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Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in European History

It Takes A Union To Raise A Soviet: Children's Summer Camps As A Reflection Of Late Soviet Society, Iuliia Skubytska Jan 2018

It Takes A Union To Raise A Soviet: Children's Summer Camps As A Reflection Of Late Soviet Society, Iuliia Skubytska

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines the functioning of Soviet children’s summer camps throughout the period from 1953 to 1970. Researchers conceptualize these years marked by the rule of Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev as the time of transformations of Soviet state and society. The goal of my project was to closely analyze how these transformations affected Soviet children using the example of children’s summer camps. Khrushchev’s ascendance to power changed summer camps from being the institutions which combined rest and education to purely educational ones. All the summer camps’ resources had to be mobilized to fulfill the task of ...


Lords Of The Seven Parishes: Neighbourhood, Guild, And Revolt In Early Modern Seville, 1520-1652, Igor Knezevic Jan 2017

Lords Of The Seven Parishes: Neighbourhood, Guild, And Revolt In Early Modern Seville, 1520-1652, Igor Knezevic

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

My dissertation links two popular revolts in Seville, in 1520-1 and 1652, both of which had as their focus the artisan parish of Omnium Sanctorum, in the Feria district of the city. The first was a local echo of the great Comunero Revolt, while the second was arguably the most serious political uprising in the Crown of Castile after 1520. The symmetry between these events, alongside the fact that La Feria—as it was popularly known—was the most likely source of urban unrest throughout this period, demands a study of the specific local conditions that enabled, structured or defused ...


Reforming The Cold War State: Economic Thought, Internationalization, And The Politics Of Soviet Reform, 1955-1985., Yakov Feygin Feygin Jan 2017

Reforming The Cold War State: Economic Thought, Internationalization, And The Politics Of Soviet Reform, 1955-1985., Yakov Feygin Feygin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation explains how, as the USSR’s narrative of the Cold War shifted from the military-industrial competition envisioned by Stalin to Khrushchev’s “peaceful socioeconomic competition of the two systems,” economics began to tackle the challenge of transforming the Soviet economy from one focused on mobilization and production to one that could deliver well-being and abundance. Soviet economics changed from a field that only justified the state’s actions to a “science” whose practitioners could use their “expertise” to propose and critique domestic government policy. This opening allowed Soviet theorists to engage with the emerging issues of global economic ...


From A “Strong Town Of War” To The “Very Heart Of The Country”: The English Border Town Of Berwick-Upon-Tweed, 1558-1625, Janine Maria Van Vliet Jan 2017

From A “Strong Town Of War” To The “Very Heart Of The Country”: The English Border Town Of Berwick-Upon-Tweed, 1558-1625, Janine Maria Van Vliet

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The English border town of Berwick-upon-Tweed provides the perfect case study to analyze early modern state building in the frontiers. Berwick experienced two seismic shifts of identity, instituted by two successive monarchs: Elizabeth I (1558-1603) and James I (1603-1625). Both sought to expand state power in the borders, albeit in different ways. Elizabeth needed to secure her borders, and so built up Berwick’s military might with expensive new fortifications and an enlarged garrison of soldiers, headed by a governor who administered the civilian population as well. This arrangement resulted in continual clashes with Berwick’s traditional governing guild. Then ...


Romanticism In Print: Periodicals And The Politics Of Aesthetics In Restoration Paris, 1814-1830, Elizabeth Della Zazzera Jan 2016

Romanticism In Print: Periodicals And The Politics Of Aesthetics In Restoration Paris, 1814-1830, Elizabeth Della Zazzera

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In 1814 allied forces defeated Napoleon’s armies and restored the Bourbon monarchy to the throne of France. In the wake of over two decades of revolution, empire, and upheaval, France built itself anew by calling on a past seemingly untainted by its recent sins and missteps, and by building toward a (hopefully) prosperous future. The debate over how to rebuild France took place not only in the world of high politics but also at the level of culture, and particularly through the literary debate between romantics and classicists – the bataille romantique. The literary debates between classicists and romantics, with ...


Calvary Or Catastrophe? French Catholicism's First World War, Arabella Leonie Hobbs Jan 2016

Calvary Or Catastrophe? French Catholicism's First World War, Arabella Leonie Hobbs

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

CALVARY OR CATASTROPHE? FRENCH CATHOLICISM’S FIRST WORLD WAR

Arabella L. Hobbs

Professor Gerald Prince

The battlefield crucifixes that lined the Western Front powerfully connected industrialized warfare with the Christian past. This elision of the bloody corporeality of the crucifixion with the bodily suffering wrought by industrial warfare forged a connection between religious belief and modern reality that lies at the heart of my dissertation. Through the poignancy of Christ’s suffering, French Catholics found an explanatory tool for the devastation of the Great War, affirming that the blood of the French dead would soon blossom in rich harvest. This ...


Lived Nationality: Policy And Practice In Soviet Georgia, 1945-1978, Claire Pogue Kaiser Jan 2015

Lived Nationality: Policy And Practice In Soviet Georgia, 1945-1978, Claire Pogue Kaiser

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation asks how nation-ness “happens” at the level of experience. Although the Soviet state was founded on principles of Marxism-Leninism, which sought ultimately to transcend national distinctions, the experience of the Soviet project constructed and consolidated rather than dissolved nationality among its multiethnic population. Existing scholarship on Soviet nationality policies has largely focused on the interwar era from Moscow’s perspective, when the state’s distinctive approach toward managing ethnic difference was conceived and initially implemented. Relying on archival materials in Georgian and Russian, this dissertation examines nationality from the viewpoint of the post-World War Two Georgian SSR, when ...


Opening The Book Of Marwood: English Catholics And Their Bibles In Early Modern Europe, Daniel Joseph Manuel Cheely Jan 2015

Opening The Book Of Marwood: English Catholics And Their Bibles In Early Modern Europe, Daniel Joseph Manuel Cheely

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In Reformation studies, the printed Bible has long been regarded as an agent of change. This dissertation interrogates the conditions in which it did not Reform its readers. As recent scholarship has emphasized how Protestant doctrine penetrated culture through alternative media, such as preaching and printed ephemera, the revolutionary role of the scripture-book has become more ambiguous. Historians of reading, nevertheless, continue to focus upon radical, prophetic, and otherwise eccentric modes of interaction with the vernacular Bible, reinforcing the traditional notion that the conversion of revelation to print had a single historical trajectory and that an adversarial relationship between textual ...


The Gemeinschaft Der Eigenen And The Cultural Politics Of Homoeroticism In Germany, 1896-1933, John Herbert Roper, Jr. Jan 2014

The Gemeinschaft Der Eigenen And The Cultural Politics Of Homoeroticism In Germany, 1896-1933, John Herbert Roper, Jr.

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The Gemeinschaft der Eigenen (The Society of the Self-Determined) was established in 1903 on the outskirts of Berlin to realize the social and political goals espoused by its leader: the author, photographer, and perennial activist, Adolf Brand (1874–1945). Inspired by anarchist political thought, Brand and the organization's members used a rhetoric of personal liberation to advocate for greater social acceptance of male bonding and intimacy and to promote a cult of youthful beauty. The group's unwavering faith in the transformative power of culture was central to the realization of these objectives. A secondary goal was the elimination ...


Civil Reformations: Religion In Dundee And Haddington C.1520-1565, Timothy Slonosky Jan 2014

Civil Reformations: Religion In Dundee And Haddington C.1520-1565, Timothy Slonosky

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

CIVIL REFORMATIONS: RELIGION IN DUNDEE AND HADDINGTON,

C.1520-1565

Timothy Slonosky

Prof. Margo Todd

In 1559-60, Scotland's Catholic church was dramatically and rapidly replaced by a rigorous Protestant regime. Despite their limited resources, the Protestant nobles who imposed the Reformation faced little resistance or dissent from the Scottish laity. A study of burgh records demonstrates that the nature of urban religion was crucial to the success of the Reformation among the laity. The municipal governments of Dundee and Haddington exercised significant control over religious worship in their towns, as they built and administered churches, hired clergy and provided ...


Long Live The Revolutions: Fighting For France's Political Future In The Long Wake Of The Commune, 1871-1880, Heather Marlene Bennett Jan 2013

Long Live The Revolutions: Fighting For France's Political Future In The Long Wake Of The Commune, 1871-1880, Heather Marlene Bennett

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The traumatic legacies of the Paris Commune and its harsh suppression in 1871 had a significant impact on the identities and voter outreach efforts of each of the chief political blocs of the 1870s. The political and cultural developments of this phenomenal decade, which is frequently mislabeled as calm and stable, established the Republic's longevity and set its character. Yet the Commune's legacies have never been comprehensively examined in a way that synthesizes their political and cultural effects. This dissertation offers a compelling perspective of the 1870s through qualitative and quantitative analyses of the influence of these legacies ...


Overcoming The Empty Years: The Role Of Philosophy And The Humanities In West Germany After 1945, Nicholas E. Di Liberto Dec 2009

Overcoming The Empty Years: The Role Of Philosophy And The Humanities In West Germany After 1945, Nicholas E. Di Liberto

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The close relationships formed between teachers and students in the materially impoverished and politically compromised postwar universities in western Germany are the central focus of this dissertation. I analyze how a divided generation of politically overburdened intellectual youth negotiated the new possibilities opened up by the collapse of cultural restrictions imposed by the twelve-year dictatorship and the new expectations, stemming from the changing ideas and realities of the university and philosophy in an expanding middle-class, consumerist society. In spite of the limitations of their institutional and cultural environment, the younger philosophers and intellectuals I investigate develop highly productive models for ...


Marketing America: Public Culture And Public Diplomacy In The Marshall Plan Era, 1947–1954, Amy C Garrett Jan 2004

Marketing America: Public Culture And Public Diplomacy In The Marshall Plan Era, 1947–1954, Amy C Garrett

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Between 1947 and into the mid 1950s, the foreign assistance agencies of the United States developed an ambitious information program intended to support its foreign policy mission by shaping the every day behavior of average European citizens. This dissertation argues that the rationale behind this program was based on a corporatist vision of a productive political economy driven by consumption that became popular in American leadership circles as the means to combat global communism and support US foreign policy goals in Western Europe. Behind this world view lay a rhetoric of economic abundance its proponents advanced as a non-divisive, universally ...


The Architecture Of Joseph Michael Gandy (1771-1843) And Sir John Soane (1753-1837): An Exploration Into The Masonic And Occult Imagination Of The Late Enlightenment, Terrance Gerard Galvin Jan 2003

The Architecture Of Joseph Michael Gandy (1771-1843) And Sir John Soane (1753-1837): An Exploration Into The Masonic And Occult Imagination Of The Late Enlightenment, Terrance Gerard Galvin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In examining select works of English architects Joseph Michael Gandy and Sir John Soane, this dissertation is intended to bring to light several important parallels between architectural theory and freemasonry during the late Enlightenment. Both architects developed architectural theories regarding the universal origins of architecture in an attempt to establish order as well as transcend the emerging historicism of the early nineteenth century. There are strong parallels between Soane's use of architectural narrative and his discussion of architectural 'model' in relation to Gandy's understanding of 'trans-historical' architecture. The primary textual sources discussed in this thesis include Soane's ...


Expanding Antiquity: Andrea Navagero And Villa Culture In The Cinquecento Veneto, Christopher James Pastore Jan 2003

Expanding Antiquity: Andrea Navagero And Villa Culture In The Cinquecento Veneto, Christopher James Pastore

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines a number of aspects of the history of the Venetian villa. In particular, it documents Andrea Navagero's influence on the nature of villeggiatura in the sixteenth-century Veneto. Although the initial impetus for this study was the evaluation of Navagero's descriptions of Islamic Spanish gardens and their influence on the Renaissance garden, aspects of his work, letters, and villas have forced a further reevaluation of Venetian villa life and its sources. Among the more significant results of my research on their impact are: a recasting of the early modern Venetian approach to the past, a recognition ...


Understanding French Grand Opera Through Dance, Maribeth Clark Jan 1998

Understanding French Grand Opera Through Dance, Maribeth Clark

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines the reception of nineteenth-century French grand operas (ca. 1828-1879) at the Academie Royale de Musique in relationship to dance in order to understand how past choreographic practices inflected audiences' understandings of the spectacle. It focuses primarily on the music and the practices of the Parisian composer Daniel-François-Esprit Auber, and leans heavily on journalistic accounts of dance from the Revue Musicale, Le Ménestrel, and La France musicale to place his works in the context of more general practices and perceptions of operatic and choreographic works at this theater. These journalistic accounts, in combination with archival sources such as ...


The Persistence Of The Andalusian Identity In Rabat, Morocco, Beebe Bahrami Jan 1995

The Persistence Of The Andalusian Identity In Rabat, Morocco, Beebe Bahrami

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This thesis investigates the problem of how an historical identity persists within a community in Rabat, Morocco, that traces its ancestry to Spain. Called Andalusians, these Moroccans are descended from Spanish Muslims who were first forced to convert to Christianity after 1492, and were expelled from the Iberian peninsula in the early seventeenth century. I conducted both ethnographic and historical archival research among Rabati Andalusian families. There are four main reasons for the persistence of the Andalusian identity in spite of the strong acculturative forces of religion, language, and culture in Moroccan society. First, the presence of a strong historical ...


Pox Britannica: Smallpox Inoculation In Britain, 1721-1830, Deborah Christian Brunton Jan 1990

Pox Britannica: Smallpox Inoculation In Britain, 1721-1830, Deborah Christian Brunton

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Inoculation has an important place in the history of medicine: not only was it the first form of preventive medicine but its history spans the so-called eighteenth century 'medical revolution'. A study of the myriad of pamphlets, books and articles on the controversial practice casts new light on these fundamental changes in the medical profession and medical practice. Whereas historians have associated the abandonment of old humoural theories and individualised therapy in favour of standardised techniques with the emergence of new institutions in the second half of the century, inoculation suggests that changes began as early as the 1720s. Though ...


Railroads And Aspects Of Social Change In Senegal, 1878-1933, Paul Edward Pheffer Jan 1975

Railroads And Aspects Of Social Change In Senegal, 1878-1933, Paul Edward Pheffer

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In a dissertation, or any research subject for that matter, there are generally both narrow and broader queries that can be pursued on a given theme. The narrow theme in this case concerns the "motives for French railroad-building in Senegal." Unfortunately, despite prolonged searches through archival sources available in Senegal, it soon became obvious that there were simply too many missing particulars to be able to complete this story well. Even while searching out the missing information gaps for the narrow theme, however, it also proved possible to gather abundant material for the broader theme of the social impact of ...