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Full-Text Articles in European History

Turning Herbage Into Money: The Economic Inducement And Scientific Legacy Of 18th And 19th Century Livestock Improvement In England, Ann M. Ramsey May 2019

Turning Herbage Into Money: The Economic Inducement And Scientific Legacy Of 18th And 19th Century Livestock Improvement In England, Ann M. Ramsey

Young Historians Conference

This paper traces the development and legacy of livestock improvement by selective breeding in 18th and 19th century England, focusing on the contributions and economic motivations of Robert Bakewell (1725-1795). Bakewell notably impacted the English livestock industry by popularizing selective inbreeding techniques, amplifying preferred characteristics like proportions of edible meat to develop his own breeds of sheep and cattle. His efforts, seemingly motivated by economic hopes alone, influenced the work of Central European sheep breeders. They applied more scientific language to selective breeding, adding to an accumulating body of knowledge that would establish the context for Gregor Mendel and Charles ...


Liberté, Égalité, Santé: The Evolution Of Medicine In Revolution-Era France, Jasmine Yu May 2019

Liberté, Égalité, Santé: The Evolution Of Medicine In Revolution-Era France, Jasmine Yu

Young Historians Conference

Modern practice of medicine is reliably grounded in thorough observation and experimental study before application in a clinical setting. Yet before the universality of verifiable scientific justification, theoretical—and generally fallacious—models for the workings of the human body predominated, including the philosophy of the four elemental humors introduced by Hippocrates and Galen. In France, the decline of humorism’s supremacy did not occur until the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the same time period during which the long-standing convention of absolute monarchy was violently eradicated by the French Revolution. How, if at all, was the ending of humoral ...


Aristocracy And Agriculture: How Vergil’S "Georgics" Inspired A Wave Of Agrarianism And Imperialism, Isabel M. Lickey May 2019

Aristocracy And Agriculture: How Vergil’S "Georgics" Inspired A Wave Of Agrarianism And Imperialism, Isabel M. Lickey

Young Historians Conference

Georgics, written by Vergil in 29 B.C., though on its surface about labor and agricultural, uncovered deeper thought about the politics of its time period. When a prominent English poet, John Dryden, translated the Georgics in 1697, it had a profound effect upon English society. It soared to popularity, and introduced the field of agrarian science to the upper class, while at the same time inspiring a wave of similar agricultural poems. At the same, time, the ideas extolled in the Georgics about the necessity of labour to make land purposeful helped justify British colonization of America. Though Georgics ...


The Knights Templar: The Course Of God And Gold, Aaron Wozniak May 2019

The Knights Templar: The Course Of God And Gold, Aaron Wozniak

Young Historians Conference

The creation and expansion of the Knights Templar exemplifies the power of religious organizations during the time of the Crusades. However, it is the dissolution of the Templars that makes the order’s existence stand out among other knight orders. While the legal accounts of King Philip IV condemn the Templars for heresy, modern scholars and the political context suggest the possibility of exploiting the order for its significant financial holdings. This paper follows the history of the Templar order, from its creation to its demise, to evaluate how the Templars drifted far enough from their initial mission to provide ...


Robespierre: A Self-Destructed Revolutionary, Sophie M. Johnson May 2019

Robespierre: A Self-Destructed Revolutionary, Sophie M. Johnson

Young Historians Conference

The French Revolution’s infamously radical Reign of Terror rallied revolutionaries and quelled dissenters, all under the justification that the “republic of virtue” mandated protection. The Terror’s enigmatic Jacobin figurehead, Maximilien Robespierre, undeniably embodied the Enlightenment, egalitarian thought that provoked the revolution in 1789. Nonetheless, his resolute view of virtue and tyrannical tendencies debased a 1792 republic already overcome by factionalism and unnecessary bloodshed. His extreme rhetoric and public unpopularity only further blackened his image, raising the question of his legitimacy to his colleagues and fellow Jacobins. This paper asserts that while Robespierre acted in the name of the ...


“I Should Like To Say A Word Or Two About Your Empire”: Victor Hugo Le Grand, Napoléon Iii Le Petit, And The Historiographical Battlefield Of The French Second Empire, Madeleine Adriance May 2019

“I Should Like To Say A Word Or Two About Your Empire”: Victor Hugo Le Grand, Napoléon Iii Le Petit, And The Historiographical Battlefield Of The French Second Empire, Madeleine Adriance

Young Historians Conference

The lapping of waves, the soft calls of seabirds, and the cool breeze buffeting patches of wildflowers are sounds typically uncommon to the battlefield. Yet it was indeed a vicious war the famous author Victor Hugo waged from his exile on Guernsey Island against Napoléon III, the lesser-known nephew of the infamous Napoléon Bonaparte and emperor of the Second Empire. Throughout Napoléon’s reign and after, Hugo argued through his writings that the emperor was the antithesis of republican virtues. What would be Napoléon’s counterattack? Despite making largely successful efforts to influence his image with the working class, Napoléon ...


The German East African Campaign, Marcello Cavalli Apr 2019

The German East African Campaign, Marcello Cavalli

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

During World War One, General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck led the German army against the combined Allied forces in East Africa. Even though they were significantly outnumbered and lacked the resources of Britain, General Lettow-Vorbeck never surrendered until two weeks after the armistice was signed in Europe in 1918. General Lettow-Vorbeck and his forces were able to remain undefeated in the East African Campaign due to the strong bond of respect among the troops, an in-depth knowledge of the area, and the significance that the German Empire placed on the campaign itself. The British on the other hand were led ...


The House In The Golden Sun: The Van Keerberghen Printing Dynasty, 1552-1629, Lydia Schmidt Apr 2019

The House In The Golden Sun: The Van Keerberghen Printing Dynasty, 1552-1629, Lydia Schmidt

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Despite religious conflict, rampant censorship, and war, the city of Antwerp dominated Early Modern printing. From 1552 to 1629, the van Keerberghen family and their printing house, In the Golden Sun, were at the forefront of the industry. I explore the tumultuous sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Antwerp through the prism of works published by the van Keerberghens, and their responses to the crises they faced.

Peeter van Keerberghen, his son Jan I, and grandson Jan II faced considerable adversity during their careers. Peeter saw eminent printers publicly executed for their works, and was himself persecuted for distribution of forbidden ...


Subjects Of The Portuguese Empire, Matthew Wiltsey Apr 2019

Subjects Of The Portuguese Empire, Matthew Wiltsey

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This essay focuses on the Portuguese empire in the 16th and 17th centuries and its colonial presence in the Indian Ocean. There is disagreement within the historiography over the most important factor that allowed the Portuguese to establish and maintain their empire: military power or the support of indigenous groups. This paper supports the latter and will demonstrate the instrumental role local factions and groups played in cementing Portuguese control in the region for centuries. Regions in the Indian Ocean and beyond will be the focus of this research, most prevalently the city states of the Indian coast, but also ...


The Nineteenth Century British Workhouse: Mission Not Accomplished, Brenda Derin Apr 2019

The Nineteenth Century British Workhouse: Mission Not Accomplished, Brenda Derin

Scholarly & Creative Works Conference 2019

ABSTRACT:

How to correct poverty in a society is extremely complex. In the nineteenth century, the British struggled to house, feed and care for the unemployed and destitute men, women and children created by the Industrial Revolution. Many in the upper classes considered poverty a moral failure, yet they had little impetus to end it. Poverty, as defined by an inability to provide for one’s needs due to a variety of factors, was seen as necessary, for without it there would be no motivation for the lower classes to work and provide a luxurious life for the wealthy.

Although ...


A Tale Of Two Bonnies: Comparing “Lost Cause” Narratives And Post-War Memory From The American Civil War And The 1745 Jacobite Rebellion Through Art, William Robert Tharp Apr 2019

A Tale Of Two Bonnies: Comparing “Lost Cause” Narratives And Post-War Memory From The American Civil War And The 1745 Jacobite Rebellion Through Art, William Robert Tharp

Student Scholar Showcase

In the cultures of Scotland after the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion and the American South after the Civil War, defeatist memories and art featured prominently in mythmaking and served as a focal point for many who wished to make political statements or critiques of current realities. In Scotland, romanticism revolving around “Bonnie Prince Charlie” and the Jacobites in 1745 lessened the burden of defeat for many. Contextualizing their loss within a broader historical framework, which stressed different features depending on the group’s purpose, some Scots utilized Jacobite memory as a potent political critique of Scotland’s place within Great Britain ...


Greek Music Theory Vs. The Bible, Kearsten M. Kostelnik Apr 2019

Greek Music Theory Vs. The Bible, Kearsten M. Kostelnik

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The great philosophers of Ancient Greece have been studied in depth and are known throughout society. Famous Greek philosophers and writers, such as Plato and Pythagoras, formulated theories on musical philosophy — it’s purpose, use, dangers, power, and importance in society. Greek philosophy of music heavily influenced early European society’s view and development of music, it only partially supports Biblical views and principles of music and worship. Pythagoras introduces the theory that music is more than just entertainment with his notion of Music of the Spheres but fails to align with the biblical view of stars and planets as ...


British Family Structure: Expressions Of Power And Conceptions Of Family, Chloe Chaplin, Kathy Callahan Dr. Nov 2018

British Family Structure: Expressions Of Power And Conceptions Of Family, Chloe Chaplin, Kathy Callahan Dr.

Posters-at-the-Capitol

The goal of this research is to examine family structure in early modern Scotland and England though the use of written communication. The primary focus will be on aristocratic families with a secondary look at upper-middle class families. This is due primarily to availability of records, and also why I will mainly be using written correspondence rather than secondary analyses, as this field is still relatively new. By exploring the development of key familial relationships (e.g. parent-child, husband-wife, and in-law interactions) through private correspondence, larger insights can be drawn about gender and the nuclear family. Also, these central relationships ...


Reason Vs. Truth: How The Enlightenment And Romanticism Effected The Victorian Occult, Jessica Brazinski Nov 2018

Reason Vs. Truth: How The Enlightenment And Romanticism Effected The Victorian Occult, Jessica Brazinski

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

“Reason vs. Truth: How the Enlightenment and Romanticism Effected the Victorian Occult.”

By: Jessica Brazinski

Abstract:

This research project is a historical analysis of occult secret societies and organizations during and soon after the reign of Queen Victoria. In particular, this research focuses on the impact of Romanticism and the Enlightenment on the Victorian occult. By examining the founding myths, practices, and core beliefs of these organizations this study found that Enlightenment, Romanticist, and Neoclassical ideas all played a part in the adoption of foreign ideas into these societies. The Freemasons, for instance, were very much influenced by Enlightenment ideas ...


100 Kilometers To Freedom: Women's Stories Of Escape During The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, Cameron Mitchell Nov 2018

100 Kilometers To Freedom: Women's Stories Of Escape During The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, Cameron Mitchell

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

“100 Kilometers to Freedom: Women’s Stories of Escape During the 1956 Hungarian Revolution” looks at the way people fled Hungary after the uprising against the Soviet rulers, specifically through the lens of Hungarian women. The paper follows the process of escape through resettlement and analyzes the various ways people escaped and resettled. In this paper I argue that, though escape routes and methods were wildly varied and resettlement went differently for everyone, those fleeing were often motivated to do so for political reasons.

This paper relies on a variety of primary source materials, including a collection of oral histories ...


The Spanish Civil War Memory Archive: Creating Access To International Exchange, Andrea R. Davis Oct 2018

The Spanish Civil War Memory Archive: Creating Access To International Exchange, Andrea R. Davis

Bucknell University Digital Scholarship Conference

The Spanish Civil War Memory Project consists of over one hundred audiovisual testimonies of victims, militants, survivors, and witnesses of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and Francoist repression (1939-1975). The testimonies were recorded by graduate student researchers between 2006 and 2010 as part of an initiative of UC San Diego in collaboration with several human rights associations in Spain. To make the archive that resulted from this collaboration a more user-friendly and media-rich experience, we are now in the process of training student researchers to digitally enhance the collected testimonies with the web-based system OHMS. In these efforts we aim ...


The Truth And Tale Of Lady Jane Grey: An Honest Demeanor In The Midst Of Ruthless Ambition, Sarah Kim Apr 2018

The Truth And Tale Of Lady Jane Grey: An Honest Demeanor In The Midst Of Ruthless Ambition, Sarah Kim

Young Historians Conference

In the midst of the political bloodbath of Tudor England, one individual remains steadfast. Known as the “Nine-Days Queen,” Lady Jane Grey is infamous for her short nine-day reign before she was promptly executed by Queen Mary. Because of Grey’s stance in her unfortunate circumstances as the object of the royal family’s political ambitions, Grey remains a distinguished figure in English history despite her minimal role and influence.


The Influence Of Spanish Mines On Roman Victory In The Second Punic War, Fisher W. Ng Apr 2018

The Influence Of Spanish Mines On Roman Victory In The Second Punic War, Fisher W. Ng

Young Historians Conference

The idea that one factor can win a war seems preposterous, yet Rome’s acquisition of the Spanish mines turned the tides of the Second Punic War in their favor. While most scholars agree Rome’s conquest of the Spanish mines was a step in defeating Carthage, there is no consensus that the mines directly influenced the war. The accounts of ancient Roman historians Titus Livius and Pliny the Elder, as well as Greek historian Diodorus, attest to the unparalleled amount of precious metals the Spanish mines produced--treasure capable of stimulating Roman economy. Modern scholarship agrees controlling precious metals sources ...


"If Only I Could Get A Job Somewhere:" The Emergence Of British Punk, Nina Fletcher Apr 2018

"If Only I Could Get A Job Somewhere:" The Emergence Of British Punk, Nina Fletcher

Young Historians Conference

In the seventies, Great Britain was crippled by a widespread recession during which more than a million people were out of work and the inflation rate rose to above 18 percent, a stark contrast with the generally prosperous economy of the sixties. The conditions of this difficult decade would result in lasting social and cultural developments — including, of course, punk rock in all its loud, cynical, and spiky-haired glory. This paper examines the economic origins of the punk movement and argues that it was, at heart, the unique product of a generation raised in times of hardship and scarce opportunity ...


The History Of British Art And The Burkean Sublime, Natalie Ware Apr 2018

The History Of British Art And The Burkean Sublime, Natalie Ware

Young Historians Conference

A Philosophical Enquiry into the Beautiful and the Sublime by British philosopher Edmund Burke, published in 1757, proposed a concrete definition of the aesthetics concept of the sublime. This definition solidified the place of the sublime in the minds of British artists and philosophers from the Baroque period onward into the current contemporary art culture. The sublime has periodically been embraced, redefined, or even claimed as fatal to art itself. As British artists have struggled to grapple with the sublime throughout the centuries, the works that they’ve created out of this discourse have become emblems of the sublime controversy ...


Feminism During The Russian Revolution: A Failure On Multiple Fronts, Helen R. Rossmiller Apr 2018

Feminism During The Russian Revolution: A Failure On Multiple Fronts, Helen R. Rossmiller

Young Historians Conference

Although not always acknowledged for their contributions, women were not only a significant force in the Russian Revolution, they were the impetus behind it. Following the revolution however, feminist ideals were neglected by the new Soviet government and whatever feminist policies or ideals existed were reduced to mere illusion. Female liberation was a central goal for most female revolutionaries; yet, they were unable to accomplish it in a lasting and universal way. Nevertheless, an understanding of the Russian revolution without an acknowledgment of the influence of both aristocratic and working-class women who joined the Revolution would be incomplete. Women such ...


Truth, Fiction, And Image: Napoleon Bonaparte And The Changing Tides Of Political Imagination, Isabel K. Williams Apr 2018

Truth, Fiction, And Image: Napoleon Bonaparte And The Changing Tides Of Political Imagination, Isabel K. Williams

Young Historians Conference

Despite nearly two centuries having passed since his death, Napoleon Bonaparte still looms large in western political imagery. Napoleon utilized state sponsored art and propagandists like Jacques-Louis David, Antoine-Jean Gros, and Jean Auguste-Dominique Ingres to enhance his public image and promote him as a calm and talented military leader, a dedicated public servant, and even a saint. However, after his defeat at Waterloo, his exile, and death, Bonaparte’s artistic representation shifted to one of a dejected, almost tragic ruler. This shift to a negative and reflective portrayal of the Emperor can be most clearly seen in the works of ...


The Saint Of Orléans: Her Legacy, Riona K. O’Donnell Apr 2018

The Saint Of Orléans: Her Legacy, Riona K. O’Donnell

Young Historians Conference

Often referred to as Joan of Arc in the anglophone tradition, Jeanne d’Arc – the saint who fought to liberate France during the Hundred-Years War, the convicted heretic who was burned at the stake – never existed outside of history books. These images only superficially resemble the historical figure of Jeanne. Still, Jeanne’s image as an ancient warrior hero, an example of Divine will, or a symbol of French nationalism permeates today’s culture across the western world. How did this historical dynamism manifest in a young woman who was in the public eye for a short two years? This ...


Marie De France's Courtly Love: The Liberation Of Women Through Romance, Tiffany K. Ong Apr 2018

Marie De France's Courtly Love: The Liberation Of Women Through Romance, Tiffany K. Ong

Young Historians Conference

In the era of ladies and lords, French troubadours sang the tales of the late twelfth-century medieval court. One such poet, Marie de France, documented her stories in her work, Lais, a collection of adulterous romantic feats and failures of chivalrous knights. Within her writing, she incorporated aspects of the knight’s code of honor into the personalities of her characters. While the knightly code of honor is often perceived as an example of the restrictions placed on medieval women, Marie de France’s writing gives an example of women reconstructing their position in medieval life. This paper explores the ...


Galen: The Philosophical Physician, Chloe Sellers Apr 2018

Galen: The Philosophical Physician, Chloe Sellers

Young Historians Conference

Analyzing the works of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, this paper reveals the specific influences each of the three had upon Galen’s medical practice, asserting that the influence of philosophy was ultimately responsible for distinguishing Galen from his contemporaries. Drawing from various primary sources, including Plato’s “The Apology,” Timaeus and The Republic, as well as Aristotle’s Physics, and comparing them to Galen’s works, “The Art of Medicine” and “A Method of Medicine to Glaucon,” numerous similarities are revealed between the works of Galen and those of the philosophical trio. By evaluating these many connections among the works ...


Aristotle's Politics And Slavery In Ancient Athens, Krystyna D. Klucznik Apr 2018

Aristotle's Politics And Slavery In Ancient Athens, Krystyna D. Klucznik

Young Historians Conference

The relationship between Aristotle’s theoretical discussion of slavery in Politics and the reality of slavery in ancient Athens is complex and multifaceted. In tandem with Politics, which was my main primary source, I also drew on multiple pieces of secondary scholarship on both Politics and slavery in Athens to compare the two presentations of slavery. Additionally, I drew on the works of Euripides and Solon. In particular, my paper focuses on the process of manumission, the lack of social mobility afforded to freed slaves, and how slaves were viewed generally. A comparison of these sources reveals that there are ...


The Nuremberg Trials: A Troubled Legacy, Jacob T. Mach Apr 2018

The Nuremberg Trials: A Troubled Legacy, Jacob T. Mach

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The Second World War wreaked a measure of destruction unseen in human history. An unprecedented number of people died or were killed during the conflict across the European and Pacific theatres of war. Fighting waged for the better part of a decade, claiming nearly one hundred million lives, soldiers and civilians combined. American, British, and Russian forces finally surrounded Berlin in April 1945. Adolf Hitler, the cunning, vengeful, ideologically-driven leader who plunged the world in war, took a cyanide tablet and shot himself in his underground bunker only a week before Germany finally surrendered. The fighting in Europe finally ended ...


The Imperial Legacy: An Examination Of The Trends Of Empire And Genocide From German Southwest Africa To The General Government, Laura Guebert Apr 2018

The Imperial Legacy: An Examination Of The Trends Of Empire And Genocide From German Southwest Africa To The General Government, Laura Guebert

Scholars Week

This project is an examination of the correlations between imperial enterprises of the Second German Empire and the Nazi Reich through the lenses of global and imperial critiques. By studying the realities and experiences of German Southwest Africa, the Ober Ost, and Nazi-occupied Easter Europe, this paper attempts to identify the common elements of German imperialism: pathos, frantic improvisation, cognizance of contemporaries, and industrial modernity. To help elucidate these elements, this research studied the themes and theories developed by leading historians of modern German and Eastern European history, including Timothy Snyder, Ben Kiernan, Shelley Baranowski, Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius, and Christopher ...


The Women Of Brave New World: Aldous Huxley And The Gendered Agenda Of Eugenics, Jessica Eylem Apr 2018

The Women Of Brave New World: Aldous Huxley And The Gendered Agenda Of Eugenics, Jessica Eylem

Ray Browne Conference on Cultural and Critical Studies

Eugenics is the belief that the human race can rid of unwanted characteristics by using science. As this belief became more widely known through the Nazi’s raise to power and their use of ideologies maintained by fear, scholars began to take note of its rise in academic circles and the followers behind it. Authors began incorporating these ideas into their novels as a way of commenting on the future of our world if eugenic practices continued. In this article, I discuss how the concept of eugenics is used in dystopian novels, especially during the interwar period. It explores Aldous ...


Cumann Na Mban: Navigating Feminism And Nationalism In Early 20th Century Ireland, Emily Norris Apr 2018

Cumann Na Mban: Navigating Feminism And Nationalism In Early 20th Century Ireland, Emily Norris

Undergraduate Research Symposium

My research intends to explore how the members of Cumann na mBan, a women’s nationalist paramilitary organization, navigated the tensions between feminism and nationalism in early 20th century Ireland. In addition, why did the group ultimately choose to initially focus more on nationalist objectives rather than feminine ones? I would also like to focus on how the feminist ideals of some of the Cumann na mBan members fueled their nationalist views and how it shaped the groups’ role in Irish society. How did these feminist beliefs encourage their nationalistic views and vice versa? What did feminists who were ...