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Full-Text Articles in European History

Learning From The Dead: How Burial Practices In Roman Britain Reflect Changes In Belief And Society, Samuel F. Engel Apr 2019

Learning From The Dead: How Burial Practices In Roman Britain Reflect Changes In Belief And Society, Samuel F. Engel

Student Publications

This paper begins by examining the burial traditions of the Iron age Britons and Classical Romans to see how these practices reflect their societal values and belief systems. The funerary methods of both the Britons and Romans are then analyzed following the Roman occupation of Britain in 43 AD to see how these practices changed once the two groups came into contact with each other. The findings show that rather than Romanization, there is a hybridization of burial practices which incorporated and reflect both Roman and British beliefs and values.


Education In Nazi Germany, Ian R. James Apr 2019

Education In Nazi Germany, Ian R. James

Student Publications

This essay investigates the sweeping educational reforms that the Nazi government implemented to use elementary education to further its political goals. Along with the major laws concerned, it concentrates on several personal accounts of families and students during this era to better understand how these educational reforms affected Germans. Additionally, it analyzes the Hitler Youth and other such recreational organizations that the Nazis created to continue to mold students’ ideologies. It examines the stories of several people who were children in these organizations and what their impressions were of the groups. Finally, it places these Nazi reforms in the context ...


"Ein Pakt Mit Dem Teufel": Leni Riefenstahl, Triumph Of The Will, And The Nature Of Guilt, Andrew O. Burns Apr 2019

"Ein Pakt Mit Dem Teufel": Leni Riefenstahl, Triumph Of The Will, And The Nature Of Guilt, Andrew O. Burns

Student Publications

Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will is rightly considered a massive technical achievement in the world of cinema and propaganda. However, this achievement was undertaken at the behest of the immoral, murderous regime of Nazi Germany, a regime that Riefenstahl was more than willing to work with and glorify in order to further her career. This thesis will argue that Riefenstahl’s onscreen deification of Hitler, visual representation of völkisch ideology, and use of the music of Richard Wagner make her later claims of ignorance as to the film’s ultimate meaning impossible to correlate with established facts.


Besatzungskinder: Die Schweigenden Geister Des Zweiten Weltkrieges (Besatzungskinder: The Silenced Ghosts Of The Second World War), Aimee C. Bosman Apr 2018

Besatzungskinder: Die Schweigenden Geister Des Zweiten Weltkrieges (Besatzungskinder: The Silenced Ghosts Of The Second World War), Aimee C. Bosman

Student Publications

Diese Forschungsarbeit konzentriert sich auf die Erfahrung von Besatzungskindern in Deutschland nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Sie diskutiert die Exposition oder mangelnde Sichtbarkeit von Besatzungskindern in der Gesellschaft und wie sie kulturell dargestellt wurden. Diese These stellt die Frage, wie Besatzungskinder in der Gesellschaft gesehen wurden, und ob die Gesellschaft ihnen half, eine deutsche Identität zu entwickeln.


"A Delirious Welcome To Anyone In Uniform:" The Gi Experience In Paris, July - September 1944, Bridget E. Ashton Oct 2017

"A Delirious Welcome To Anyone In Uniform:" The Gi Experience In Paris, July - September 1944, Bridget E. Ashton

Student Publications

Previous studies of relationships between American GIs and the French population during and after Liberation paint two extremes: one of a perfectly handsome American man doling out candy, cigarettes, and kisses, and the other of a rapist and conqueror. In reality, the situation proved to be somewhere between these two realities. In this paper, I will argue that the Franco-American relationship in the months of July, August, and September 1944 was one of utility and necessity that left the French vulnerable and powerless. Because of factors such as preexisting conditions left behind by German soldiers, language barriers, and material needs ...


Neurasthenia, Robert Graves, And Poetic Therapy In The Great War, Juliette E. Sebock Oct 2017

Neurasthenia, Robert Graves, And Poetic Therapy In The Great War, Juliette E. Sebock

Student Publications

Though Robert Graves is remembered primarily for his memoir, Good-bye to All That, his First World War poetry is equally relevant. Comparably to the more famous writings of Sassoon and Owen, Graves' war poems depict the trauma of the trenches, marked by his repressed neurasthenia (colloquially, shell-shock), and foreshadow his later remarkable poetic talents.


The Legend Of The Wehrmacht’S “Clean Hands”: The Attempt To Remove Nazism From The German Military, Kenneth R. Mccracken Oct 2017

The Legend Of The Wehrmacht’S “Clean Hands”: The Attempt To Remove Nazism From The German Military, Kenneth R. Mccracken

Student Publications

The legend of the Wehrmacht’s “clean hands” was created with the Himmerdoer Memorandum of 1950 and sought to disassociate the German military with its Nazi past. The legend gained popularity in the minds of the German people and successfully led to Germany’s rearmament after World War Two. Beginning in 1990, the legend was destroyed as the actions of the Wehrmacht during World War Two created a different picture than that of the legend. The Wehrmacht’s hands were far from “clean” and instead were very dirty.


Captive Body, Free Mind: Euphrosinia Kersnovskaia, The Gulag, And Art Under Oppression, Laura G. Waters Oct 2017

Captive Body, Free Mind: Euphrosinia Kersnovskaia, The Gulag, And Art Under Oppression, Laura G. Waters

Student Publications

This paper examines the art of Euphrosinia Kersnovskaia (1907-1994) as it relates to both the larger experience and narrative of the Soviet Gulag and to the survival of the artist. Larger trends of art made under oppression are used to find reason for such seemingly insignificant acts, and art therapy frameworks provide analytical bases for approach. By looking at such deeply subjective forms of memory and its transcription, individuality and humanity is returned to an inhuman penal system.


Experience, Emotion, And Emoting: Jack Peirs And The Aftermath Of Loos, Laura G. Waters Apr 2017

Experience, Emotion, And Emoting: Jack Peirs And The Aftermath Of Loos, Laura G. Waters

Student Publications

An investigation into the personal letters of one man on the Western Front, this paper seeks to uncover some of the complexities of emotion and emoting within British societal narratives of the First World War. Conceptions of masculinity and stoicism imposed limitations on soldierly expression, forcing them to abide by preordained 'scripts' to continually qualify as men. The difficulty lay in finding ways to cope emotionally with their surroundings while still playing their 'roles'. By looking closely at the words and coping mechanisms of one man, Lieutenant-Colonel H.J.C. Peirs, in the aftermath of the Battle of Loos, this ...


Guilt, Shame, And The Family Narrative: The Communicative Memory From Families Of Nazi Perpetrators And Its Impact On The Social Collective, Megan E. Heyer Apr 2017

Guilt, Shame, And The Family Narrative: The Communicative Memory From Families Of Nazi Perpetrators And Its Impact On The Social Collective, Megan E. Heyer

Student Publications

This work examines the generational relationships of the families of Nazi perpetrators and how the experiences of these Nazi perpetrators have been altered through the generations, and the impact of these alterations on one's understanding of the history of World War II.


The Centennial Of The Great War, Thomas J. Crafa Apr 2017

The Centennial Of The Great War, Thomas J. Crafa

Student Publications

A personal reflection on the centennial of America's entry into The Great War.


A Moment In History Relevant To The Modern Era, Brandon R. Katzung Hokanson Apr 2017

A Moment In History Relevant To The Modern Era, Brandon R. Katzung Hokanson

Student Publications

April 6, 1917 is a date that deserves great recognition and remembrance in the United States. On that day, the United States chose to enter a war that it had previously so ardently tried to avoid. Upon entrance, the United States forged a new national identity that looked past racial and religious barriers with a new mission to protect global democracy. On April 6, 2017, the 100th anniversary of America entering the First World War, news and other media throughout the United States seemed to care so little about the significance of the date and unfortunately passed over an excellent ...


Saving Grace On Feathered Wings: Homing Pigeons In The First World War, Brandon R. Katzung Hokanson Apr 2017

Saving Grace On Feathered Wings: Homing Pigeons In The First World War, Brandon R. Katzung Hokanson

Student Publications

Soldiers of the First World War came in all shapes and sizes. The humble homing pigeon is one of the more unique and critical examples of such. They served in the armed forces of both the Allies and the Central Powers. Used as a last-ditch form of communication, the homing pigeons were exceptional in the work of sending messages back and forth between the battle lines. Little has been written about their vital role and even less in the rigorous training the birds and their handlers both endured. Understanding their training is critical to understanding how the homing pigeons performed ...


Paintings Of War, Museums Of Memory, Laura G. Waters Apr 2017

Paintings Of War, Museums Of Memory, Laura G. Waters

Student Publications

This paper examines the artists sent to the Western Front under Britain’s official war artists initiative. The government sought to utilize artwork for propagandistic purposes, and to foster emotional connection between civilian and soldier. However, the growth of the initiative to include some ninety artists complicated this. The experiences of the artists and the truths revealed to them by the conflict were vastly different, and examination of them as a whole does little to elucidate the character of the war itself. What this paper seeks to do, therefore, is examine three artists - Sir William Orpen, Lieutenant Paul Nash, and ...


The Great War Then And Now: Reflections On America’S Declaration Of War, Thomas S. Potter Apr 2017

The Great War Then And Now: Reflections On America’S Declaration Of War, Thomas S. Potter

Student Publications

This short essay explores the many impacts of the 1917 U.S. entry to World War I on the author's hometown of Pennington, NJ, and the reaction of its residents at the time.


The Letters Of Stewart Winfield Herman Jr. An American Pastor In Berlin, 1936-1941, Lucy A. Marks Apr 2017

The Letters Of Stewart Winfield Herman Jr. An American Pastor In Berlin, 1936-1941, Lucy A. Marks

Student Publications

This paper provides an analysis of the experiences of Stewart Herman Winfield Jr based on a collection of his letters on loan to Gettysburg College from the Gettysburg Lutheran Seminary. This paper discusses Herman’s experiences as a student in Strasburg and Gottingen, and as the pastor of the American church of Berlin from 1936 – 1941. Born in Harrisburg, Herman attended Gettysburg College, and the Gettysburg Lutheran Seminary. Herman’s letters provide both a pastoral and an American perspective on the start of WWII and Nazism in Germany. Herman traveled frequently and witnessed the changes that Berlin faced during World ...


Eisenhower And Montgomery: Strategy, Leadership, And Tension At The End Of World War Ii, Bradley J. Klustner Oct 2016

Eisenhower And Montgomery: Strategy, Leadership, And Tension At The End Of World War Ii, Bradley J. Klustner

Student Publications

In late 1944, two legendary generals stood at the helm of the Allied Expeditionary Force as it plunged into Nazi Germany in an effort to end the Second World War. While the relationship between the United States and Britain, and more specifically the relationship between Generals Dwight Eisenhower and Bernard Montgomery are portrayed as cooperative, smooth, and friendly, personal memoirs of the two men and their close confidants reveal that these myths could not be further from the truth. A debate between the two men, which began as one regarding military strategy, escalated into a full blown feud; this tension ...


The Berlin Olympics: Sports, Anti-Semitism, And Propaganda In Nazi Germany, Nathan W. Cody Apr 2016

The Berlin Olympics: Sports, Anti-Semitism, And Propaganda In Nazi Germany, Nathan W. Cody

Student Publications

The Nazis utilized the Berlin Olympics of 1936 as anti-Semitic propaganda within their racial ideology. When the Nazis took power in 1933 they immediately sought to coordinate all aspects of German life, including sports. The process of coordination was designed to Aryanize sport by excluding non-Aryans and promoting sport as a means to prepare for military training. The 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin became the ideal platform for Hitler and the Nazis to display the physical superiority of the Aryan race. However, the exclusion of non-Aryans prompted a boycott debate that threatened Berlin’s position as host. A fierce debate ...


History, Historical Fiction, And Historical Myth: 'The German Doctor' By Lucía Puenzo, Nathan W. Cody Apr 2016

History, Historical Fiction, And Historical Myth: 'The German Doctor' By Lucía Puenzo, Nathan W. Cody

Student Publications

The escape of thousands of war criminals to Argentina and throughout South America in the aftermath of World War II is a historical subject that has been clouded with mystery and conspiracy. Lucía Puenzo's film, The German Doctor, utilizes this historical enigma as a backdrop for historical fiction by imagining a family's encounter with Josef Mengele, the notorious SS doctor from Auschwitz who escaped to South America in 1949 under a false identity. While Puenzo sought to tell a story within a historical context, the film still has important historical commentaries. Ultimately, The German Doctor demonstrates the intersections ...


Mussolini's Gladius: The Double-Edged Sword Of Antiquity In Fascist Italy, Kyle W. Schrader Apr 2016

Mussolini's Gladius: The Double-Edged Sword Of Antiquity In Fascist Italy, Kyle W. Schrader

Student Publications

Mussolini and the Fascist Party used a plethora of propaganda techniques in order to suggest the renewal of the old Roman Empire with the rise of the Italian Fascist Party. Through the use of ideology, race issues, religion, educational control, posters, theatre, architecture, and archeology, the Fascists used the Roman past to glorify modern Italy and the Fascist party. The Fascists’ use of these Roman allusions made their own deficiencies more apparent and led to a general failure of their propaganda program in terms of creating a new Italian identity focused upon the Ancient Roman past.


The Rsha Generation, Sean W. Hough Apr 2016

The Rsha Generation, Sean W. Hough

Student Publications

The Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) was once the capital of a vast empire of terror; a place where surveillance, persecution, and extermination became merely a quotidian, bureaucratic function and where the Schreibtischtäter could implement their deadly ideology from afar, or sometimes in person; a place where divisions of the SS less associated by the general public with Nazi crimes against humanity, such as the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) and Sicherheitspolizei (Sipo), would persecute and kill more people than the Gestapo and most other Nazi institutions of terror. The RSHA and its many offices became an outlet for many Nazi intellectual elites, who were educated ...


Battle For The People: Ideological Conflict Between Soviet Partisans, The German Military, And Ukrainian Nationalists In Nazi-Occupied Ukraine, David L. Heim Apr 2016

Battle For The People: Ideological Conflict Between Soviet Partisans, The German Military, And Ukrainian Nationalists In Nazi-Occupied Ukraine, David L. Heim

Student Publications

Soviet historiography discusses the People’s War during the Second World War, the idea that all of the Soviet people rallied to the cause and fought off the Nazi invaders, but this is far from the truth. Within the western borderlands of the Soviet Union multiple conflicting groups fought for control of and support from the people. This was especially true in Ukraine where the German Army, Soviet Partisans and Ukrainian nationalists all fought ‘for the people’ and for their own ideologies. This paper is an attempt to discuss the ideological conflict between the Nazis, the Soviets, and the Ukrainian ...


A Coercive Courtship: German Awareness Of And Responses To The Sudeten Germans, 1929-1934, Jesse E. Siegel Apr 2016

A Coercive Courtship: German Awareness Of And Responses To The Sudeten Germans, 1929-1934, Jesse E. Siegel

Student Publications

Following the end of World War I and the creation of the first Czechoslovak Republic, the Sudeten Germans sought to raise the awareness of Germans in Germany and Austria of their situation under Czechoslovak rule. In the period between 1929 and 1934, the public discourse in Germany altered, as Nazi control began to direct further concentration on the Sudeten Germans, away from broader discussion of their minority status to a German nationalistic perspective. The Nazis, however, were both manipulative and ambivalent in their awareness of the Sudeten Germans, treating them as an extension of the Nazi Party while also beyond ...


The Lives Of Soldiers In World War Ii, Caroline M. Bosworth Oct 2015

The Lives Of Soldiers In World War Ii, Caroline M. Bosworth

Student Publications

An examination of soldiers' quality of life during World War II. This is done through comparing and contrasting the letters of two different soldiers.


Oral History: Kathleen Iannello, Abigail M. Finan Oct 2015

Oral History: Kathleen Iannello, Abigail M. Finan

Student Publications

This research essay captures the reality of what it means to assimilate into American culture as an Italian and how the dynamic of identifying with a certain heritage has changed throughout the years. For my project I interviewed Kathleen Iannello, the granddaughter of two Italian American immigrants. By talking with Kathleen I was able to a gain a sense of the hardships and sacrifices her family made and connect them to the information I had learned in class.


Oral History: William Iannello, Andrew I. Dalton Oct 2015

Oral History: William Iannello, Andrew I. Dalton

Student Publications

Research paper devoted to the life of my grandfather, William Iannello, a second-generation Italian American. His parents came to the United States during the first decade of the 1900s from Calabria, the southernmost region of the Italian mainland.


He Was The Best Of Kings; He Was The Worst Of Kings: A Critique Of The Literary Presentation Of Richard I, Estelle Reed Oct 2015

He Was The Best Of Kings; He Was The Worst Of Kings: A Critique Of The Literary Presentation Of Richard I, Estelle Reed

Student Publications

In order to achieve a more holistic understanding of Mediterranean History during the Third Crusade, a critical analysis of Richard I is necessary. This paper questions how accurately Richard I was portrayed in literary sources during the Third Crusade and attempts to construct as complete an image of the various motivations that led to differing depictions of Richard I as possible through a critical analysis of literary sources. Focusing on how his actions during the Third Crusade were interpreted, this paper will show the various, often opposing, sentiments held by both Western and Muslim authors on Richard I. Once a ...


The Bosnian Muslims And The Irish Perspective, Gabriel C. Kelly Jul 2015

The Bosnian Muslims And The Irish Perspective, Gabriel C. Kelly

Student Publications

The conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina can be understood in multiple ways, however, the focus of this paper is to examine the perspective of Ireland on the Bosnian Muslims at different levels of society--ranging from the population to international level--from June 01, 1992 to January 31, 1996. Through an analysis of letters to the editor in "The Irish Times," parliamentary debate transcripts, and the Barbara Sloan European Union Document Collection located at the University of Pittsburgh's Hillman Library, I have been able to reveal how complex perspectives within a state on a particular issue can be, and how they can vary ...


Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde: The Complicated Identity Of The Brussels International Festival Of Fantastic Films, Mila H. Whiteley Apr 2015

Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde: The Complicated Identity Of The Brussels International Festival Of Fantastic Films, Mila H. Whiteley

Student Publications

The Brussels International Festival of Fantastic Films (BIFFF) is a genre festival specializing in thriller, horror, science fiction and fantasy films. Started in 1983, with an initial audience of 32,650 for a festival of 60 films, by its most recent run in April 2015, 64,400 tickets were sold for a showing of 108 films (BIFFF Presentation 4-5; “Festival 2015” 2015). The almost doubling in audience attendance over the course of the BIFFF’s 33 year run emphasizes the manner in which the festival’s identity has become oriented towards a specific and passionate audience. Interestingly, as the festival ...


The Long Road: Eisenhower’S Inter-American Highway: The Path To Economic Investment, Political Stability, And Collective Security In Central America, Jacob A. Ross Apr 2015

The Long Road: Eisenhower’S Inter-American Highway: The Path To Economic Investment, Political Stability, And Collective Security In Central America, Jacob A. Ross

Student Publications

This paper explores the anti-communist Cold War tactics of public diplomacy as undertaken by the Eisenhower Administration. The focus of this paper is the Inter-American Highway: a program which the U.S. government funded and constructed to develop Central America economically, politically, and beyond. Funding for this program was increased and supported by the president because it fit the axiom of spending as little money as possible in the Cold War, but spending it in a way to be effective in the battle against Soviet communism. The stance of the U.S. government was to provide Central America with increased ...