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Honors Theses

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Full-Text Articles in European History

Förgörning To Trolldom: A History Of Danish Witchcraft And Magic, Cole M. Robert Jun 2019

Förgörning To Trolldom: A History Of Danish Witchcraft And Magic, Cole M. Robert

Honors Theses

Numerous historical texts have evaluated European witchcraft trials and beliefs to discover the political, social, theological, economic, and cultural factors that led to the persecution of accused witches. These texts largely focus on the trials in Continental Europe, predominantly Southwestern Germany, with scant mentions of the trials in northern Europe. The Danish witchcraft trials in the early seventeenth century are significant to the greater history of witchcraft because they were highly concentrated yet resulted in relatively few executions. This paper seeks to determine the origins of the Danish witch trials and to explain why the death toll was restrained, with ...


L'Évolution De La Présence Et La Reconnaissance Des Afro-Allemand(E)S En Allemagne, De La Colonisation Jusqu’À Nos Jours, Oumou-Hani Zakaria Jun 2019

L'Évolution De La Présence Et La Reconnaissance Des Afro-Allemand(E)S En Allemagne, De La Colonisation Jusqu’À Nos Jours, Oumou-Hani Zakaria

Honors Theses

The history of the presence of Afro-Germans in Germany is a complex path that goes back thousands of years ago. Nevertheless, the fight to be recognized as real Germans was only taken serious in 1980, with the arrival of Audre Lorde, an American writer, feminist, womanist, librarian, and civil rights activist, to Germany. Audre Lorde initiated the Afro-German movement with Afro-German women including May Ayim, Dagmar Schultz, Katharina Oguntoye, Ika Hügel-Marshall, and many others. Before her arrival, Afro-Germans were alienated from society and were only referred to as “war babies,” “occupation babies,” and many other racist names. So this movement ...


Cartel Practices And Policies In The World War Ii Era, Caleb Yoken Jun 2019

Cartel Practices And Policies In The World War Ii Era, Caleb Yoken

Honors Theses

The goal of this thesis is to examine cartels in the World War II era: how and why they operated, why they existed, and any assistance they may or may not have received from their respective governments. This thesis, in particular, will focus on three countries, the United States, Germany, and Britain. Cartels are typically defined through the lens of monopolized business activity that can deal with anything from petroleum and steel to pharmaceuticals, and take actions to restrict output and raise prices to eliminate their competition. The research finds that cartels that operated in Europe during this era were ...


The Downfall Of Chivalry: Tudor Disregard For Medieval Courtly Literature, Jessica G. Downie Jan 2019

The Downfall Of Chivalry: Tudor Disregard For Medieval Courtly Literature, Jessica G. Downie

Honors Theses

In this thesis, I have examined the notion of the gradual demise of chivalric ideals throughout the late-Middle Ages and culminating in the sixteenth century, analyzing how and why the developments of the sixteenth century both enabled and required the English monarchy and the aristocracy to redefine social identities and values, public responsibilities, political duties, and national and religious power. This thesis addresses why the Tudor monarchs appear to have disregarded the examples of chivalric behavior championed by late-medieval writers like Sir Thomas Malory and Jean Froissart, and instead, relied on new works of literature that were more relevant forms ...


Becoming Evil: The Shaping Of A Nazi Female Consciousness From Weimar Through The Third Reich, Maria T. Murphy May 2018

Becoming Evil: The Shaping Of A Nazi Female Consciousness From Weimar Through The Third Reich, Maria T. Murphy

Honors Theses

No abstract provided.


Bruised But Unbroken: Cultural Responses To The Irish Troubles, Cassandra Young Jan 2018

Bruised But Unbroken: Cultural Responses To The Irish Troubles, Cassandra Young

Honors Theses

Music and art can be very effective mediums for individual expression, both in personal life and for political thought. It is something that many people can relate to, can reach the heart more directly than mere words, and carries a wide range of unspoken meaning and significance without being reduced to clumsy language. Where words are useful to express ideas, music and art can often convey emotion more effectively and can be very effective in inspiring action or shaping thought. For this reason, these mediums have been and are often used to engage with or reject political discourse great effect ...


“Is The End Game All The Same?”: Analyzing The Importance Of German Schools And The Hitler Youth Under The Third Reich, Jillian Rubin Jan 2018

“Is The End Game All The Same?”: Analyzing The Importance Of German Schools And The Hitler Youth Under The Third Reich, Jillian Rubin

Honors Theses

Was the German public education system or the Hitler Youth more influential in the indoctrination of children in Nazi Germany? The German school system promoted a rhetoric built upon a Nazi ideological framework, with the end goal of having children passively think within that framework. In contrast, the Hitler Youth emphasized physical training and militarization as a critical component of the indoctrination process. Ultimately, both proved vital in the success of Nazi Germany’s re-education program and allowed for the full integration of youth into the Nazi State.


French Colonialism In Algeria: War, Legacy, And Memory, Haley Brown Jan 2018

French Colonialism In Algeria: War, Legacy, And Memory, Haley Brown

Honors Theses

Over the course of my research for my honors thesis project, I sought to better understand the history of French colonialism in Algeria in addition to how it is remembered today. I theorized that the legacy of this history impacts issues of immigration exclusion, islamophobia, racism, and social discrimination faced by Algerians in modern day France. These issues have become important topics of discussion and investigation in the wake of the recent terrorist attacks carried out by descendants of North African immigrants in the heart of hexagonal France. Through the study of primary and secondary sources, as well as a ...


Future And Past Anxieties : A Look At The Origins Of The British Welfare State Through Wwii, Emily Maanum Jan 2018

Future And Past Anxieties : A Look At The Origins Of The British Welfare State Through Wwii, Emily Maanum

Honors Theses

The scope of this project focuses particularly on how members of Parliament and the media, specifically newspapers, understood the establishment of the welfare state. My use of the term “Britons” reflects political rhetoric used by MPs to illustrate unity within the public sphere and to shape the terms of debate. Their instrumentalist rhetoric was meant to unify the community, stop fascism and honor citizens. It is important to study the political rhetoric because these discussions within Parliament led to social policies and the eventual establishment of a welfare system. How MPs started early debates affected the structure of later debates ...


A Necessary Evil?, Jessica Wetzel Nov 2017

A Necessary Evil?, Jessica Wetzel

Honors Theses

In this essay, I set out to prove that some of the medical experiments undertaken by Nazi doctors during World War II have scientific relevance in today’s scientific community. In the first section, the experiments connected with Dr. Karl Brandt will be examined in some detail allowing the reader to develop a basic knowledge of the experiments that will be discussed. This will also set the foundation for the discussion on scientific validity due to the nature in which they are described. In the second section, the results relevant to today’s scientific community will be discussed, proving that ...


Multi-Agent Simulation Of The Battle Of Ankara, 1402, Ruili Tang Jun 2017

Multi-Agent Simulation Of The Battle Of Ankara, 1402, Ruili Tang

Honors Theses

In 1402, at the north of city Ankara, Turkey, a battle between Ottoman Empire and Tamerlane Empire decided the fate of Europe and Asia. Although historians largely agree on the general battle procedure, the details are still open to dispute. Several factors may have contributed to the Ottoman defeat, such as the overwhelming size of Tamerlanes army, poisoned water, the tactical formations of the military units, and betrayal by the Tartar cavalry in the Ottoman left wing. The approach is divided into two stages: the simulation stage, which provides data to analyze the complex interactions of autonomous agents, and the ...


Cold War And The Olympics: An Athlete's Perspective, Mike Vecchione Jun 2017

Cold War And The Olympics: An Athlete's Perspective, Mike Vecchione

Honors Theses

When President Jimmy Carter decided to boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, it was the largest act of political interference in the history of the Olympics. It began in December of 1979 when Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan. Carter was having a difficult time getting the hostages back so in response to the invasion of Afghanistan, Carter gave the Soviets one month to withdraw their troops or the United States would boycott their Olympics. Since the Soviets did not respect the demands of the President, Carter stuck to his threat and the United States did not participate in the 1980 ...


Stronger For Scotland: The Rise Of The Modern Scottish Nationalist Movement, Thomas Wilson Jun 2017

Stronger For Scotland: The Rise Of The Modern Scottish Nationalist Movement, Thomas Wilson

Honors Theses

This research analyzes the growth of the Scottish Nationalist Party, currently Scotland’s main party in Scottish Parliament. The growth of the nationalist movement began in the 1920s and took a long period of formative years before the movement grew into the Scottish Nationalist party seen today. The nationalist movement was most successful in the latter years of the 20th century, but the most important stages of the nationalist movement were its formative years in from the 1920s through the 1940s. This thesis analyzes the nationalist’s developmental process of determining the goal of the nationalist movement and the methods ...


Impact Of The Nuclear Phase-Out In Germany: Examining The Costs And Benefits Of Aggresive Energy Policy In Relation To A Sustainable Future, David M. Olio Jun 2017

Impact Of The Nuclear Phase-Out In Germany: Examining The Costs And Benefits Of Aggresive Energy Policy In Relation To A Sustainable Future, David M. Olio

Honors Theses

The German nuclear phase-out legislation of 2011 will cause substantial changes in the country's energy mix, energy generation and electricity grid demands. The phase-out exists as part of the Energiewende, or energy transition, occurring in Germany where renewable energy has been subsidized to replace the share of nuclear energy, which is decreasing annually and moving towards a complete phase-out in 2022. This paper will analyze the benefits and costs of Germany's decision to phase out nuclear power. First, it will explore the dynamic history of German energy policy and discuss how a history of anti-nuclear sentiments led to ...


No One Expects The Spanish Inquisition: Witchcraft Trials In Basque Spain And Southwestern Germany, Alexandra C. Steed Jun 2017

No One Expects The Spanish Inquisition: Witchcraft Trials In Basque Spain And Southwestern Germany, Alexandra C. Steed

Honors Theses

The age of witch trials lasted from 1450 to 1750 and encompassed most of Western Europe. Seventy-five percent of all witchcraft trials took place in Germany, and 480 occurred in Southwestern Germany. Germany lacked centralized leadership, and lack of control over a region’s governing body meant a prince or a bishop could burn as many people as he saw fit. The trials in Southwestern Germany lasted from 1562 to 1684 and killed between 1,000 and 1,500 people. The trials in Southwestern Germany are Central because they all shared similar elements. Many of the towns were undergoing social ...


La Exclusion Del Otro: Los Efectos Negativos Del Nacionalismo En Flores De Otro Mundo (1999) Y Forasters (2008), Brianna Prudencia Gutiérrez Jun 2017

La Exclusion Del Otro: Los Efectos Negativos Del Nacionalismo En Flores De Otro Mundo (1999) Y Forasters (2008), Brianna Prudencia Gutiérrez

Honors Theses

This thesis examines two films for their critique on the damaging effects of nationalism on both the native and foreign populations in rural Spain and urban Catalonia. The two films are Flores de otro mundo (Flowers from another world) (1999), directed by Spanish director Iciar Bollain, and Forasters (Outsiders) (2008), a film by Catalan director Ventura Pons, based on Sergi Belbel's play. The theoretical framework for this study is based on Michael Billig's terms: "hot" and "banal" nationalism. According to Billig, nationalism itself is the emotional and mental force that creates nation-states or threatens the stability of pre-existing ...


Role Des Femmes Dans La France De Vichy Pendant L'Occupation Allemande, Elizabeth Almonte Jun 2017

Role Des Femmes Dans La France De Vichy Pendant L'Occupation Allemande, Elizabeth Almonte

Honors Theses

The German occupation of France caused several changes in the lives of people living in France at the time. Although the French government continued having legal authority over the country as per specified in the Franco-German Armistice the occupied zone was in reality under German military administration. Meanwhile the "free zone" was undergoing numerous changes that affected the French population especially women and their role in society. Vichy France the name given to the French government under the administration of Philippe Petain utilized women as scapegoats for the defeat and subsequent occupation of France by the German army. In order ...


Living Within The Margins: The Constitutional Culture Of Irish Life Law And Literature, Meghan Keator Jun 2017

Living Within The Margins: The Constitutional Culture Of Irish Life Law And Literature, Meghan Keator

Honors Theses

Serving as a stepping stone to asserting independence from British authority and oppression, the Bunreacht Na hÉireann, Ireland’s modern constitution, allowed the nation and its people finally to shape themselves by their own legal standards, customs, and norms. Yet, after years of oppression from forced British standards, Ireland began the search for its own distinct voice as a newly liberated, competitive country. This thesis explores how the Irish Constitution contributes to shaping a homogenous society that promotes normative views and behaviors that damagingly marginalize minority groups–who differ from such social standards. By examining the specific language, diction, order ...


Symbols Of A Bourgeois Empire: The Intersection Of Class And Government During Paris's Transformation Into A Middle-Class Capital, Brian Teitelbaum Jun 2017

Symbols Of A Bourgeois Empire: The Intersection Of Class And Government During Paris's Transformation Into A Middle-Class Capital, Brian Teitelbaum

Honors Theses

Between 1853 and 1870 the face of Paris was dramatically altered by the modernization effort on the part of the Second French Empire. Hundreds of thousands were displaced, billions of francs were paid out by the government, and old Paris gave way to the new. This is important today to the study of history as it marks the definitive end of an era of aristocratic oriented government and the start of the prominence afforded to the middle classes.

The renovation of Paris and the Palais Garnier defined an architectural style called Second Empire that was copied by many cities across ...


Predicting The Effects Of Korean Reunification By Examining The Fall Of The Berlin Wall, Mitchell Fariss Apr 2017

Predicting The Effects Of Korean Reunification By Examining The Fall Of The Berlin Wall, Mitchell Fariss

Honors Theses

The Berlin Wall fell on November 9th, 1989, marking the end of over 30 years of division between the German Democratic Republic, also known as East Germany, and the Federal Republic of Germany, also known as West Germany. The two states were remarkably different: East Germany's economy was dictated by communism, and West Germany's by capitalism.(1) A similar situation exists today between North and South Korea, with the North ruled by communism and the South by capitalistic markets.(2) Many experts believe that the two Koreas are destined to eventually reunify as well. However, there are widely ...


Prisoner Resistance In The Auschwitz And Buchenwald Concentration Camps, Regina Coffey Dec 2016

Prisoner Resistance In The Auschwitz And Buchenwald Concentration Camps, Regina Coffey

Honors Theses

A great deal has been written about the Holocaust and about resistance organizations that formed in the concentration camps. Much of this literature, however, tends to focus on the contributions of a particular group of prisoners rather than on the many groups that came together to form these organizations. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine the resistance organizations in Auschwitz and Buchenwald concentration camps using firsthand accounts and to come to a conclusion on how cooperation between different groups of prisoners affected the overall effectiveness of these resistance organizations.


The Romanization Of Romania: A Look At The Influence Of The Roman Military On Romanian History And Heritage, Colleen Ann Lovely Jun 2016

The Romanization Of Romania: A Look At The Influence Of The Roman Military On Romanian History And Heritage, Colleen Ann Lovely

Honors Theses

This thesis looks at the Roman military and how it was the driving force which spread Roman culture. The Roman military stabilized regions, providing protection and security for regions to develop culturally and economically. Roman soldiers brought with them their native cultures, languages, and religions, which spread through their interactions and connections with local peoples and the communities in which they were stationed. This thesis looks at that impact on the Halmyris Fortress and at the great province of Dacia. The effects this “Romanization” of the region influenced the culture, language, and heritage of the later Romanian state. Within this ...


The German Rocket Jet And The Nuclear Programs Of World War Ii, Max Lutze Jun 2016

The German Rocket Jet And The Nuclear Programs Of World War Ii, Max Lutze

Honors Theses

German military technology in World War II was among the best of the major warring powers and in many cases it was the groundwork for postwar innovations that permanently changed global warfare. Three of the most important projects undertaken, which were not only German initiatives and therefore perhaps among the most valuable programs for both the major Axis and Allied nations, include the rocket, jet, and nuclear programs. In Germany, each of these technologies was given different levels of attention and met with varying degrees of success in their development and application. By the end of the war, both rockets ...


German And The European Migrant Crisis: An Exploration Of German National Identity, Sarah Pollack Jun 2016

German And The European Migrant Crisis: An Exploration Of German National Identity, Sarah Pollack

Honors Theses

Since 2014, conflicts in North Africa and the Middle East have brought large inflows of asylum-seekers streaming into Europe. Germany has not only accepted the greatest number of these asylum-seekers, but it has additionally pushed for other European Union member states to accept more asylum-seekers as well, thereby earning an international reputation as a leading proponent of human rights in the European Union. While images of German citizens crowding train stations in Munich and other cities to welcome refugees have dominated news cycles, there is an increasing anti-immigration sentiment in Germany, which at its most extreme has manifested itself in ...


Boudicca's Rebellion Against The Roman Empire In 60 Ad, Daniel Cohen Jun 2016

Boudicca's Rebellion Against The Roman Empire In 60 Ad, Daniel Cohen

Honors Theses

This paper examines the rebellion of Boudicca, the queen of the Iceni tribe, during the Roman Empire’s occupation of Britannia in 60 AD. The study shows that had Boudicca not changed her winning strategy in one key battle, she could have forced the Roman Empire to withdraw their presence from Britannia, at least until it was prudent to invade again. This paper analyzes the few extant historical accounts available on Boudicca, namely those of the Roman historians Tacitus and Cassius Dio, to explore the effectiveness of tactics on both sides of the rebellion. The sources reveal that Boudicca enjoyed ...


Constructing A Narrative Of Irish Republicanism 1913 - 1921, Christopher Graff Jun 2016

Constructing A Narrative Of Irish Republicanism 1913 - 1921, Christopher Graff

Honors Theses

The Easter Rising of 1916 and subsequent Anglo-Irish War were two seminal events in contemporary Irish history, and are especially pertinent as the 100th anniversary of the Rising approaches this year. In this thesis, I examine the underlying causes of the Easter Rising, specifically the growing influence of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and an increase in Irish Nationalism. I then trace the planning, preparation, and execution of the Easter Rising, which was not a popular uprising, but rather an armed insurrection led by a small group of militarized radicals. I also analyze the political, social, and economic consequences of the ...


Remember The Holocaust And The Killing Fields: A Comparative Study, Ilan Levine Jun 2016

Remember The Holocaust And The Killing Fields: A Comparative Study, Ilan Levine

Honors Theses

Why is the Holocaust almost universally remembered as the most horrific event in the modern age while the Cambodian genocide is hardly remembered both in and outside of Cambodia? Do the two events share similar aspects despite their differences, and what implication does that have on a wider understanding of both genocides? This thesis explores these questions by examining how the Holocaust and Cambodian genocide (killing fields) have been remembered over time. Examining both shows the respective roads of memorialization that each have taken and reveals where the two catastrophes share major aspects: notably, the tactics used by the perpetrators ...


L' Obscurite' Manifestee (A Manifested Obscurity), Roswald Morales Jun 2016

L' Obscurite' Manifestee (A Manifested Obscurity), Roswald Morales

Honors Theses

There are three directors that have revolutionized the world of French cinema by bringing to the forefront topics that make its audiences uncomfortable. Abdellatif Kechiche, director of the film Black Venus (2010), Ousmane Sembène, director of the film Black Girl (1966), and Céline Sciamma, director of the film Girlhood (2014) have become renowned for discussing the portrayal of black women in French society. This is a topic at hand that reveals the devastating truth behind French society in regarding black women during various eras. Black Venus narrates the life of an African woman during the slavery period in Europe. Black ...


Game Of Thrones And Ancient Rome, Alexander Arnold Jun 2016

Game Of Thrones And Ancient Rome, Alexander Arnold

Honors Theses

Ancient Roman society to this day influences different aspects of modern life. One of these aspects includes visual media and entertainment. Renowned by ancient sources and secondary sources as one of the most successful and powerful empires throughout history, the actions of the Romans inspire spectacles of amusement on contemporary award-winning movies and television shows. This would include movies like Gladiator and Spartacus along with television shows like Rome. This study investigates the award-winning, HBO television series Game of Thrones. The show is adapted from a novel series entitled A Song of Ice and Fire, written by George R.R ...


Silenced Voices: Sexual Violence During And After World War Ii, Cassidy L. Chiasson Aug 2015

Silenced Voices: Sexual Violence During And After World War Ii, Cassidy L. Chiasson

Honors Theses

This thesis explores the different types of sexual violence present during and immediately after World War II and focuses specifically on the European Theater of the war. Memoirs, journals and diaries were used as primary sources. This research focuses on the overlapping themes of sexual violence in the form of forcible rape and sexual violence as a means of protection and survival. The goal of this research is to provide a comprehensive view of the complexity surrounding many situations in which sexual violence occurred. It also aims to partially fill the gap in historical literature on this topic, and bring ...