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Full-Text Articles in European History

"We Germans Fear God, And Nothing Else In The World!" Military Policy In Wilhelmine Germany, 1890-1914, Cavender Sutton May 2019

"We Germans Fear God, And Nothing Else In The World!" Military Policy In Wilhelmine Germany, 1890-1914, Cavender Sutton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Throughout the Second Reich’s short life, military affairs were synonymous with those of the state. Indeed, it was the zeal and blood of Prussian soldiers that allowed the creation of a unified German empire. After solidifying itself as a major power, things grew more complicated as the Reich found itself increasingly surrounded by hostile rivals. To the west, French humiliation over their catastrophic defeat in 1870-71 continued to fester while, in the east, Russian sympathies for the new empire waned. The finalization of a Franco-Russian alliance in 1894 meant Germany faced formidable adversaries along her eastern and western borders ...


Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson May 2019

Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Using the lives of impaired individuals catalogued in the Íslendingasögur as a narrative framework, this study examines medieval Scandinavian social views regarding impairment from the ninth to the thirteenth century. Beginning with the myths and legends of the eddic poetry and prose of Iceland, it investigates impairment in Norse pre-Christian belief; demonstrating how myth and memory informed medieval conceptualizations of the body. This thesis counters scholarly assumptions that the impaired were universally marginalized across medieval Europe. It argues that bodily difference, in the Norse world, was only viewed as a limitation when it prevented an individual from fulfilling roles that ...


Friend Or Foe? Martial Race Ideology And The Experience Of Highland Scottish And Irish Regiments In Mid-Victorian Conflicts, 1853-1870, Adam Spivey May 2017

Friend Or Foe? Martial Race Ideology And The Experience Of Highland Scottish And Irish Regiments In Mid-Victorian Conflicts, 1853-1870, Adam Spivey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines martial race ideology in the British Army during the mid-nineteenth century. A “martial race” was a group of people that the British considered to excel in the art of warfare due to biological and cultural characteristics. This thesis examines perceived “martial” natures or lack thereof of the Highland Scots and the Irish during this era. Central to this analysis are the Crimean War (1853-1856) and the Indian Mutiny of 1857 which provided opportunities for soldiers to display their “martial” qualities. The Crimean War was the first war where the daily newspapers covered every aspect of the war ...


Reformation London And The Adaptation Of Observed Piety, Hannah Diaz May 2017

Reformation London And The Adaptation Of Observed Piety, Hannah Diaz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In reformation London, the shift of the governed religion enabled laymen to recognize individuality in their faith, to read scripture in the vernacular, and to exercise their faith outside of mass. Therefore, the overall perception of personal piety took a turn from being exercised communally to becoming something reflective of the individual. Analyzing gender dynamics, language, religious orders, and theology reveal this transition and help gain a holistic understanding of transitioning perceptions of piety. This thesis contributes to the rich historiographical conversation in understanding Reformation studies. By adopting elements from top-down and bottom-up approaches, this thesis further develops on the ...


Prudery And Perversion: Domination Of The Sexual Body In Middle-Class Men, Women, And Disenfranchised Bodies In Victorian England, Ashley Barnett Dec 2016

Prudery And Perversion: Domination Of The Sexual Body In Middle-Class Men, Women, And Disenfranchised Bodies In Victorian England, Ashley Barnett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research argues that with the rise of the middle-class, Victorian England saw the development of a power model in which middle-class men, middle-class women and disenfranchised bodies of children and lower-class women suffered from the demands of bodily domination. Because the bodily health of middle-class men was believed to represent national health, it was imperative that he dominate his body, particularly with regard to sexual urges. Consequently, the bodies of women with whom he sought sexual release suffered from forms of bodily domination as well. Through an analysis of journals and private writings of those living in Victorian England ...


Imagery And Objectification: A Study Of Early Modern Queenship, Heather R. Geiter Aug 2016

Imagery And Objectification: A Study Of Early Modern Queenship, Heather R. Geiter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Queen Anne Boleyn (~1507-1536) failed to meet social norms during her time as Queen Consort to Henry VIII (1491-1548). By tracing concepts of queenship through the works of Chrétien de Troyes, Andreas Capellanus, Thomas Malory, and Juan Luis Vives this thesis demonstrates how Anne united the office of queen and mistress to bring her downfall and introduce a new construct of queenship.


The Church, State, And Literature Of Carolingian France, Steffan James Geiter Aug 2016

The Church, State, And Literature Of Carolingian France, Steffan James Geiter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the eighth century rise in power of the Carolingian Church and the Carolingian dynasty through an early promise of religious revival, monarchial revival, and increased Papal power. Such aims gained the Carolingians a powerful in the Church. Aided by Boniface (672-754 AD) and the Church, the Carolingians replaced the Merovingians in Francia. In conjunction with this revival, Church scholars dictated a reformation of kingship in treatises called the Speculum Principum. A king’s position became tremulous when they strayed from these rules, as it betrayed their alliance. Ultimately, Louis the Pious (778-840 AD) faced deposition after they ...


Refuse To Go Quietly: Jewish Survival Tactics During The Holocaust, John D. Caraveo May 2016

Refuse To Go Quietly: Jewish Survival Tactics During The Holocaust, John D. Caraveo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

During World War Two, the European Jewish population was faced with this during Shoah (the Holocaust). From Kristallnacht in November 1938 to the collapse of the Nazi Regime in May 1945, they relied heavily on each other and their instincts to discover ways to survive while in the ghettos, labor camps, and partisan units, if they managed to escape and head for the forests. Even with some Jews turning on their own to help the Nazis, the vast majority stuck together and did everything they could to persist and survive. While only two uprisings were viewed as successes, the ghetto ...


King Fred: How The British King Who Never Was Shaped The Modern Monarchy, Austin W. B. Hilton May 2016

King Fred: How The British King Who Never Was Shaped The Modern Monarchy, Austin W. B. Hilton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the British monarchy in the eighteenth century and how the philosophy of Frederick, Prince of Wales, helped to shape that monarchy. The early Hanoverians were seen with contempt by many of their subjects, often being ridiculed as ignorant outsiders. They helped matters none by their indifference to Britain, its people, or its culture. Prince Frederick, George II’s eldest son, however, changed all of this. His philosophy on kingship, influenced by Henry, Viscount Bolingbroke’s work, The Patriot King, helped to change the perception of the Hanoverian dynasty. When Prince Frederick died in 1751 before he could ...


“Our Weapon Is The Wooden Spoon:” Motherhood, Racism, And War: The Diverse Roles Of Women In Nazi Germany, Cortney Nelson Dec 2014

“Our Weapon Is The Wooden Spoon:” Motherhood, Racism, And War: The Diverse Roles Of Women In Nazi Germany, Cortney Nelson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The historiography of women in Nazi Germany attests to the various roles of women in the Third Reich. Although politically invisible, women were deeply involved in the Nazi regime, whether they supported the Party or not. During Nazi racial schemes, men formed and executed Nazi racial programs, but women participated in Nazi racism as students, nurses, and violent perpetrators. Early studies of German women during World War II focused on the lack of Nazi mobilization of women into the wartime labor force, but many women already held positions in the labor force before the war. Nazi mistreatment of lower-class working ...


The Wolf Attacks: A History Of The Russo-Chechen Conflict, Christina E. Baxter Dec 2014

The Wolf Attacks: A History Of The Russo-Chechen Conflict, Christina E. Baxter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the 1990s and early 2000s, the Chechens fought against the Russians for independence. The focus in the literature available has been on the wars and the atrocities caused by the wars. The literature then hypothesizes that the insurgency of today is just a continuation of the past. They do not focus on a major event in Chechen history: the Soviet liquidation of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1944. It is this author’s assertion that the liquidation of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR forever changed the mindset of the people because it fractured a society that was once unified ...


Comparison Of Focus And Audience Between Seneca’S Natural Questions And Pliny’S Natural History, Joshua Ely May 2014

Comparison Of Focus And Audience Between Seneca’S Natural Questions And Pliny’S Natural History, Joshua Ely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Around 65 AD, the Ancient Roman philosopher Seneca wrote his only text concerning Natural Phenomenon: Natural Questions. Considered since medieval times as part of a trinity of great thinkers including Plato and Aristotle, Seneca’s work in rhetoric, philosophy, and legal theory still receive praise today. The praise is not replicated for Natural Questions, however. Modern historians who consider the work paint it as uninspiring. Pliny, another Roman author and philosopher, wrote a far more encompassing and detailed work called Natural History, and it is this work that is considered the premier Roman comment on Natural Philosophy. These contemporaneous ...


Debating Cannae: Delbrück, Schlieffen, And The Great War, Andrew Loren Jones May 2014

Debating Cannae: Delbrück, Schlieffen, And The Great War, Andrew Loren Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Debating Cannae: Delbrück, Schlieffen, and the Great War provides the reader a view of the historical struggle between Alfred von Schlieffen and Hans Delbrück. They argued fiercely about the foundation of the German Empire and the use of history. The first chapter provides the context of the foundation of the German empire. The second chapter explores the debates between Schlieffen and Delbrück by investigating their writings. The third chapter surveys the effect that the Delbrück and Schlieffen culture war had upon the First World War. This work expands the current view of Schlieffen by demonstrating his commitment to his interpretation ...


The Grass-Roots Challenges With Administration: Conscription Evasion, Contraband, And Resistance In Napoleonic Europe, Julia A. Lyle Aug 2013

The Grass-Roots Challenges With Administration: Conscription Evasion, Contraband, And Resistance In Napoleonic Europe, Julia A. Lyle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The French model of the nineteenth century led the way to modernity in establishing centralized administrative governments throughout Continental Europe. Several Napoleonic policies that led to the establishment of a modern centralized state were not positive in their effects on the local communities. Research widely categorizes resistance to the Napoleonic program as either militarily or economically based. This study uses the French court cases from the Court of Cassation dated 1804 to 1820 to provide a different interpretation to the discussion of local resistance to Napoleonic authority on an international level. Conscription fraud, contraband, and resistance to government officials reveal ...


A Problem Of Perception An Analysis Of The Formation, Reception, And Implementation Of National Socialist Ideology In Germany, 1919 To 1939, Derrick Angermeier May 2013

A Problem Of Perception An Analysis Of The Formation, Reception, And Implementation Of National Socialist Ideology In Germany, 1919 To 1939, Derrick Angermeier

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis seeks to dispel the notion that Nazi ideology was merely an afterthought to numerous actions taken by the Nazis. The first chapter discusses how Nazism’s earliest adherents internalized notions from World War I into an ideology that would motivate the early Nazi Movement to launch the Beer Hall Putsch. The second chapter focuses on the Nazi Party’s electoral tactics and how those actions correlated with entrenched Nazi ideological notions of recognition and community. Finally, the third chapter will seek to demonstrate that the numerous repressive measures implemented by the Third Reich were part of a general ...


The Forgotten Footnote Of The Second World War: An Examination Of The Historiography Of Scandinavia During World War Ii, Jason C. Phillips May 2013

The Forgotten Footnote Of The Second World War: An Examination Of The Historiography Of Scandinavia During World War Ii, Jason C. Phillips

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Anglo-American interpretation of the Second World War has continuously overlooked the significance of the Scandinavian region to the outcome of the war. This thesis seeks to address some of the more glaring errors of omission that have dampened the Anglo-American understanding of the war. Attention will first be paid to Finland and how its war against the Soviet Union in 1939-1940, known as the Winter War, influenced Adolf Hitler and his decision to launch Operation ‘Barbarossa.’ In regards to Sweden, attention will be paid to how critical Swedish iron ore was to the Nazi war economy. Finally, the thesis ...


Pietro Bembo’S Bias: Patronage, History, And The Italic Wars, Zachary M. Lizee May 2013

Pietro Bembo’S Bias: Patronage, History, And The Italic Wars, Zachary M. Lizee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

During the Italic Wars, the Italian peninsula experienced foreign invasions and internal discord between rivaling duchies and city-states. Florence and Venice both faced internal and external discord due to the constant wars and political in fighting. Venetian Pietro Bembo wrote historical accounts of this period during the Renaissance. His contemporaries, Marino Sanudo, Niccolo Machiavelli, and Francesco Guicciardini, also wrote historical accounts of this time. My research spotlights Bembo’s history of the Venetian Republic. This history was written in a supposedly objective fashion, yet, scholarship shows that historical writing from this time contained bias. I focused on Bembo because there ...


Contemporary Perceptions Of The Solidarity Movement Held By Polish Nationals, Nathan P. Buhr May 2013

Contemporary Perceptions Of The Solidarity Movement Held By Polish Nationals, Nathan P. Buhr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Widespread participation in the 1980s Solidarity movement by Polish nationals of both genders, varying ideologies, and differing political backgrounds has led to diverse views of the history and narrative of the movement that today is interpreted in differing ways by groups and individuals. To gain a better understanding of how Poles view this unique time period of their history a survey featuring 54 questions was dispatched to and completed by over 121 Polish nationals. All questions relate to the Solidarity movement in categories covering: Prominent People, Media, Economics, Religion, and Education and concluding with a free-write section for additional comments ...


"Queen Of All Islands": The Imagined Cartography Of Matthew Paris's Britain, John Wyatt Greenlee May 2013

"Queen Of All Islands": The Imagined Cartography Of Matthew Paris's Britain, John Wyatt Greenlee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the middle decade of the thirteenth century, the Benedictine monk and historian Matthew Paris drew four regional maps of Britain. The monk's works stand as the earliest extant maps of the island and mark a distinct shift from the cartographic traditions of medieval Europe. Historians have long considered the version attached to the monk's Abbreviatio Chronicorum – the Claudius map – as the last and most thorough of Paris's images of Britain. However, scholars have focused on the document's limitations as an accurate geographic representation and have failed to consider critically Paris's representation of Britain with ...


“We Have To Record The Downfall Of Tyranny”: The London Times Perspective On Napoleon Bonaparte’S Invasion Of Russia, Julia Dittrich Aug 2012

“We Have To Record The Downfall Of Tyranny”: The London Times Perspective On Napoleon Bonaparte’S Invasion Of Russia, Julia Dittrich

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

"We Have to Record the Downfall of Tyranny": The London Times Perspective on Napoleon Bonaparte's Invasion of Russia aims to illustrate how The London Times interpreted and reported on Napoleon's 1812 invasion of Russia. This thesis explains how England feared its grip on Europe was slipping away due to a French takeover of the continent. This work details the English struggle in order to provide a broader analysis through a newspaper of how nations indirectly involved in the Napoleonic wars understood the conflict.


Thieves Apostates And Bloody Viragos: Female Irish Catholic Rebels In The Irish Rebellion Of 1641., Edwin Marshall Galloway Aug 2011

Thieves Apostates And Bloody Viragos: Female Irish Catholic Rebels In The Irish Rebellion Of 1641., Edwin Marshall Galloway

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this thesis is to discuss the roles played by Irish Catholic women in the Irish Rebellion of 1641. The primary goal is to examine the factors that determined the nature of those roles. To achieve this end, I used the information contained in the 1641 depositions, a collection of sworn statements given by the victims of the rebellion. The depositions are valuable in two ways. First, eyewitness testimony contained therein is generally reliable, and can be used to construct an accurate narrative of the rebellion. Second, less reliable hearsay evidence is crucial to understanding the fears of ...


The Nationalism Of Joachim Meyer: An Analysis Of German Pride In His Fighting Manual Of 1570., William Charles Adamson May 2011

The Nationalism Of Joachim Meyer: An Analysis Of German Pride In His Fighting Manual Of 1570., William Charles Adamson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This work addresses the nationalistic elements in the 1570 work Kunst des Fechtens by Joachim Meyer of Strassburg. Meyer's teachings on the longsword are attached to the Swabian Johannes Liechtenauer and then transferred to the Italian rapier thus establishing Meyer as less concerned with nationalist purity as others of his century. His teachings are examined for their pleadings for moral conduct and the preservation of martial studies to the youth of Germany and the young Duke of Bavaria, Johann Casimir. Using modern examples alongside Meyer's writings the case is also made for the integration of nationalist sentiments, moral ...


Mapping England's Trade Through Depictions In English Emblems., Valerie J. Erickson May 2011

Mapping England's Trade Through Depictions In English Emblems., Valerie J. Erickson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores the growing interaction between England and foreign countries comparing their trade with contemporary later sixteenth century and seventeenth century English emblems. The emblems used are those available over the internet from several different library and university sources. As England expanded its trade throughout the world, English emblems began to show the exchange occurring between England and its various trading partners. Historians have largely overlooked this valuable source of information. By studying emblems historians gain invaluable insight into the economy, society, politics, religion, and other matters with which England was concerned.


The Long March Of The German 68ers: Their Protest, Their Exhibition, And Their Administration., Gracie M. Morton Dec 2007

The Long March Of The German 68ers: Their Protest, Their Exhibition, And Their Administration., Gracie M. Morton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The postwar children coming of age in the late 1960s in West Germany mounted a widesweeping socio-political protest against what they saw as the strangling silence of their parents, the Nazi generation. These protesters, referred to as the 68ers for their pivotal year, continued their struggle in following decades, incorporating an important and controversial exhibition, and finally culminating in their own administration thirty years from their defining moment. Using such diverse kinds of information as parliamentary debates, interviews, and contemporary criticism, this thesis explores the impact of the 68ers' initial protest and the influence they ultimately had on their nation ...


Sir Walter Ralegh's Legacy: His History Of The World In The Seventeenth Century., Steven Preston Carriger May 2007

Sir Walter Ralegh's Legacy: His History Of The World In The Seventeenth Century., Steven Preston Carriger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis looks at the life and works of Sir Walter Ralegh. Specifically, this study will look at Ralegh's History of the World and its influence on two men, Oliver Cromwell and James Graham, Marquis of Montrose. This study will look at the impact this work may have had on the lives of these two men through their letters and public lives.

Necessarily this study will look mainly at the primary sources of these men including the letters and speeches of Cromwell as compiled by Thomas Carlyle and the Memoirs of Montrose, compiled and edited by Mark Napier. Obviously ...