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Full-Text Articles in European History

Sodomy Laws In France: How The 1791 French Penal Code Decriminalized Sodomy Without The Will Of The People, Serena Johnson Apr 2020

Sodomy Laws In France: How The 1791 French Penal Code Decriminalized Sodomy Without The Will Of The People, Serena Johnson

Young Historians Conference

In 1791, homosexual acts became legal between two consenting adults in France. To understand how progressive this legislation was, it is important to consider how much later other Western countries decriminalized same-sex sexual acts, termed sodomy: Italy in 1890, Denmark in 1933, the United Kingdom in 1982, and the United States in 2003. Generally speaking, Western countries generated very little legislative acceptance of homosexuality until the twentieth century, when changes in the law mirrored the broadening social acceptance towards the gay community. So one must ask: Why was France so ahead of the curve in terms of acceptance towards homosexuality ...


A Secret Plague: How The Decline Of Mental Health During The Great Plague Created An Undetected Epidemic, Erin A. Carty Apr 2020

A Secret Plague: How The Decline Of Mental Health During The Great Plague Created An Undetected Epidemic, Erin A. Carty

Young Historians Conference

Following the Black Plague in the 1300s, all of Europe slowly began to return to its previous state, that is, until being struck by another plague in the 1500s. The bubonic plague was back again, and this time it was doing more than killing the population, it was leaving survivors with the disadvantage of extremely poor mental health. Reexamining the mental state of civilians reveals that this disadvantage may have been more destructive than the population decline.


Invigorated Writers, Quieted Children, And Self-Interested Pharmacists: The Proliferation Of Opium In 19th Century Britain, Clea Thomas Apr 2020

Invigorated Writers, Quieted Children, And Self-Interested Pharmacists: The Proliferation Of Opium In 19th Century Britain, Clea Thomas

Young Historians Conference

The proliferation of opium use in 19th century Britain significantly affected the country's social culture due to it becoming a mainstream substance used by people of many social standings. Opium is a historic case study for addiction due to its economic impact and changes to the legal regulation of medicine. Poor legislation and enforcement, untimely and ineffective response, and financial self-interest caused the 19th century epidemic of opium addiction. Opium was the right drug at the right place and right time. Pharmacists and medical professionals protected their financial self-interest, and failed to enforce regulation of the drug. Although they ...


Paradoxical Feminism: Attempts At Gender Equality In The French Revolution, Maggie E. Stanton Apr 2020

Paradoxical Feminism: Attempts At Gender Equality In The French Revolution, Maggie E. Stanton

Young Historians Conference

As French society found itself swept into a frenzied pursuit of liberty, equality, and fraternity, French Revolutionaries ironically neglected to include all citizens in their so-called “inalienable rights of man.” Most notably, the newly formed French National Assembly forgot its women. As a result, female Revolutionaries fought not only for a more equitable political system, but also for the rights and liberties of women. Yet, feminists of the French Revolution faced a paradoxical dilemma. In attempting to publish political writings, form political clubs, and wield weapons against the monarchy, women were forced out of the domestic sphere, an action that ...


Louise Bourgeois And Her Revolutionary Approach To Medicine As A Midwife In Seventeenth Century France, Jaiden H. Eubanks Apr 2020

Louise Bourgeois And Her Revolutionary Approach To Medicine As A Midwife In Seventeenth Century France, Jaiden H. Eubanks

Young Historians Conference

Louise Bourgeois, a midwife in the seventeenth century, was a trailblazer for women’s rights and innovative approaches to medicine. Her published works were studied throughout multiple countries and her career catapulted midwifery from obscurity to a more renowned profession. This paper analyzes her revolutionary approach to medical ethics, a more science-driven era, and the advancement of women in medicine, while revealing that the ultimate downfall of her career was a result of her own arrogance.


The Creative Philosophies Of Leonardo Da Vinci: Nature As The Perfect Creator, Julia M. Swanson Apr 2020

The Creative Philosophies Of Leonardo Da Vinci: Nature As The Perfect Creator, Julia M. Swanson

Young Historians Conference

Leonardo da Vinci is highly regarded for his many contributions to the arts and sciences, though not much is known of his philosophical work. This paper focuses on his creative methodologies and their formation, as influenced by his Italian roots and the presence of Aristotlean philosophy within the Renaissance. The combination of philosophy and his environment produced unique naturalistic creativity.


Turning Herbage Into Money: The Economic Inducement And Scientific Legacy Of 18th And 19th Century Livestock Improvement In England, Ann M. Ramsey May 2019

Turning Herbage Into Money: The Economic Inducement And Scientific Legacy Of 18th And 19th Century Livestock Improvement In England, Ann M. Ramsey

Young Historians Conference

This paper traces the development and legacy of livestock improvement by selective breeding in 18th and 19th century England, focusing on the contributions and economic motivations of Robert Bakewell (1725-1795). Bakewell notably impacted the English livestock industry by popularizing selective inbreeding techniques, amplifying preferred characteristics like proportions of edible meat to develop his own breeds of sheep and cattle. His efforts, seemingly motivated by economic hopes alone, influenced the work of Central European sheep breeders. They applied more scientific language to selective breeding, adding to an accumulating body of knowledge that would establish the context for Gregor Mendel and Charles ...


Liberté, Égalité, Santé: The Evolution Of Medicine In Revolution-Era France, Jasmine Yu May 2019

Liberté, Égalité, Santé: The Evolution Of Medicine In Revolution-Era France, Jasmine Yu

Young Historians Conference

Modern practice of medicine is reliably grounded in thorough observation and experimental study before application in a clinical setting. Yet before the universality of verifiable scientific justification, theoretical—and generally fallacious—models for the workings of the human body predominated, including the philosophy of the four elemental humors introduced by Hippocrates and Galen. In France, the decline of humorism’s supremacy did not occur until the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the same time period during which the long-standing convention of absolute monarchy was violently eradicated by the French Revolution. How, if at all, was the ending of humoral ...


Aristocracy And Agriculture: How Vergil’S "Georgics" Inspired A Wave Of Agrarianism And Imperialism, Isabel M. Lickey May 2019

Aristocracy And Agriculture: How Vergil’S "Georgics" Inspired A Wave Of Agrarianism And Imperialism, Isabel M. Lickey

Young Historians Conference

Georgics, written by Vergil in 29 B.C., though on its surface about labor and agricultural, uncovered deeper thought about the politics of its time period. When a prominent English poet, John Dryden, translated the Georgics in 1697, it had a profound effect upon English society. It soared to popularity, and introduced the field of agrarian science to the upper class, while at the same time inspiring a wave of similar agricultural poems. At the same, time, the ideas extolled in the Georgics about the necessity of labour to make land purposeful helped justify British colonization of America. Though Georgics ...


The Knights Templar: The Course Of God And Gold, Aaron Wozniak May 2019

The Knights Templar: The Course Of God And Gold, Aaron Wozniak

Young Historians Conference

The creation and expansion of the Knights Templar exemplifies the power of religious organizations during the time of the Crusades. However, it is the dissolution of the Templars that makes the order’s existence stand out among other knight orders. While the legal accounts of King Philip IV condemn the Templars for heresy, modern scholars and the political context suggest the possibility of exploiting the order for its significant financial holdings. This paper follows the history of the Templar order, from its creation to its demise, to evaluate how the Templars drifted far enough from their initial mission to provide ...


Robespierre: A Self-Destructed Revolutionary, Sophie M. Johnson May 2019

Robespierre: A Self-Destructed Revolutionary, Sophie M. Johnson

Young Historians Conference

The French Revolution’s infamously radical Reign of Terror rallied revolutionaries and quelled dissenters, all under the justification that the “republic of virtue” mandated protection. The Terror’s enigmatic Jacobin figurehead, Maximilien Robespierre, undeniably embodied the Enlightenment, egalitarian thought that provoked the revolution in 1789. Nonetheless, his resolute view of virtue and tyrannical tendencies debased a 1792 republic already overcome by factionalism and unnecessary bloodshed. His extreme rhetoric and public unpopularity only further blackened his image, raising the question of his legitimacy to his colleagues and fellow Jacobins. This paper asserts that while Robespierre acted in the name of the ...


“I Should Like To Say A Word Or Two About Your Empire”: Victor Hugo Le Grand, Napoléon Iii Le Petit, And The Historiographical Battlefield Of The French Second Empire, Madeleine Adriance May 2019

“I Should Like To Say A Word Or Two About Your Empire”: Victor Hugo Le Grand, Napoléon Iii Le Petit, And The Historiographical Battlefield Of The French Second Empire, Madeleine Adriance

Young Historians Conference

The lapping of waves, the soft calls of seabirds, and the cool breeze buffeting patches of wildflowers are sounds typically uncommon to the battlefield. Yet it was indeed a vicious war the famous author Victor Hugo waged from his exile on Guernsey Island against Napoléon III, the lesser-known nephew of the infamous Napoléon Bonaparte and emperor of the Second Empire. Throughout Napoléon’s reign and after, Hugo argued through his writings that the emperor was the antithesis of republican virtues. What would be Napoléon’s counterattack? Despite making largely successful efforts to influence his image with the working class, Napoléon ...


Translation Wars: The Influence Of Semantics And Translation On The More-Tyndale Polemic, Annika H. Marshall May 2019

Translation Wars: The Influence Of Semantics And Translation On The More-Tyndale Polemic, Annika H. Marshall

Young Historians Conference

The More-Tyndale polemic was one of many debates during the Protestant Reformation, a time of great religious change and conflict. Because of this, many scholars who examine the lengthy debate view it as a pure reflection of the typical Reformation arguments of the century, and assume it to be a debate of ubiquitous opposing religious ideals. This paper, however, argues that while many of these Reformation topics were present, the polemic was primarily fueled by clash over semantics and the topic of Biblical translation. Through this unique approach to a classic debate, one may better understand Christian theology’s inherent ...


The Truth And Tale Of Lady Jane Grey: An Honest Demeanor In The Midst Of Ruthless Ambition, Sarah Kim Apr 2018

The Truth And Tale Of Lady Jane Grey: An Honest Demeanor In The Midst Of Ruthless Ambition, Sarah Kim

Young Historians Conference

In the midst of the political bloodbath of Tudor England, one individual remains steadfast. Known as the “Nine-Days Queen,” Lady Jane Grey is infamous for her short nine-day reign before she was promptly executed by Queen Mary. Because of Grey’s stance in her unfortunate circumstances as the object of the royal family’s political ambitions, Grey remains a distinguished figure in English history despite her minimal role and influence.


"If Only I Could Get A Job Somewhere:" The Emergence Of British Punk, Nina Fletcher Apr 2018

"If Only I Could Get A Job Somewhere:" The Emergence Of British Punk, Nina Fletcher

Young Historians Conference

In the seventies, Great Britain was crippled by a widespread recession during which more than a million people were out of work and the inflation rate rose to above 18 percent, a stark contrast with the generally prosperous economy of the sixties. The conditions of this difficult decade would result in lasting social and cultural developments — including, of course, punk rock in all its loud, cynical, and spiky-haired glory. This paper examines the economic origins of the punk movement and argues that it was, at heart, the unique product of a generation raised in times of hardship and scarce opportunity ...


The Influence Of Spanish Mines On Roman Victory In The Second Punic War, Fisher W. Ng Apr 2018

The Influence Of Spanish Mines On Roman Victory In The Second Punic War, Fisher W. Ng

Young Historians Conference

The idea that one factor can win a war seems preposterous, yet Rome’s acquisition of the Spanish mines turned the tides of the Second Punic War in their favor. While most scholars agree Rome’s conquest of the Spanish mines was a step in defeating Carthage, there is no consensus that the mines directly influenced the war. The accounts of ancient Roman historians Titus Livius and Pliny the Elder, as well as Greek historian Diodorus, attest to the unparalleled amount of precious metals the Spanish mines produced--treasure capable of stimulating Roman economy. Modern scholarship agrees controlling precious metals sources ...


The History Of British Art And The Burkean Sublime, Natalie Ware Apr 2018

The History Of British Art And The Burkean Sublime, Natalie Ware

Young Historians Conference

A Philosophical Enquiry into the Beautiful and the Sublime by British philosopher Edmund Burke, published in 1757, proposed a concrete definition of the aesthetics concept of the sublime. This definition solidified the place of the sublime in the minds of British artists and philosophers from the Baroque period onward into the current contemporary art culture. The sublime has periodically been embraced, redefined, or even claimed as fatal to art itself. As British artists have struggled to grapple with the sublime throughout the centuries, the works that they’ve created out of this discourse have become emblems of the sublime controversy ...


Feminism During The Russian Revolution: A Failure On Multiple Fronts, Helen R. Rossmiller Apr 2018

Feminism During The Russian Revolution: A Failure On Multiple Fronts, Helen R. Rossmiller

Young Historians Conference

Although not always acknowledged for their contributions, women were not only a significant force in the Russian Revolution, they were the impetus behind it. Following the revolution however, feminist ideals were neglected by the new Soviet government and whatever feminist policies or ideals existed were reduced to mere illusion. Female liberation was a central goal for most female revolutionaries; yet, they were unable to accomplish it in a lasting and universal way. Nevertheless, an understanding of the Russian revolution without an acknowledgment of the influence of both aristocratic and working-class women who joined the Revolution would be incomplete. Women such ...


Aristotle's Politics And Slavery In Ancient Athens, Krystyna D. Klucznik Apr 2018

Aristotle's Politics And Slavery In Ancient Athens, Krystyna D. Klucznik

Young Historians Conference

The relationship between Aristotle’s theoretical discussion of slavery in Politics and the reality of slavery in ancient Athens is complex and multifaceted. In tandem with Politics, which was my main primary source, I also drew on multiple pieces of secondary scholarship on both Politics and slavery in Athens to compare the two presentations of slavery. Additionally, I drew on the works of Euripides and Solon. In particular, my paper focuses on the process of manumission, the lack of social mobility afforded to freed slaves, and how slaves were viewed generally. A comparison of these sources reveals that there are ...


Truth, Fiction, And Image: Napoleon Bonaparte And The Changing Tides Of Political Imagination, Isabel K. Williams Apr 2018

Truth, Fiction, And Image: Napoleon Bonaparte And The Changing Tides Of Political Imagination, Isabel K. Williams

Young Historians Conference

Despite nearly two centuries having passed since his death, Napoleon Bonaparte still looms large in western political imagery. Napoleon utilized state sponsored art and propagandists like Jacques-Louis David, Antoine-Jean Gros, and Jean Auguste-Dominique Ingres to enhance his public image and promote him as a calm and talented military leader, a dedicated public servant, and even a saint. However, after his defeat at Waterloo, his exile, and death, Bonaparte’s artistic representation shifted to one of a dejected, almost tragic ruler. This shift to a negative and reflective portrayal of the Emperor can be most clearly seen in the works of ...


The Saint Of Orléans: Her Legacy, Riona K. O'Donnell Apr 2018

The Saint Of Orléans: Her Legacy, Riona K. O'Donnell

Young Historians Conference

Often referred to as Joan of Arc in the anglophone tradition, Jeanne d’Arc – the saint who fought to liberate France during the Hundred-Years War, the convicted heretic who was burned at the stake – never existed outside of history books. These images only superficially resemble the historical figure of Jeanne. Still, Jeanne’s image as an ancient warrior hero, an example of Divine will, or a symbol of French nationalism permeates today’s culture across the western world. How did this historical dynamism manifest in a young woman who was in the public eye for a short two years? This ...


Marie De France's Courtly Love: The Liberation Of Women Through Romance, Tiffany K. Ong Apr 2018

Marie De France's Courtly Love: The Liberation Of Women Through Romance, Tiffany K. Ong

Young Historians Conference

In the era of ladies and lords, French troubadours sang the tales of the late twelfth-century medieval court. One such poet, Marie de France, documented her stories in her work, Lais, a collection of adulterous romantic feats and failures of chivalrous knights. Within her writing, she incorporated aspects of the knight’s code of honor into the personalities of her characters. While the knightly code of honor is often perceived as an example of the restrictions placed on medieval women, Marie de France’s writing gives an example of women reconstructing their position in medieval life. This paper explores the ...


Galen: The Philosophical Physician, Chloe Sellers Apr 2018

Galen: The Philosophical Physician, Chloe Sellers

Young Historians Conference

Analyzing the works of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, this paper reveals the specific influences each of the three had upon Galen’s medical practice, asserting that the influence of philosophy was ultimately responsible for distinguishing Galen from his contemporaries. Drawing from various primary sources, including Plato’s “The Apology,” Timaeus and The Republic, as well as Aristotle’s Physics, and comparing them to Galen’s works, “The Art of Medicine” and “A Method of Medicine to Glaucon,” numerous similarities are revealed between the works of Galen and those of the philosophical trio. By evaluating these many connections among the works ...


"Would To God Each Town Had Also A Girls' School" : New Views Of Women's Education From Luther And Vives, Malia R. Marshall Apr 2017

"Would To God Each Town Had Also A Girls' School" : New Views Of Women's Education From Luther And Vives, Malia R. Marshall

Young Historians Conference

In the early 1500s, Europe went through a time of rapidly changing ideas as a result of the rise of the humanist movement and Protestant Reformation. What did leading humanists and reformers believe about women's education? More importantly, how did their writings change the way Europeans viewed women's education? By examining the writings of humanist Juan Luis Vives and reformer Martin Luther, this paper argues that while both men countered misogynistic ideas of the day in support of women's education, Luther separated himself from humanist educators by suggesting that both women and men needed to be educated ...


Using “Evil” To Combat “Evil”: The Regulation Of Prostitution In Renaissance Florence, Lilah F. Abrams Apr 2017

Using “Evil” To Combat “Evil”: The Regulation Of Prostitution In Renaissance Florence, Lilah F. Abrams

Young Historians Conference

In accordance with the general opinions towards women at the time, the establishment of the Office of Decency (known as the Onestá) in Florence, Italy during the Renaissance served to dehumanize the women participating in the profession. While many argue that the Florentine Onestá was established to preserve the city’s image, the ultimate intention of the ordinances was to use women as tools to regulate male behavior. Drawing on the remaining ordinances established by the Onestá as primary source material, this paper identifies the utilization of prostitutes to restrict the defiling of “virtuous” women by men through regulations on ...


The Communist Manifesto: A Case Study In The Class Politics Of Industrialization, Benjamin B. Goldberg Apr 2017

The Communist Manifesto: A Case Study In The Class Politics Of Industrialization, Benjamin B. Goldberg

Young Historians Conference

Karl Marx is among the few historical figures whose influence was not fully apparent until after his death. When he penned his best-known work, The Communist Manifesto, “communism” was little more than a vague boogeyman employed by the political establishment of Europe to discredit movements among industrial laborers, but after he had long since passed, the students of his works, in the midst of World War I, seized power from the Tsar of Russia. Why the revolution occurred but the expected workers’ paradise failed to follow has been the subject of much debate. Opinions range from the White Russian view ...


Rasputin And The Fragmentation Of Imperial Russia, Jessie Radcliffe Apr 2017

Rasputin And The Fragmentation Of Imperial Russia, Jessie Radcliffe

Young Historians Conference

In 1917 the Romanov Dynasty ended as did Imperial Russia. Faced with years of political, social and economic instability tracing back to the Revolution of 1905, it was only a matter of time before everything fell apart. This paper analyzes the role in which Gregory Rasputin played in further polarizing the many facets of Russian society and priming the country for the Revolution of 1917.


A Collaborative Work: The Role Of University Students And Dissidents In Czechoslovakia's Velvet Revolution, Milena Rogers Apr 2017

A Collaborative Work: The Role Of University Students And Dissidents In Czechoslovakia's Velvet Revolution, Milena Rogers

Young Historians Conference

The 1989 Velvet Revolution is fairly unknown against the tumultuous historical backdrop of the Communist controlled Eastern Bloc in the second half of the twentieth century. However, it is arguably one of the most important events in the history of Czechoslovakia and remains as a powerful testament of the power of the people. This paper explores the collaboration of university students and established intellectuals in the forty years that Czechoslovakia was controlled by the Soviets, and examines how a bloodless uprising removed one of the world’s greatest entities in a peaceful transfer of power.


Breaking The Mold: Joan Of Arc's Unyielding Individuality, Sierra Ha Apr 2017

Breaking The Mold: Joan Of Arc's Unyielding Individuality, Sierra Ha

Young Historians Conference

During the Hundred Years’ War, Joan of Arc became known for her unusual dress, piety, and leadership. While these aspects of Joan’s personality have been studied independently by historians, through a comprehensive study of these characteristics, it becomes clear that Joan stood out from her peers because of the strict obstinacy with which she maintained her unique lifestyle. Her mannerisms caught the attention of her English rivals and even the French, whom she fought to protect. Because of the individualistic ways in which she dressed, exercised her faith, and guided others that broke social expectations and the unyielding persistence ...


The First Crusade: The Forgotten Realities, Jonathan Chang Apr 2017

The First Crusade: The Forgotten Realities, Jonathan Chang

Young Historians Conference

In the Middle Ages, Europe saw a great amassing of thousands of lords, knights, and ordinary people for an extraordinary expedition into the Holy Land. This event was called the First Crusade. The First Crusade was one of the more successful crusades, however, this fact is overshadowed by the negatives of the crusades. My paper explores the reasons for how the crusaders were able to be victorious in the First Crusade.