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Full-Text Articles in European History

"Our Girls Have Grown Up In The Family": Educating German And Chinese Girls In The Nineteenth Century, Fang Qin, Emily Bruce Jun 2016

"Our Girls Have Grown Up In The Family": Educating German And Chinese Girls In The Nineteenth Century, Fang Qin, Emily Bruce

History Publications

In this article, we examine and compare historical changes in girls’ home-based education in nineteenth-century Germany and China. In many ways, girls’ home-based education in these two historical contexts exhibited differences, including the relationship between formal schooling and home education, and the role that new genres played in shifting tradition and structuring girlhood. However, we argue that more commonalities between the German and Chinese cases emerge. By analyzing the relation between talent and virtue, the writing of exemplary lives, and family dynamics, we see that in both cases the home was the critical site for valorizing and reproducing the class-bounded ...


Coins, David B. Hollander Jun 2016

Coins, David B. Hollander

History Publications

The Roman monetary system initially relie don bronze bullion (aes rude) but in the late fourth century BCE Rome began to cast heavy bronze coins (aes grave) and bars (aes signatum). By around 300 BCE the Romans had adopted Greek-syle silver coinage and they soon came to use lighter and more convenient fiduciary bronze coins.


Lawyers, Friends, And Money: Portfolios Of Power In The Late Republic, David B. Hollander Jan 2016

Lawyers, Friends, And Money: Portfolios Of Power In The Late Republic, David B. Hollander

History Publications

Rome’s transformation from a regional force in Latium into a Mediterranean superpower (4th to 1st centuries BCE) was accompanied by an accelerated change of economic realities. The persistent influx of vast natural and monetary resources from abroad deeply altered the basis of Rome’s military. As income skyrocketed, the exercise of political influence at Rome became increasingly intertwined with issues of personal finance. Despite claims for frugality, the political power of senatorial families was always determined through the accumulation of wealth. By the 1st century BCE, the competition of these families for rank and recognition was dramatically wrapped up ...


Everyday Magic In Early Modern Europe, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2016

Everyday Magic In Early Modern Europe, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Kathryn Edwards begins her introduction to this well-conceived volume by noting the “explosion of research on magical practices and the attitudes about them in late medieval and early modern Europe” (1) over the last several decades. Witchcraft has continued to be the fiery epicenter of this explosion, despite scholarship’s increasing recognition that occasional eruptions of witch-hunting were surrounded by a vast and typically much more benign “magical universe” (the phrase is from Stephen Wilson’s 2003 book of the same title, frequently cited throughout this volume). The scholars Edwards has assembled each probe various areas of that universe, in ...


Religion, The Supernatural And Visual Culture In Early Modern Europe: An Album Amicorum For Charles Zika, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2016

Religion, The Supernatural And Visual Culture In Early Modern Europe: An Album Amicorum For Charles Zika, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This volume developed from a 2009 conference held in honor of Charles Zika at the University of Melbourne, where he spent most of his long career. In addition to an introductory essay by the editors, which provides a brief intellectual biography of Zika and establishes the major themes of the volume, there are seventeen contributions. Befitting Zika’s own interdisciplinarity and pioneering work incorporating visual records into historical analysis, most of the contributors are historians, many of whom draw in some way on art or other visual material, while four are art historians who situate their analysis within particular historical ...


Review Of "Inquisitorien-Handbücher: Papsturkunden Und Juristische Gutachten Aus Dem 13. Jahrhundert", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2016

Review Of "Inquisitorien-Handbücher: Papsturkunden Und Juristische Gutachten Aus Dem 13. Jahrhundert", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This dissertation from the University of Würzburg stakes out some carefully defined territory in the crowded field of heresy and inquisitorial studies. It does so by returning to some of the most frequently studied sources in this field: the early handbooks through which papal inquisitors established the legal and procedural framework of their new (in the thirteenth century) office. Scholars of inquisition going back to Célestin Douais and Henry Charles Lea in the nineteenth century, and indeed as far back as Franciscus Pegna in the sixteenth century, have worked with these texts. Bivolarov, however, identifies an area that he finds ...


Reading German Girlhood: Louise Tilly And The Agency Of Girls In European History, Emily Bruce Jun 2015

Reading German Girlhood: Louise Tilly And The Agency Of Girls In European History, Emily Bruce

History Publications

This article addresses the legacies of Louise Tilly's work on women and the family in Europe for current studies of girls’ agency in history. Using my preliminary analysis of a body of German periodicals written for girls during the late Enlightenment, I propose some methodological possibilities for combining cultural histories of reading with social historical approaches to the roles played by girls and women in European social life. Tilly's focus on the life cycle as an organizing principle and the family economy as a key site of history established the importance of such groups to social historical understandings ...


Witch/Witchcraft And Sorcerer/Sorcery, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2015

Witch/Witchcraft And Sorcerer/Sorcery, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The academic study of religion has been an interdisciplinary endeavor since its inception at the end of the nineteenth century. Much of the theoretical vocabulary that is needed to study religion has been imported from adjacent disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, historiography, theology, philology, literary studies, psychology, philosophy, cultural studies, and political sciences. It is the strength of the academic study of religion to bring these approaches into conversation with one another. The Vocabulary for the Study of Religion provides an excellent platform to sustain this conversation. Written by experts with a background in a variety of disciplines, over 400 ...


Risky Business: Traders In The Roman World, David B. Hollander Jan 2015

Risky Business: Traders In The Roman World, David B. Hollander

History Publications

There has been tremendous growth in the study of the Roman economy since M. I. Finley penned his rather gloomy "Further Thoughts" on the topic in 1984. The sheer amount of material now available is both impressive and intimidating. Generally speaking, the New Institutional Economics approach, which views institutions as the primary determinants of economic performance because of their effect on transaction costs, has come to dominate Roman economic history. This is a positive development, but attempts to answer macroeconomic questions, such as the nature and extent of growth in the Roman economy, sometimes obscure the role of the individual ...


Reformers On Sorcery And Superstition, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2015

Reformers On Sorcery And Superstition, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The Observant Movement was a widespread effort to reform religious life across Europe. It took root around 1400, and for a century and more thereafter it inspired or shaped much that became central to European religion and culture. The Observants produced many of the leading religious figures of the later Middle Ages—Catherine of Siena, Bernardino of Siena and Savonarola in Italy, Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros in Spain, and in Germany Martin Luther himself. This volume provides scholars with a current, synthetic introduction to the Observant Movement. Its essays also seek collectively to expand the horizons of our study of ...


Superstition And Dissimulation: Discerning False Religion In The Fifteenth Century, Michael D. Bailey Jan 2015

Superstition And Dissimulation: Discerning False Religion In The Fifteenth Century, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Most religions claim special access to the truth and often depict those who do not accept their revelation or doctrine as living in error.1 As Christianity emerged in the late ancient world and certainly as it developed an increasingly centralized clerical hierarchy in medieval Europe, it became particularly exercised by issues of dissimulation and deceit.2 What interests the historian is how this concern shifted over time. From antiquity onwards, fear of false religion and religious falsity (which are not necessarily the same thing) had lurked in charges of paganism, heresy, apostasy, Judaizing, sorcery, and superstition. Many of these ...


Reivew Of "Des Teufels Lug Und Trug: Nikolaus Magni Von Jauer, Ein Reformtheologe Des 15. Jahrhunderts Gegen Aberglaube Und Götzendienst", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2014

Reivew Of "Des Teufels Lug Und Trug: Nikolaus Magni Von Jauer, Ein Reformtheologe Des 15. Jahrhunderts Gegen Aberglaube Und Götzendienst", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Late medieval superstition has received a fair amount of attention recently. In 2010, Euan Cameron’s expansive Enchanted Europe: Superstition, Reason, and Religion, 1250–1750 considered it at some length before moving on to later periods, and in 2013 my own Fearful Spirits, Reasoned Follies: The Boundaries of Superstition in Late Medieval Europe dealt with it exclusively. Krzysztof Bracha’s detailed study of a single late medieval author and a major (arguably the major) late medieval treatise on superstition is both the latest and also earliest important study in this area. The book is a German translation and updating of ...


"Each Word Shows How You Love Me": The Social Literacy Practice Of Children's Letter Writing (1780-1860), Emily Bruce Nov 2013

"Each Word Shows How You Love Me": The Social Literacy Practice Of Children's Letter Writing (1780-1860), Emily Bruce

History Publications

This article draws on hundreds of letters that formed German children’s correspondence with their parents, other relatives, teachers and friends, written mostly between the 1780s and 1850s. Through this study, we see the part literacy played in transformations of bourgeois childhood in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe. The article further investigates how children used letters as a means of learning sociability and building relationships within kinship networks. Historians of education have sometimes treated children’s writing as secondary to more authoritative records. Yet we miss something important about the history of literacy education if we disregard children’s writing or ...


Review Of "Magie: Rezeptions- Und Diskursgeschichtliche Analysen Von Der Antike Bis Zur Neuzeit", Michael D. Bailey Jul 2013

Review Of "Magie: Rezeptions- Und Diskursgeschichtliche Analysen Von Der Antike Bis Zur Neuzeit", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

What is one to make of a seven-hundred-page book that, by its own admission, only addresses the “tip of the iceberg” of its chosen topic (615)? Certainly, the topic is enormous: nothing less than the twenty-five-hundred-year history of conceptions of magic in Western culture, from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Otto writes from the perspective of religious studies, and he reacts in particular to the century-long effort by modern scholars of religion to define magic in some coherent and appropriately wissenschaftlich way. In the first hundred pages of his book, Otto examines the “academic discourse of magic,” focusing ...


Magie: Rezeptions- Und Diskursgeschichtliche Analysen Von Der Antike Bis Zur Neuzeit, Michael D. Bailey Jul 2013

Magie: Rezeptions- Und Diskursgeschichtliche Analysen Von Der Antike Bis Zur Neuzeit, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

What is one to make of a seven-hundred-page book that, by its own admission, only addresses the “tip of the iceberg” of its chosen topic (615)? Certainly, the topic is enormous: nothing less than the twenty-five-hundred-year history of conceptions of magic in Western culture, from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Otto writes from the perspective of religious studies, and he reacts in particular to the century-long effort by modern scholars of religion to define magic in some coherent and appropriately wissenschaftlich way. In the first hundred pages of his book, Otto examines the “academic discourse of magic,” focusing ...


Carine Dunand, Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462, Michael D. Bailey Oct 2012

Carine Dunand, Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

For more than twenty years, volumes in the Cahiers Lausannois d’Histoire Médiévale have explored the cases and contexts of early European witch trials in and around the western Alps. They have largely focused on the diocese of Lausanne, but in this volume, Carine Dunand looks slightly further afield, to the Chamonix valley in the shadow of Mont Blanc, which was part of the neighboring diocese of Geneva. She follows the same format as other Cahiers volumes, most of which originated as mémoires de licence in the medieval history seminar at the University of Lausanne: about half the book is ...


Review Of "Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462)", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Review Of "Des Montagnards Endiablés: Chasse Aux Sorciers Dans La Vallée De Chamonix (1458-1462)", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

For more than twenty years, volumes in the Cahiers Lausannois d'Histoire Médiévale have explored the cases and contexts of early European witch trials in and around the western Alps. They have largely focused on the diocese of Lausanne, but in this volume, Carine Dunand looks slightly further afield, to the Chamonix valley in the shadow of Mont Blanc, which was part of the neighboring diocese of Geneva. She follows the same format as other Cahiers volumes, most of which originated as mémoires de licence in the medieval history seminar at the University of Lausanne: about half the book is ...


Review Of "Evening’S Empire: A History Of The Night In Early Modern Europe", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Review Of "Evening’S Empire: A History Of The Night In Early Modern Europe", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

What I admire most about Marcia Hall’s studies of late Cinquecento Italian painting is her straightforward way of relating specific aspects of style, especially color, to the religious and affective goals of a period that needs all the clarity it can get. In this important new study she considers how artists from Rome to Toledo brought the sacred back to sacred art in the aftermath of the Reformation and Council of Trent. Individually they “revolutionized Renaissance painting and laid the groundwork for the modern age” (5), collectively one of the most original attempts to create a new religious art ...


Magic: A Beginner's Guide (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Magic: A Beginner's Guide (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Surveys of the history of magic (and of witchcraft, although this item is decidedly not one of the latter) are thick on the ground, so with each new book, one can fairly ask what new or different elements it offers. The greatest strength of this book is its conceptual breadth. Beyond the standard medieval and early modern history of European magic and its repression, it offers (relatively) lengthy treatment of magic in post-Enlightenment Europe, including coverage of two topics almost never found in more "standard" surveys—stage magic and the modern academic treatment of magic. Covering so much ground in ...


Review Of "Demons Of Urban Reform: Early European Witch Trials And Criminal Justice, 1430-1530", Michael D. Bailey Jan 2012

Review Of "Demons Of Urban Reform: Early European Witch Trials And Criminal Justice, 1430-1530", Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

It’s interesting, fascinating, and even entertaining. The book is clearly directed to a broader audience—including, certainly, the burgeoning yoga market—but scholars, while familiar with the figures and issues in Syman’s book, would also find it interesting, if lacking the depth of typical scholarly studies


Der Justizmord An Anna Göldi: Neue Recherchen Zum Letzten Hexenprozess In Europa (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2011

Der Justizmord An Anna Göldi: Neue Recherchen Zum Letzten Hexenprozess In Europa (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The story of "Europe's last witch" is dramatic. In 1781 in the Swiss canton of Glarus the young daughter of a high-ranking citizen began to suffer pains and fits, caused, so it was claimed, by pins and needles magically placed in her milk and bread. The middle-aged maidservant of the family was accused and terminated from her position. She fled, but the child continued to suffer and warrants were issued for the maid's arrest. She was returned to Glarus, accused of being in league with Satan, put on trial, and tortured. Authorities enjoined her to perform magical healing ...


Hexen: Wissen Was Stimmt (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2011

Hexen: Wissen Was Stimmt (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

In this slim volume, Rita Voltmer undertakes to survey historical European witchcraft. Unlike most other such surveys, which typically develop a basically [End Page 116] chronological narrative that begins with the origins of various elements of witchcraft beliefs (harmful magic, diabolical pact, sabbath, etc.), follows these ideas through the years of major witch hunting (the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries), and concludes with the decline of trials and eventual intellectual discrediting of much of the witch stereotype in the eighteenth century, she instead organizes her survey around a number of myths and misconceptions about historical witchcraft that have persisted in popular ...


Grimoires: A History Of Magic Books (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jan 2011

Grimoires: A History Of Magic Books (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This “history of magic books” might equally well have been subtitled a “history of magic through books.” Not all forms of magic, obviously. Davies is quick to recognize that large areas of magical practice exist entirely in oral culture. Yet one of the most important points he makes in this book is that “grimoires” are not just rare and expensive tomes available only to elite, learned magicians. At least from the time of the printing revolution, magic books were making their way into the hands of simple cunning folk (the subject of a previous book by Davies), and this trend ...


The Natural And The Supernatural In The Middle Ages, Michael D. Bailey Jul 2010

The Natural And The Supernatural In The Middle Ages, Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This volume emerged from the Wiles Lectures delivered at Queen's University, Belfast, in 2006, and the four chapters of the work retain their original character. The tone is light and breezy throughout. Complex problems are rendered accessible, such that the book might work well in advanced undergraduate courses dealing with medieval science, intellectual culture, or magic. The topic Bartlett tackles is obviously enormous, and in the scope of four short lectures, he can only begin to address the many profound issues that arise from serious consideration of what the Middle Ages meant by "natural" and "supernatural." Experts will not ...


La Puissance Des Mots – “Virtus Verborum”: Débats Doctrinaux Sur Le Pouvoir Des Incantations Au Moyen Âge (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2010

La Puissance Des Mots – “Virtus Verborum”: Débats Doctrinaux Sur Le Pouvoir Des Incantations Au Moyen Âge (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

For all that magicians sometimes employed signs, symbols, gestures, stones, or herbs, spoken spells still comprise the most pervasive magical device in Western culture. The very ubiquity of verbal formulas in many forms of magical operation make words a difficult subject for scholars to grasp. In this impressive study, Béatrice Delaurenti takes a carefully limited approach. As her subtitle indicates, she examines intellectual debates about the power of words in the Middle Ages. In fact, she focuses on a period of intense debate that lasted, in her analysis, from around 1230 to around 1370. These dates mark important "parentheses," as ...


Witchcraft Mythologies And Persecutions (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2010

Witchcraft Mythologies And Persecutions (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This volume is the third in a series deriving from a conference held in Budapest in 1999. While the first volume focused on communication with spirits and spirit possession, and the second examined the place of demons and spirits in learned demonology and common belief (see reviews in Magic, Ritual, and Witchcraft 1.2 [2006]: 257–60; 3.1 [2008]: 99–101), this volume deals directly with the topic of witchcraft, which the editors identify as "the most central theme of our conference" (p. 1). As in the previous volumes, most of the articles collected here focus on the early ...


Unlocked Books: Manuscripts Of Learned Magic In The Medieval Libraries Of Central Europe (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jan 2010

Unlocked Books: Manuscripts Of Learned Magic In The Medieval Libraries Of Central Europe (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

Magic in the medieval past is often seen through the eyes of its opponents, through trial records, inquisitorial texts, denunciatory sermons, and theological [End Page 232] treatises explaining and condemning the demonic nature of virtually all magical rites. Yet there is another way to approach at least elite, learned magic in Europe’s medieval period, namely through the texts that literate practitioners of those forms of magic have left scattered through libraries across the continent. This method of studying magic is not new, but has undergone significant development in recent years, with Richard Kieckhefer, Claire Fanger, Frank Klaassen, and Sophie ...


Witch Hunts: From Salem To Guantanamo Bay (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jan 2010

Witch Hunts: From Salem To Guantanamo Bay (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

The purpose of this odd book is to argue that, in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and the fear and extraordinary governmental responses they have generated, the modern Western world, and particularly the United States of America, is on the verge of (though not yet embroiled in) a new era of witch hunts. The modern malefactors are, obviously, supposed terrorists rather than supposed witches. Their means of bringing about death and destruction are guns, bombs, and biological devices, not spells and incantations. Yet Rapley argues over the course of twenty breathless chapters that a number of characteristics ...


Astrologie Und Öffentlichkeit Im Mittelalter (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2009

Astrologie Und Öffentlichkeit Im Mittelalter (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

This is a curiously conceived book. In his introduction, Mentgen begins by noting the “shocking” lack of attention the topic of astrology has received especially among German medievalist (p. 1). He also notes that the practice of astrology faced two significant obstacles throughout the medieval period—it had suffered legal condemnations since late antiquity, and certain aspects of it contradicted the Christian doctrine of human free will. Yet this book deals not at all with the long and complex history of legal or intellectual opposition to astrology. Neither does it intend to provide a complete survey of the practice of ...


Wörterbuch Des Aberglaubens (Review), Michael D. Bailey Jul 2009

Wörterbuch Des Aberglaubens (Review), Michael D. Bailey

History Publications

In his foreword, Dieter Harmening, who literally wrote the book on superstition in medieval Europe (Superstitio: Überlieferungs- und theoriegeschichtliche Untersuchungen zur kirchlich-theologischen Aberglaubensliteratur des Mittelalters [Berlin, 1979]), explains why this new, compact “dictionary of superstition” [End Page 111] is needed. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, superstition was a topic mainly explored by folklorists, ethnographers, and historical linguists. They understood superstitious beliefs and practices primarily as the residue of very early cultures, and used superstitions as a point of access to pre-Christian Germanic societies. The mammoth Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens, published between 1927 and 1942, is marked by this ...