph.D. Jan 2019

The Forgotten Third Post-War Berlin Crisis: The Mobilization Of The Reserves, Marvin L. Simner Ph.D.

Psychology Publications

Two major crises occurred during the occupation of Berlin shortly after the end of World War II, both of which have been well documented and are summarized below. There was a third crisis, however, that has been largely forgotten but produced a substantial alteration in the organization of the National Guard, the Army Ready Reserve units, and the authority given to the president to mobilize the reserves. The purpose of this report is to review the events that surrounded this third crisis and how the impact of these events may have contributed to the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place ...


Jacques-Louis David's Neoclassicism And The Ideals Of The Enlightenment, Jamie Alicia Stevens Jan 2019

Jacques-Louis David's Neoclassicism And The Ideals Of The Enlightenment, Jamie Alicia Stevens

2019 Award Winners

No abstract provided.


Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2018 Annual Report, Michael S. Nassaney Jan 2019

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project 2018 Annual Report, Michael S. Nassaney

Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project

Western Michigan University (WMU) hosted its 43rd annual archaeological field school this past July and August under the auspices of the Fort St. Joseph Archaeological Project. The Project is a long-term, multidisciplinary, community-based partnership between the City of Niles and WMU that investigates and interprets colonialism and the fur trade in the region.

We selected the theme “Technology Then and Now,” to focus our activities in 2019. We recognize that technology is not only important in the 21st century, but has defined humanity since our earliest ancestors crafted simple tools to assist them in their survival. Most of the archaeological ...


Spanish California Missions: An Economic Success, Lynne Doti Jan 2019

Spanish California Missions: An Economic Success, Lynne Doti

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

Starting in 1769, the Spanish established missions in Alta California. A small band of soldiers, Franciscan priests and volunteers walked from Baja California to San Francisco Bay through semi-arid, scarcely populated land stopping occasionally to establish a location for a religious community. Usually two priests, a few soldiers and a few Indians from Baja California settled at the spot. Their only resources for starting an economy were themselves, a few animals and a nearby source of water. They attracted the local Indians to join the community and perform the work necessary to create a strong economy. After only a few ...


A Series Of Political Russian Events To Exploit And Destroy The Volga Germans, 1914-1921, Kassidy Whetstone Jan 2019

A Series Of Political Russian Events To Exploit And Destroy The Volga Germans, 1914-1921, Kassidy Whetstone

Calvert Undergraduate Research Awards

Advanced Research Winner 2019:

Immigration has been controversial for centuries, as it is not always successful; the relationship between the host country and immigrants can become tense and even disastrous. This was the case for the Volga Germans in the Russian Saratov region, an immigration experiment gone wrong. It is important that the story of the Volga Germans be told, as it is suspected of being an experience of ethnic cleansing and genocide. In this project, I will investigate the Volga Germans in the Russian Saratov region, analyze the relationship between the Germans and their Russian neighbors in the early ...


David And Goliath: The Abdication Of A Throne, Shawn Marie Dufrene Jan 2019

David And Goliath: The Abdication Of A Throne, Shawn Marie Dufrene

2019 Symposium

The year 1936 would come to be known as the Year of the Three Kings. King George V died as the night was falling to a close on January 20. His oldest son, known as David in the family, became Edward VIII, and would abdicate before the year was out. During those 326 days, it would become apparent to those around him that he was not fit for the throne. His desire to marry Wallis Simpson would be the final straw. His younger brother, Albert, or “Bertie,” became George VI, and Edward became known as the Duke of Winsor. Through ...


Working Paper No. 01, Three Forms Of Fascism, Lauren Sweger-Hollingsworth Dec 2018

Working Paper No. 01, Three Forms Of Fascism, Lauren Sweger-Hollingsworth

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that fascism can appear in three forms. A classical fascist, a brutal and dominating figure, is autodidactic, having impressive and engaging oratory skills that effectively put forth their ideals to the working-class majority. Neo-fascists, or neo-Nazis, idolize Hitler and the society of Nazi Germany, being extremely radical and militant, they exist in small groups dispersed around the world. A post-modern fascist uses money and various forms of media to spread their ideologies to vulnerable members of society. Post-modern fascists project themselves as hard-working and tough, but they buy loyalty and pay others to do their ...


Associational Republicanism: Antifederalism In Context, 1790 - 1830, Ashley Jordan Dec 2018

Associational Republicanism: Antifederalism In Context, 1790 - 1830, Ashley Jordan

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


Running Wires: Digital History In The Classroom And The Field, Ian A. Isherwood, Amy E. Lucadamo, R.C. Miessler Oct 2018

Running Wires: Digital History In The Classroom And The Field, Ian A. Isherwood, Amy E. Lucadamo, R.C. Miessler

Musselman Library Staff Publications

The First World War Letters of H.J.C. Peirs is a digital history project that publishes the letters of a British World War I officer 100 years to the day they were written. By telling the story of one person, we have aimed to humanize a dehumanizing war and supported the effort to commemorate the centennial of the conflict. While the project was conceived with pedagogy in mind, it has grown beyond the letters and crossed boundaries: from the analog to the digital, from the classroom to the public, and from the archives to the field.


The English Voyage Of Pietrobono Burzelli, Evan A. Maccarthy Oct 2018

The English Voyage Of Pietrobono Burzelli, Evan A. Maccarthy

Faculty Scholarship

Praised by poets, scholars, and fellow musicians of his day, the singer, lutenist, and teacher Pietrobono Burzelli (ca. 1417–97) achieved international renown for his skill at improvisational performances on plucked instruments. Until recently, archival documents recorded his presence at many courts on the Italian peninsula and as far away as the Hungarian court. Documents until now unknown to musicologists reveal that Pietrobono also traveled to England. In August 1466 he signed a will and testament in advance of a risky trip “ad partes Anglie” that he was planning to begin the next day.

The testament offers new information about ...


The Merchants At The Casino: Sephardic Elites And Leisure Time In Eighteenth-Century Livorno, Francesca Bregoli Sep 2018

The Merchants At The Casino: Sephardic Elites And Leisure Time In Eighteenth-Century Livorno, Francesca Bregoli

Publications and Research

In 1712,a casino was established in the Jewish neighborhood of the Mediterranean port of Livorno. This venue, which stayed open until 1720, appears unique, as no similar Jewish institutions have been described in comparable communities. This explores the significance of the casino for the relationship of Livornese Jewry with Tuscan culture and the state by investigating internal documents from the Livornese Jewish community (nazione ebrea) in light of analogous Tuscan institutions. By considering an episode in the relatively little studied history of early modern Jewish leisure, we gain insight into values and aspirations of members of one of the ...


Jewish Germany: An Enduring Presence From The Fourth To The Twenty-First Century, John A. Drobnicki Aug 2018

Jewish Germany: An Enduring Presence From The Fourth To The Twenty-First Century, John A. Drobnicki

Publications and Research

Review of the book Jewish Germany: An enduring presence from the fourth to the twenty-first century.


Complete Bosoms, Incomplete Men: Reading Abstinence In Measure For Measure, Joseph Makuc Jul 2018

Complete Bosoms, Incomplete Men: Reading Abstinence In Measure For Measure, Joseph Makuc

English Summer Fellows

Measure for Measure has often been called one of Shakespeare’s problem plays, and as recent productions show, Measure’s problems — including sexual coercion and governmental corruption — resonate with readers and audiences today. Recent scholarship has examined sexual abstinence in Measure for Measure in terms of its historical economic and religious context, arguing that protagonist Isabella represents a radical break from merchant economics by opting out of the sexual economy. However, Angelo and the Duke, the play's other central characters, also make claims about the values of abstinence, and those claims are at odds with Isabella's claims. My ...


A Thirst For Empire: How Tea Shaped The Modern World, Jane T. Merritt Jul 2018

A Thirst For Empire: How Tea Shaped The Modern World, Jane T. Merritt

History Faculty Publications

(First paragraph) In A Thirst for Empire: How Tea Shaped the Modern World, Erika Rappaport, specialist in British consumer culture, explores the influ- ence of the quintessential English beverage on the rise of mass markets and British identity. Drawing from a variety of research tradi- tions, including recent commodity studies, the author argues that tea was both a product of and a producer of empire. The commercial success of tea created powerful corporate entities with imperial ties, such as the English East India Company and Lipton’s. But, it was the practice of drinking tea that defined and transformed “Britishness ...